Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1016
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Becker Susanne - - 2003
In the lower airways, macrophages are important regulators of inflammation and indispensable in their antimicrobial activities. Thus, air pollution particles, which modulate airway macrophage host defenses may, in susceptible individuals, increase severity of inflammatory and infectious disease. In the present study, size fractionated, ultrafine (UF), fine (PM0.1-2.5), and coarse (PM2.5-10) ...
Filaci Gilberto - - 2003
Resident macrophages are mainly responsible for the clearance of apoptotic cells from tissue by phagocytosis. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells is not accompanied by activation of inflammatory mechanisms, unlike what happens when necrotic phenomena occur. We analyzed the effect of phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies on macrophage cell functions. After phagocytosis of ...
Monn Christian - - 2003
This study describes experiments on cytotoxic effects and the production of oxidative radicals and the proinflammatory cytokine tumor growth factor alpha (TNFalpha) in a cell line of rat lung macrophages exposed to aqueous extracts from ambient air particles <10 microm (PM(10)) collected on Teflon filters. The particles were collected during ...
Williamson Patrick - - 2002
When lymphocytes (and other cells) die by apoptosis, they orchestrate their own orderly removal by macrophages, and thereby prevent the inflammation that would otherwise attend cell lysis. As part of their demise, apoptotic cells disrupt the normal asymmetric distribution of phospholipids across their plasma membranes, an asymmetry normally maintained by ...
Agramonte-Hevia José - - 2002
Complement receptor 3 (CR3) is an integrin that recognizes several different ligands. Binding to CR3 in phagocytic cells activates signaling pathways involved in cytoskeleton rearrangement, regulation of cell motility, alteration of gene expression and phagocytosis of complement-opsonized as well as of some non-opsonized particles and pathogenic bacteria. However, CR3-mediated phagocytosis ...
Aust Ann E - - 2002
Some recent epidemiologic investigations have shown an association between increased incidence of respiratory symptoms and exposure to low levels of particulate matter (PM*) less than 10 microm or less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively). If particulates are causally involved with respiratory symptoms, it is important ...
Stoika R S - - 2002
The effect of formyl chemotactic peptide (fCTP, fMet-Leu-Phe), beta-amyloid peptides (beta-AP, 1-42, 1-16 and 25-35), and bradykinin (BK) on functional activity of phagocytic cells has been investigated. Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) was also used as a model membrane binding agent of polypeptide nature. Murine monocyte-macrophage cell line J774.2 and normal ...
Krieser Ronald J - - 2002
Apoptotic cells are engulfed and removed by phagocytes. This ensures proper development of the organism and can modulate immune responses. Recent studies have examined molecules on apoptotic cells, such as phosphatidylserine, which may signal for engulfment through multiple receptors. Apoptotic recognition mechanisms may vary with the apoptotic and engulfing cell ...
Kwon Se Ryun - - 2002
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the in vitro capacity of the scuticociliatian parasite Uronema marinum to inhibit chemiluminescence (CL) of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus phagocytes. Luminol-enhanced CL was used to measure the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) generated by respiratory bursts of phagocytes using zymosan as a stimulant. Cytotoxic ...
Tatarczuch Liliana - - 2002
Lactating animals are particularly susceptible to mastitis during the early stages of mammary gland involution following weaning. In this study we compared the phagocytic capacity of cells collected from sheep mammary secretions at different stages of involution. The ability of neutrophils and macrophages to ingest latex beads in an in ...
Mold Carolyn - - 2002
Serum amyloid P component (SAP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are opsonins that react with nuclear autoantigens targeted in systemic autoimmunity. CRP and SAP bind to apoptotic and necrotic cells, which are potential sources of these autoantigens. We have recently determined that the receptors for CRP on phagocytic cells are Fcgamma ...
Sengupta Mahuya - - 2002
Splenic macrophages are highly efficient in trapping and concentrating foreign substances carried in the blood and also the major sites where antibodies are synthesised and from where they are released into the circulation. Lead and Arsenic as environmental agents are considered to be high priority toxic substances largely due to ...
Mitchell Siobhan - - 2002
Lipoxins (LX) are eicosanoids with antiinflammatory activity in glomerulonephritis (GN) and inflammatory diseases, hypersensitivity, and ischemia reperfusion injury. It has been demonstrated that LXA(4) stimulates non-phlogistic phagocytosis of apoptotic polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) by monocyte-derived macrophages (Mphi) in vitro, suggesting a role for LX as endogenous pro-resolution lipid mediators. It is ...
Azuma Yutaro - - 2002
Apoptotic cells are effectively ingested and removed by phagocytes. This process is dependent on specific recognition by phagocytes of ligands expressed exclusively on apoptotic cells. These ligands, cell surface molecules such as phosphatidylserine (PS), altered sugar chains, and the thrombospondin-binding domain, are expressed following the induction of apoptosis. However, they ...
Tooker B C - - 2002
Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) is a facultative intracellular bacterium with the ability to survive and proliferate inside the vesicles of macrophage cells. How M. paratuberculosis and other mycobacteria survive in this hostile environment is not well understood. Present research findings can be divided into three possibilities: (1) mycobacteria may interfere ...
Cherdwongcharoensuk Duangrudee - - 2002
Several heavy metals that are currently employed in industry may become polluters of work and natural environments. As particulate matter, heavy metals are suitable for entering the human body through the respiratory and digestive systems. They often end up inside phagocytes; the size of the microscopic particles modulates both their ...
Deĝim Zelihagül - - 2002
It is difficult to treat intracellular infections because of the intrinsic resistance of the microorganism to most antibiotics. Moreover, these microorganisms can survive in phagocytic cells (macrophages and neutrophils). In this study, our aims were to encapsulate an antibiotic in liposomes, which will be phagocytized as well as the microorganisms ...
Mondal Soma - - 2002
Glucocorticoids (GC) are usually considered to be immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory. However, recent studies in mammals have demonstrated the diverse effects of GC on non-specific host-defense mechanism, depending on dose or duration of treatment. Hence, in the present study in vitro dose and time-related effects of glucocorticoid, i.e. hydrocortisone (HC) on ...
Gagnon Etienne - - 2002
Phagocytosis is a key aspect of our innate ability to fight infectious diseases. In this study, we have found that fusion of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with the macrophage plasmalemma, underneath phagocytic cups, is a source of membrane for phagosome formation in macrophages. Successive waves of ER become associated with ...
Brown Simon - - 2002
Macrophage recognition and ingestion of 'self' cells undergoing apoptosis in vivo protects tissues from the toxic contents of dying cells and modulates macrophage regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. However, the complex molecular mechanisms mediating macrophage discrimination between viable and apoptotic cells are poorly understood. In particular, little is known ...
Flavia Popi Ana Flavia - - 2002
Macrophages constitute one of the primary cellular mechanisms that impairs parasite invasion of host tissues. The phagocytic and microbicidal properties of these cells can be modulated by specific membrane receptors involved in cell-microorganism interactions. Gp43, the main antigen secreted by Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis (Pb), the causative agent of Paracoccidioidomycosis, is a ...
Geske F Jon - - 2002
Clearance of cellular corpses is a critical feature of apoptosis in vivo during development, tissue homeostasis, and resolution of inflammation. As the professional phagocytes of the body, macrophages play a key role in this process. By recognizing emerging signals using several different receptors, macrophages engulf apoptotic cells swiftly and efficiently. ...
García-García Erick - - 2002
The molecular mechanism involved in Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis in the different cell types of the immune system is still poorly defined. We investigated the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in phagocytosis by monocytes and by monocyte-differentiated macrophages. Peripheral blood monocytes and monocytic cells (THP-1 ...
Bi Yanming - - 2002
Aseptic loosening of orthopaedic implants is thought to be primarily due to stimulation of cytokine production by wear particles from the implants. The cytokines increase osteoclast differentiation, leading to osteolysis and implant loosening. Accumulating evidence indicates that adherent endotoxin mediates the biological responses induced by the wear particles. One mechanism ...
Greenberg Neil - - 2002
Stress involves real or perceived changes within an organism in the environment that activate an organism's attempts to cope by means of evolutionarily ancient neural and endocrine mechanisms. Responses to acute stressors involve catecholamines released in varying proportion at different sites in the sympathetic and central nervous systems. These responses ...
Splettstoesser Wolf D - - 2002
Phagocytes represent a powerful defense system against invading microorganisms that threaten the life or functional integrity of the host. The capacity to generate and release substantial amounts of reactive oxygen species is a unique property of activated polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocytes. The crucial role of these molecules in killing microorganisms ...
Xing Shaomo - - 2002
The interaction of macrophages and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (PE) wear plays an important role in perpetuating chronic inflammation at the bone implant interface, leading to peri-implant osteolysis and mechanical failure of the implant. A model to study the interaction of human mature macrophages with orthopaedic biomaterial wear has been ...
Djaldetti Meir - - 2002
Professional phagocytes, comprising polymorphonuclear neutrophils and monocyte/macrophage cells, play an important role in the host defense. Any defect in their function exposes the organism to microbial intruders terminating in fatal diseases. The functional responses of the phagocytes to bacterial and fungal infections include chemotaxis, actin assembly, migration, adhesion, aggregation, phagocytosis, ...
Geiser Marianne - - 2002
Macrophages residing on the inner epithelial surfaces of airways and alveoli are the only lung phagocytes exposed directly to the environment. Their phagocytic and microbicidal activities are essential for maintaining this organ in a clean and sterile state. The morphology of these phagocytes can be investigated in situ only after ...
Conradt Barbara - - 2002
Phagocytes have long been known to engulf and degrade apoptotic cells. Recent studies in mammals and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have shed some light on the conserved molecular mechanisms involved in this process. A series of results now challenge the traditional view of phagocytes as simply scavengers, 'cleaning up' after ...
Walter Michaela R V - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To examine the host response toward Porphyromonas levii, by evaluating chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst of bovine macrophages in vitro. SAMPLE POPULATION: Cultured bovine macrophages obtained from monocytes harvested from blood samples of 15 Holstein steers. Porphyromonas levii was isolated from the foot rot lesion of an acutely affected ...
Pittoni Valerio - - 2002
Apoptosis has been clearly characterised by the ability to limit the activation of inflammatory responses through the disposal of the apoptotic cell by rapid uptake by phagocytes. The exposure of phosphatidylserine deriving from the loss of plasma lipid asymmetry is the early membrane signal which alerts the phagocyte about the ...
Bergman M - - 2002
The capacity of rat peritoneal macrophages to produce interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) following phagocytosis of latex particles in vivo and in vitro was examined. In both cases, a marked increase in IL-1beta secretion was observed, although the level of the cytokine secreted in vivo was higher than that observed after incubation of ...
Franc Nathalie C - - 2002
Phagocytosis is the necessary corollary of apoptosis. It leads to the clearance of apoptotic cells by phagocytes, which can be 'professional' or 'amateur'. I review the known molecular aspects of phagocytosis of apoptotic corpses in mammals, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster from the point of view of the phagocyte and ...
Monks Jenifer - - 2002
The processes by which the involuting mammary gland clears residual milk and milk fat, as well as apoptotic cells, have gone largely unstudied in the modern literature. Here we review the evidence for and against the involvement of professional phagocytes of hematopoietic lineage in this process. Additionally we present evidence ...
Manfredi A A - - 2002
Cells continuously die and disappear from the midst of living tissues. However, some of their constituents survive. DNA is horizontally transferred to phagocytic cells, and apoptotic cell antigens shape the immune repertoire. When massive apoptosis occurs, which overwhelms tissue scavenger cells, or when the function of phagocytes abates, dying cells ...
Akisue Toshihiro - - 2002
Orthopedic wear debris has been thought to be an important factor associated with osteolysis and loosening of total joint arthroplasties. Previous in vitro studies have reported that particles of wear debris induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other inflammatory mediators from macrophages and other cells. Several recent investigations, however, ...
Brooks R A - - 2002
Particulate prosthetic materials are often studied by adding them to monocytic cells in vitro and measuring the release of cytokines as an indicator of their inflammatory potential. Endotoxin is known to be a contaminant of particle preparations and also stimulates the release of cytokines. It is usual to use a ...
Zhdanova E V - - 2002
We studied biological rhythms of immunological parameters and absorption and digestive activities of neutrophils and monocytes in women during the menstrual cycle. Circadian rhythms of phagocytosis were evaluated. The phagocytic system was characterized by highest activity during ovulation and early luteal phase of the menstrual cycle accompanied by physiological immunosuppression. ...
Vonk Alieke G - - 2002
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and mononuclear phagocytes represent an important first line and effector function in the control of Candida infections. Their relative contribution to host defence is frequently assessed by means of microbiological assays. However, reported results are divergent and might well be associated with study design-related issues. In the ...
Grottkau B E - - 2002
Macrophages play numerous roles in both physiologic and pathologic processes. Along with fibroblasts, they comprise the synovial tissue that forms the lining of musculoskeletal joint capsules and bursae, and they often envelop implants. During the process of phagocytosing prosthesis-related particles, macrophages in peri-implant tissue release inflammatory mediators. Little is known, ...
Greenberg Steven - - 2002
Phagocytosis is an evolutionarily conserved process utilized by many cells to ingest microbial pathogens, and apoptotic and necrotic corpses. Recent investigation has revealed a fundamental requirement for two co-ordinated cellular processes--cytoskeletal alterations and membrane trafficking--in the phagocytic event. Some elements of this machinery are co-opted by certain pathogens to gain ...
Vandana Shah
We previously reported that Pycnogenol<SUP>®</SUP>, procyanidins extracted from the bark of French maritime pine (Pinus maritima Aiton; the official botanical name is now <I>Pinus pinaster </I>Aiton) is a potent free radical scavenger. It has been shown to inhibit macrophage oxidative burst. Macrophages carry out their microbicidal and tumoricidal activities via ...
Schwoebel, Frank
The uptake of apoptotic cells by professional phagocytes like macrophages is not only a non-inflammatory but also an active anti-inflammatory process. a)To examine these immunomodulating effects of dying cells an in vitro co-culture system using primary murine cells was established. b)Co-incubation of macrophages with apoptotic cells followed by stimulation with ...
Voyich Jovanka M - - 2002
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are a critical component of the human innate immune response and are the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. Phagocytosis of invading microbes induces production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by PMNs, which facilitates bactericidal activity. In addition to eliminating microorganisms, phagocytosis also accelerates PMN apoptosis, ...
Ma Nan - - 2002
Their unique mechanical and biological properties make polyurethanes (PUs) ideal materials for many implantable devices. However, uncertain long-term biostability in the human physiological environment limits their extensive clinical applications. Chronic inflammatory response associated with macrophage activation has been suggested as a prime factor; although the mechanism of macrophage activation in ...
Huynh Mai-Lan N - - 2002
Ingestion of apoptotic cells in vitro by macrophages induces TGF-beta1 secretion, resulting in an anti-inflammatory effect and suppression of proinflammatory mediators. Here, we show in vivo that direct instillation of apoptotic cells enhanced the resolution of acute inflammation. This enhancement appeared to require phosphatidylserine (PS) on the apoptotic cells and ...
Petit Alain - - 2002
We recently identified apoptosis in in vitro wear particle-stimulated macrophages. The recent explosion of interest in apoptosis lies in the fact that it is under positive and negative regulation through evolutionary conserved biochemical pathways. It may also be possible to modulate macrophage apoptosis in the treatment of periprosthetic osteolysis. The ...
Wooley Paul H - - 2002
An in vivo model of the inflammatory response to orthopaedic biomaterials was used to examine cellular and cytokine responses to polymer particles of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and metal particles of cobalt-chrome (Co-Cr) and titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Responses were determined separately and in combinations, to ...
Underhill David M - - 2002
The phagocytic response of innate immune cells such as macrophages is defined by the activation of complex signaling networks that are stimulated by microbial contact. Many individual proteins have been demonstrated to participate in phagocytosis, and the application of high-throughput tools has indicated that many more remain to be described. ...
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