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Results 501 - 550 of 1015
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Hanayama Rikinari - - 2004
Apoptotic cells expose phosphatidylserine and are swiftly engulfed by macrophages. Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor (EGF) factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a protein that binds to apoptotic cells by recognizing phosphatidylserine and that enhances the engulfment of apoptotic cells by macrophages. We report that tingible body macrophages in the germinal ...
Kirkham Paul A - - 2004
Clearance of apoptotic cells by phagocytosis plays an important role in the resolution of an inflammatory response. Macrophages interacting with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins upregulate their phagocytic capacity. Cigarette smoke contains highly reactive carbonyls that modify proteins which directly/indirectly affects cellular function. We observed, in vitro, that human macrophages interacting ...
Knaapen Ad M - - 2004
Both occupational and environmental exposure to particles is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Particles are thought to impact on genotoxicity as well as on cell proliferation via their ability to generate oxidants such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). For mechanistic purposes, one ...
Chow Chung-Wai - - 2004
Phagocytosis is an essential component of the innate immune response. Invading microorganisms are engulfed by neutrophils and macrophages, and subsequently killed by a complex series of reactions that require fusion of the phagocytic vacuole with multiple endomembrane organelles. This vacuolar remodeling process, known as phagosomal maturation, is often the target ...
Savill, John
During embryonic development, the sculpting of many tissues depends on waves of apoptotic cell death among different cell populations. Unfortunately, at least in higher animals with sophisticated immune systems, dying cells must be engulfed by phagocytes to prevent a massive autoimmune response. In their Perspective, Savill et al. discuss new ...
Ruthel Gordon - - 2004
Macrophages attempt to battle infection with Bacillus anthracis spores by phagocytosis of the spores. However, it is believed that B. anthracis spores may survive phagocytosis and may actually use the macrophages that ingest them as a means of transport to lymph nodes. Thus far, the events that occur after spores ...
Hanayama Rikinari - - 2004
A major function of macrophages is to engulf apoptotic cells to prevent them from releasing noxious materials as they die. Milk fat globule-EGF-factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a glycoprotein secreted by activated macrophages that works as a bridge between apoptotic cells and phagocytes by specifically recognizing phosphatidylserine exposed on apoptotic cells. ...
Fujishiro Takaaki - - 2004
Early implant instability has been proposed as a critical factor in the onset and progression of aseptic loosening and periprosthetic osteolysis in total joint arthroplasties. Previous in vitro studies have reported that macrophages stimulated with cyclic mechanical strain release inflammatory mediators. Little is known, however, about the response of these ...
Licht R - - 2004
Antibodies against nucleosomes are a serological hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Apoptotic cells are the unique source of nucleosomes, which are formed through cleavage of chromatin by nucleases. These nucleosomes and other autoantigens targeted in SLE are expressed in apoptotic blebs or at the surface of apoptotic cells. Therefore, ...
Hamilton Raymond F RF - - 2004
The mechanism for how inhaled particles cause or exacerbate human diseases is not known. It is clear, however, that some particles are more bioactive than others. One possible mechanism may involve a modification of antigen-presenting cell function. In this study, 2 forms of asbestos (crocidolite and Libby amphibole) and PM(2.5) ...
Groos Stephanie - - 2004
The success or failure of the clearance of apoptotic cell remains depends on the ability of phagocytic cells to recognize, phagocytoze, and digest these remains prior to their lysis, which would cause tissue inflammation. We have recently shown that, after mass-induced apoptosis of guinea pig colonocytes in vivo, phagocytosis by ...
Takahashi Munehisa - - 2004
We have demonstrated that phagocytosis of late apoptotic cells by mouse macrophages leads to the production of proinflammatory cytokines, notably macrophage-inflammatory protein (MIP-2), and therefore, a yet-unknown mechanism(s) should keep our body free of inflammation. In this study, we examined the effect of the addition of immature dendritic cells (iDCs) ...
Patel Samir N - - 2004
Phagocytic cells represent an important line of innate defense against malaria; however, little is known of the mechanism by which macrophages recognize Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized erythrocytes (PEs). Using macrophages from CD36 wild-type (WT), CD36-null, and CD36 transgenically-rescued rodents, we demonstrate a major role for CD36 in the phagocytosis of PEs. WT ...
M.A. Qureshi
A study was conducted to measure baseline immunocompetence of Arbor Acre broiler chicks after the birds were raised on hyperimmune bovine colostrum product ‘Immunmilk<sup>®</sup>` for first 7 d of age. Immunological parameters measured were <i>in vivo</i> and <i>in vitro</i> lymphoproliferation, macrophage functions which included phagocytosis, nitric oxide production and <i>E. ...
Santini Maria Teresa - - 2004
Because of the association between inhalation of airborne particulate matter (PM) and human respiratory and cardiovascular disease, it is necessary to understand the tissue damage induced by these particles. One of the cell types principally involved in the body's reaction to PM are macrophages, which remove particles in the airway ...
Brown D M - - 2004
The effects of PM10, one of the components of particulate air pollution, was investigated using human monocytes and a mouse macrophage cell line (J774). The study aimed to investigate the role of these nanoparticles on the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha gene expression. We also investigated the ...
Rosen Henry - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on adaptive bacterial interactions with neutrophils, emphasizing information communicated within the past year about bacterial factors that respond to contact with or phagocytosis by PMN. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the discovery of type III and IV secretion, progress in the analysis of bacterial interactions with ...
Böse Jens - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells is fundamental to animal development, immune function and cellular homeostasis. The phosphatidylserine receptor (Ptdsr) on phagocytes has been implicated in the recognition and engulfment of apoptotic cells and in anti-inflammatory signaling. To determine the biological function of the phosphatidylserine receptor in vivo, we inactivated the ...
Sexton Kenneth G - - 2004
Complex urban air mixtures that realistically mimic urban smog can be generated for investigating adverse health effects. "Smog chambers" have been used for over 30 yr to conduct experiments for developing and testing photochemical models that predict ambient ozone (O(3)) concentrations and aerosol chemistry. These chambers were used to generate ...
Maderna Paola - - 2003
Clearance of apoptotic cells by phagocytic cells plays a significant role in the resolution of inflammation, protecting tissue from harmful exposure to the inflammatory and immunogenic contents of dying cells. Apoptosis induces cell surface changes that are important for recognition and engulfment of cells by phagocytes. These changes include alterations ...
Tyurina Yulia Y - - 2004
Apoptosis is associated with the externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) in the plasma membrane and subsequent recognition of PS by specific macrophage receptors. Selective oxidation of PS precedes its externalization/recognition and is essential for the PS-dependent engulfment of apoptotic cells. Because etoposide is a potent and selective lipid antioxidant that does ...
Kurosaka Kahori - - 2003
Apoptotic cells are phagocytosed as soon as they appear in vivo. In this study, we first determined precisely at what stage apoptotic cells are phagocytosed by macrophages, and then examined the subsequent cytokine production. Phagocytosis was confirmed by flow cytometry and confocal laser microscopy, whereas the subsequent response was examined ...
Rosenberg Carolina E - - 2003
Lead is an element of risk for the environment and human health and has harmful effects that may exceed those of other inorganic toxicants. The immune system is one of the targets of lead. Its immunomodulatory actions depend on the level of exposure, and it has been demonstrated that environmental ...
Saillan-Barreau C - - 2003
Macrophages are part of the immunity defense mechanism via oxidative burst and phagocytosis. They are also involved in tissue remodeling via cytokine secretion and apoptotic body clearance. Previously, we demonstrated that adipose cells and macrophages share some of their features and functions. Our aim was to further test this hypothesis ...
Miyanishi Keita - - 2003
VEGF and VEGF receptor, Flt-1, expression was observed in periprosthetic tissues surrounding loosened total joint implants. Exposure of monocyte/macrophages to titanium particles resulted in increased VEGF expression, p44/42 MAPK activation, and VEGF-dependent macrophage chemotaxis. Increased levels of angiogenic factors, such as VEGF, may be critically important in wear debris-induced implant ...
Chan Andrew - - 2003
Apoptosis of autoaggressive T-cells in the CNS is an effective, noninflammatory mechanism for the resolution of T-cell infiltrates, contributing to clinical recovery in T-cell-mediated neuroinflammatory diseases. The clearance of apoptotic leukocytes by tissue-specific phagocytes is critical in the resolution of the inflammatory infiltrate and leads to a profound downregulation of ...
Lalancette A - - 2003
Mercury is the principal metal contaminant in the St Lawrence Estuary. It impairs humoral, cellular and non-specific immune responses in many species. Since the immune system of juvenile seals is immature, it should react differently to the effects of contamination compared to that of mature animals. Phagocytosis and lymphoblastic transformation ...
Jersmann Hubertus P A - - 2003
Inflammatory diseases are associated with reduced serum concentrations of alpha(2)-HS glycoprotein (the human homologue of bovine fetuin), but the role of fetuin in inflammation is poorly understood. We hypothesized that fetuin may influence the resolution of inflammation by modulating the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages. Using an in vitro ...
Sano Hideki - - 2003
Galectin-3 is a member of a large family of animal lectins. This protein is expressed abundantly by macrophages, but its function in this cell type is not well understood. We have studied the effect of galectin-3 gene targeting on phagocytosis, a major function of macrophages. Compared with wild-type macrophages, galectin-3-deficient ...
Safir Nadia - - 2003
The J774.1 macrophage cell line was used as a tool to investigate the influence of selenium on macrophage function. In vitro selenium supplementation enhanced phagocytosis, degranulation by the release of beta-glucuronidase after N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) or cytochalasin B, and the production of superoxide anion after phorbol myristate acetate stimulation of these ...
Desjardins Michel - - 2003
Phagocytosis is the process that cells have evolved to internalise large particles such as mineral debris, which they store, or apoptotic cells and pathogens, which they have the capacity to kill and degrade. However, several important pathogens can suppress these killing functions and survive and multiply within phagosomes, causing disease. ...
Leverrier Yann - - 2003
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) play an important role in a variety of cellular functions, including phagocytosis. PI3Ks are activated during phagocytosis induced by several receptors and have been shown to be required for phagocytosis through the use of inhibitors such as wortmannin and LY294002. Mammalian cells have multiple isoforms of PI3K, ...
Kim Jun-Sub - - 2003
Phagocytosis of serum- and IgG-opsonized zymosan (SOZ and IOZ, respectively) particles into J774A.1 macrophages induced apoptosis of the cells, accompanied by the expression of p21(WAF1), one of cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) inhibitors. Furthermore, phagocytosis of SOZ and IOZ particles into macophages induced superoxide formation. Tat-superoxide dismutase (SOD), which is readily ...
Coopamah Malini D - - 2003
Previous results have demonstrated that anti-D therapy in children with chronic auto-immune thrombocytopenic purpura (AITP) induced a significant increase in several pro- and anti-inflammatory plasma cytokines within 2 hours of administration. To investigate the biologic basis of these early in vivo responses, we developed a flow cytometric assay to measure ...
Szondy Zsuzsa - - 2003
Tissue transglutaminase (TGase2) is a protein-crosslinking enzyme known to be associated with the in vivo apoptosis program. Here we report that apoptosis could be induced in TGase2-/- mice; however, the clearance of apoptotic cells was defective during the involution of thymus elicited by dexamethasone, anti-CD3 antibody, or gamma-irradiation, and in ...
Aderem Alan - - 2003
Macrophages are a cornerstone of the innate immune system. They detect infectious organisms via a plethora of receptors, phagocytose them, and orchestrate an appropriate host response. Phagocytosis is extraordinarily complex: numerous receptors stimulate particle internalization, the cytoskeletal elements mediating internalization differ by receptor system and the nature of the pathogen ...
Schwarz Markus J - - 2003
Recent research has overcome the old paradigms of the brain as an immunologically privileged organ, and of the exclusive role of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides as signal transducers in the central nervous system. Growing evidence suggests that the signal proteins of the immune system - the cytokines - are also involved ...
Langeggen Harald - - 2003
Uptake of zymosan A particles by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and its effect on cellular cytokine and oxygen radical production was examined. HUVEC took up more serum-opsonized than -unopsonized zymosan as demonstrated by flow cytometry with fluorescence-labeled particles. The former uptake was inhibited in the presence of anti-C3c ...
Wang W - - 2003
When injected intravenously, cellulose micro-particles become lodged in pulmonary arterioles. The current study investigated the systemic and pulmonary inflammatory responses triggered by cellulose micro-particles at 3, 24, and 48 h postinjection in 6-wk-old broilers. Proportions and concentrations of circulating white blood cells were assessed in saline-injected (control group) and cellulose-injected ...
Zlotkin Amir - - 2003
The salmonid macrophage-like cell line RTS-11 and purified trout pronephros phagocytes were used to analyze in vitro entry and survival of two Streptococcus iniae serotypes. Efficient invasion by S. iniae occurred in both cells, but only the type II strain persisted in pronephros phagocytes for at least 48 h. Ex ...
Higgins Gareth T - - 2003
PURPOSE: Normal aging is associated with accumulation of lipofuscin pigment in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). This may occur as a result of phagocytosis and incomplete degradation of oxidized photoreceptor outer segments (POS). This study was undertaken to determine whether phagocytosis of UV-irradiated POS (artificial lipofuscin) would increase expression in ...
Kiefer Ralph-Thomas - - 2003
BACKGROUND: With invasion of bacteria, the host defense system is activated by a complex cascade of various mechanisms. Local anesthetics previously were shown to interact with diverse components of the immune response, such as leukocyte adherence on endothelial monolayers, oxidative burst, or crosstalk within lymphocyte subset populations. However, effects of ...
Kim Sun Jung - - 2003
Genetic studies in mice indicate that predisposition to lupus-like diseases is caused by at least three mechanisms: (1) alterations in the threshold of activation of lymphocytes or macrophages; (2) defective signaling for activation-induced cell death; and (3) reduced clearance of apoptotic cells. To define the mechanisms whereby lupus develops in ...
Fernandez-Prada Carmen M - - 2003
Brucellae are gram-negative intracellular pathogens that survive and multiply within host phagocytic cells. Smooth organisms present O-polysaccharides (OPS) on their surface. The wboA gene, which codes for the enzyme glycosyl transferase, is essential for the assembly of O-chain in Brucella. Deletion of wboA in smooth, virulent B. melitensis 16M results ...
Huang Song-Lih - - 2003
To identify the size and components related to toxicity of ambient particles, we used a trichotomous impactor to collect 17 sets of particles in three size ranges--submicrometer (diameters < 1 microm; PM1.0, fine (diameters between 1 and 2.5 microm; PM1.0-2.5, and coarse (diameters between 2.5 and 10 microm; PM2.5-10--at stations ...
Devitt A - - 2003
Apoptotic-cell clearance is dependent on several macrophage surface molecules, including CD14. Phosphatidylserine (PS) becomes externalised during apoptosis and participates in the clearance process through its ability to bind to a novel receptor, PS-R. CD14 has the proven ability to bind phospholipids and may function as an alternative receptor for the ...
Kleinman M T - - 2003
Alveolar macrophages (AM) are part of the innate immunological defense system and are among the first cells to respond to the effects of inhaled particles. Study of macrophage responses to particles is, therefore, relevant to understanding the mechanisms by which inhaled particles can adversely affect health. Size-fractionated ambient particles were ...
Roponen Marjut - - 2003
Exposure to bioaerosols in moisture-damaged indoor environments has been shown to be a potential health risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the inflammatory and cytotoxic potential of airborne particle material using both the nasal lavage (NAL) method and a cell exposure study. A 24-h sample collection ...
Lee Sena J - - 2003
Pathogen pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize common structural and molecular motifs present on microbial surfaces and contribute to induction of innate immune responses. The mannose receptor (MR), a carbohydrate-binding receptor expressed on subsets of macrophages, is considered one such PRR. In vitro experiments have implicated the MR in phagocytosis of ...
Becker Susanne - - 2003
In the lower airways, macrophages are important regulators of inflammation and indispensable in their antimicrobial activities. Thus, air pollution particles, which modulate airway macrophage host defenses may, in susceptible individuals, increase severity of inflammatory and infectious disease. In the present study, size fractionated, ultrafine (UF), fine (PM0.1-2.5), and coarse (PM2.5-10) ...
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