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Champion Julie A - - 2006
Phagocytosis is a principal component of the body's innate immunity in which macrophages internalize targets in an actin-dependent manner. Targets vary widely in shape and size and include particles such as pathogens and senescent cells. Despite considerable progress in understanding this complicated process, the role of target geometry in phagocytosis ...
Braun Virginie - - 2006
Phagocytosis is used by macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils to capture and destroy pathogens and particulate antigens. Although localized assembly of actin filaments is the driving force for particle internalization, exocytosis of intracellular compartments, and in particular endocytic compartments, has been shown recently to be required for the early steps ...
Böttcher Andrea - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Uningested dead cells may be an important source of autoantigens and may trigger autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Multiple receptors involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells have been described; however, little is known about the receptors and ligands involved in uptake of necrotic cells that ...
Poma Anna - - 2006
Recent studies support a participation of fine airborne particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm in the effects of air pollutants on health. Particulate matter was collected in an urban area of L'Aquila during the winter 2004. Fine particulate samples were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ...
Pérez Rebeca - - 2006
Hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis of U937 cells results in substantial hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids by calcium-independent group VIA phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)-VIA). However, abrogation of cellular iPLA(2)-VIA neither delays nor decreases apoptosis, suggesting that, beyond a mere destructive role, iPLA(2)-VIA may serve other specific roles. In this study, we report that phagocytosis ...
Vachon Eric - - 2006
CD44, a transmembrane adhesion molecule involved in binding and metabolism of hyaluronan, has additional functions in inflammatory and immune responses, contributing to the ingestion and clearance of particles and apoptotic cells. Our goal was to determine the specific role of CD44 in phagocytosis and whether it functions as a primary ...
Pan Wanling - - 2006
Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to the variant surface glycoproteins (VSG) of African trypanosomes are the first and predominant class of anti-trypanosomal antibodies in the infected host. They are a major factor in controlling waves of parasitemia, but not in long-term survival. The macrophage receptor(s) that enables phagocytosis of IgM anti-VSG-coated ...
Scannell Michael - - 2006
Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells plays a pivotal role in developmental processes and in the resolution of inflammation. Failed or delayed clearance of apoptotic cells can result in chronic inflammation. Furthermore, clearance of apoptotic cells leads to release of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Recent evidence has shown that endogenous mediators can regulate such ...
Refsnes Magne - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Particles are known to induce both cytokine release (MIP-2, TNF-alpha), a reduction in cell viability and an increased apoptosis in alveolar macrophages. To examine whether these responses are triggered by the same particle determinants, alveolar macrophages were exposed in vitro to mineral particles of different physical-chemical properties. RESULTS: The ...
Yu Fu-Shun - - 2006
Emodin has been reported to induce apoptosis in many human cancer cell lines, although its effects on leukocyte functions in vitro have not been demonstrated Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of emodin on the phagocytosis of macrophages, the activity of natural killer cells and ...
Kaji Hiroaki - - 2006
In our previous study, water-soluble extracts from Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (B. xylophilus), a pine wood nematode, were shown to enhance interleukin (IL)-4 plus lipopolysaccharide-induced polyclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) E production in vitro in mice and to increase serum levels of an antigen-nonspecific IgE in vivo. Here we examined whether the nematode extracts ...
Frick Chris - - 2006
The main causes for the long-term prosthetic implants' failure are the body's reaction to the implanted material or mechanical stress on the device resulting in the formation of wear particles. Particulate wear debris attracts macrophages, and depending on the chemical composition of the material and particle size, various levels of ...
Girón-Pérez M I - - 2006
Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorous insecticide widely used in agriculture and domestic activities. However, little is known about the effect of this pesticide on the immune system of fish and other alterations of its physiological system. The aims of the present study were the evaluation of the LC(50) (lethal concentration(50)) and ...
Peters Annette - - 2006
Particulate air pollution has been associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Evidence for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative effects of ambient particles was reviewed as part of a workshop. The purpose of this critical update is to summarize the evidence presented for the mechanisms involved in the translocation of particles from the ...
880-01 Yi-Ching, Ho
Thesis (M.A.)--National Taipei University of Technology Graduate Institute of Biotechnology
Ai, Jing
Neutrophils and macrophages are two major cell types of innate immune system. They both have specific surface receptors, which transduce unique signals that are critical for their survival, differentiation, and functions. In Part I, we characterized the physiological roles of a novel protein, LRG, in G-CSFR signaling pathways in granulocytes. ...
Siglienti Ines - - 2006
Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO/USPIO) particles are a promising new tool to label cells for in vivo monitoring of their migration into the nervous system by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Upon systemic application, SPIO/USPIO particles are preferentially internalized by macrophages. It is unclear whether this affects their immunological profile. We tested ...
Kenis Heidi - - 2006
Apoptosis and subsequent clearance of apoptotic cells are important for the prevention of diseases. Therefore, it is essential to understand the mechanisms underlying the biology of phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. The best characterized "eat me" signal on the surface of apoptotic cells is phosphatidylserine (PS). Recently, we demonstrated that ...
Li Yankun - - 2006
Macrophage apoptosis and the ability of phagocytes to clear these apoptotic cells are important processes in advanced atherosclerosis. Phagocytic clearance not only disposes of dead cells but usually elicits an anti-inflammatory response. To study this process in a model of advanced lesional macrophage death, macrophages rendered apoptotic by free cholesterol ...
Májai Gyöngyike - - 2006
Although under normal conditions many cells die daily mainly by apoptosis in human tissues, inflammation does not occur. The redundant function of a relatively large number of molecules are available to recognize changes occurring on the surface of apoptotic cells, to opsonize the dead cells and to engulf the apoptotic ...
Kwon Young Jik - - 2005
Activating the immune system to trigger a specific response is a major challenge in vaccine development. In particular, activating sufficient cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated cellular immunity, which is crucial for the treatment of many diseases including cancer and AIDS, has proven to be especially challenging. In this study, antigens were encapsulated ...
Marion Sabrina - - 2006
Phagocytosis plays a major role during the invasive process of the human intestine by the pathogenic amoeba E. histolytica. This parasite is the etiologic agent causing amoebic dysentery, a worldwide disease causing 50 million of clinical cases leading to about 100,000 deaths annually. The invasive process is characterized by a ...
Murray Rachael Z - - 2005
Membrane traffic in activated macrophages is required for two critical events in innate immunity: proinflammatory cytokine secretion and phagocytosis of pathogens. We found a joint trafficking pathway linking both actions, which may economize membrane transport and augment the immune response. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is trafficked from the Golgi ...
Shukla Ravi - - 2005
Macrophages are one of the principal immune effector cells that play essential roles as secretory, phagocytic, and antigen-presenting cells in the immune system. In this study, we address the issue of cytotoxicity and immunogenic effects of gold nanoparticles on RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles has been correlated ...
Vogel Christoph Franz Adam - - 2005
Exposure to particulate matter air pollution causes inflammatory responses and is associated with the progression of atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular mortality. Macrophages play a key role in atherogenesis by releasing proinflammatory cytokines and forming foam cells in subendothelial lesions. The present study quantified the inflammatory response in a human macrophage ...
Wang Ruibo - - 2006
The extracellular presence of endotoxin-free heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) enhances the rate and capacity of macrophage-mediated phagocytosis at 6 times the basal rate. It is protein-specific, dose- and time-dependent and involves the internalization of inert microspheres, Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and fungi. Structurally, exogenous HSP70 binds the macrophage plasma ...
Li Jiangwei - - 2005
Caveolae are plasma membrane invaginations that function as important regulators of numerous cellular processes, including signal transduction, cholesterol trafficking, and endocytosis. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) constitutes the main structural protein of caveolae membranes. Here, we report an in vivo increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the thymus and spleen of ...
Vega Virginia L - - 2005
The response to injury is activated at the systemic and cellular levels. At the systemic level, phagocytosis plays a key role in controlling infections and clearing necrotic and apoptotic cells. The expression of heat shock proteins (Hsp), which is a well-conserved process, is a major component of cellular response to ...
Nakai Yuji - - 2005
We previously isolated a monoclonal antibody named PH2 that inhibits phosphatidylserine-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages. We report here the identification of the cognate antigen. A protein bound by PH2 in Western blotting was identified as the 170-kDa subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3 p170/eIF3a). When eIF3a ...
Saijo Shinji - - 2005
Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, reportedly suppresses the production of TNF-alpha and IL-6 by LPS-stimulated human or porcine macrophages, and the phagocytosis of microbeads by human macrophages. In this study, we used a high molecular weight form of adiponectin purified from human plasma to examine its effects on the phagocytosis of ...
Maderna Paola - - 2005
Phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells plays a pivotal role in the resolution of inflammation. Recent evidence has shown that such processes can be regulated by endogenous mediators, suggesting that specific mimetics may have therapeutic potential in chronic inflammation and autoimmune disorders. Here we review the mechanisms underlying recognition and engulfment ...
Hammond John A - - 2005
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to have detrimental effects on the innate immune system of several mammalian species. Top predators such as marine mammals may be badly affected as PCBs can bioaccumulate in their blubber to high concentrations and previous studies have suggested that harbour seals may be particularly vulnerable ...
Hetland Ragna B - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated an association between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Inflammation seems to play an important role in the observed health effects. However, the predominant particle component(s) that drives the inflammation is still not fully clarified. In this study representative coarse ...
Milligan Gregg N - - 2005
Ideally, a vaginally-applied microbicide would be effective against a broad range of pathogens but would have minimal effects on the female genital tract. The aim of this study was to determine if representative candidate detergent-type and sulfated/sulfonated polymer-type microbicides altered the composition or function of innate immune cells normally found ...
Geh Stefan - - 2006
Considering the biological reactivity of pure quartz in lung cells, there is a strong interest to clarify the cellular effects of respirable siliceous dusts, like bentonites. In the present study, we investigated the cellular uptake and the cytotoxic potential of bentonite particles (Ø< 10 microm) with an alpha-quartz content of ...
Devlin Robert B - - 2005
Many epidemiology studies have reported associations between inhaled environmental pollutants, especially particles, and mortality or morbidity. Despite these impressive associations, fundamental uncertainties exist as to the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for mortality or morbidity following exposure to air pollutants. In vitro toxicology provides a powerful approach to describe these mechanisms ...
Ling Erjun - - 2006
Phagocytosis is an important innate immune response against microbial infections and an effective mechanism to eliminate apoptotic cells. In vertebrates, phagocytes such as macrophages and dendritic cells are involved in phagocytosis. We demonstrate here that insect hemocytes have distinct functions in phagocytosis of foreign particles and self dead cells. Plasmatocytes ...
Pilsczek Florian H - - 2005
Complement-opsonized particles become immune adherent to complement receptor 1 (CR1 or CD35) on human erythrocytes, allowing particles to be ingested by phagocytes in the liver and the spleen. We investigated the role that immune adherence plays in the uptake and killing of Salmonella montevideo by human neutrophils. Exposure to serum ...
Soloviev Alexander - - 2005
The manner in which wear debris initiates intracellular signaling and macrophage activation remains poorly understood. While particle phagocytosis has been implicated in this process, recent studies have shown that phagocytosis is not required for macrophage activation. We examined the hypothesis that titanium particles stimulate macrophages through membrane associated signaling events ...
Chaves-Pozo Elena - - 2005
It has been shown previously that professional phagocytic granulocytes are present in the testis of the gilthead seabream, a seasonal breeding teleost that offers an excellent model for studying the testicular regression process that occurs in seasonal testicular involution and sex change. It is unexpected that testicular granulocytes produce interleukin-1beta, ...
Grandjean-Laquerriere Alexia - - 2005
A possible complication associated with the implantation of hydroxyapatite (HA)-based prosthesis is the release of particles. Those particles can be phagocyted by monocytes that are among the first cells to colonize the inflammatory site. The activated monocytes produce inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines, which cause osteoclasts activation. It has previously ...
Stuart Lynda M - - 2005
Phagocytosis requires receptor-mediated recognition of particles, usually in the guise of infectious agents and apoptotic cells. Phagosomes fuse with lysosomes to generate phagolysosomes, which play a key role in enzymatic digestion of the internalized contents into component parts. Recent findings indicate that a simple paradigm of a single cognate receptor ...
Gupta Ajay Kumar - - 2005
The aim of this study was to modify the surfaces of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) with pullulan in order to reduce the cytotoxicity and enhance the cellular uptake of the nanoparticles. In this study, we have prepared and characterised the pullulan coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Pn-SPION) of size ...
Singh Uma - - 2005
Our aim was to investigate the contribution of decidual macrophages, which constitute an important immune component of the decidua in late gestation, to intrauterine defence mechanisms. Using flow cytometry we examined the ability of decidual macrophages, isolated from term decidua, to bind and phagocytose fluorescence-labelled bacterial and yeast bioparticles. We ...
Kato Shinya - - 2005
Corpora lutea disappear from ovaries in the absence of conception. The present study was undertaken to examine the hypothesis that disappearance of corpora lutea is accomplished through apoptosis-dependent phagocytosis of luteal cells. When bone marrow cells expressing green fluorescence protein were transplanted into X-ray-irradiated mice, macrophages derived from donor mice ...
Yellon Steven M - - 2005
The time course of select phagocyte and natural killer activities to short days was determined. In advance of testes regression, circulating granulocyte and monocyte cell numbers in hamsters decreased while lymphocyte numbers increased; phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity also decreased. To determine whether the pineal gland influences these innate immune ...
Sampaio S C - - 2005
Recent work demonstrated that crotoxin, the main toxin of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, inhibits macrophage spreading and phagocytic activities. The crotoxin molecule is composed of two subunits, an acidic non-toxic and non-enzymatic polypeptide named crotapotin and a weakly toxic basic phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)). In the present work, the active subunit ...
Maderna Paola - - 2005
Phagocytic clearance of apoptotic leukocytes plays an important role in the resolution of inflammation. The glucocorticoid-inducible protein annexin 1 and annexin 1-derived peptides show potent anti-inflammatory responses in acute and chronic inflammation. In this study, we report that the annexin 1-derived peptide (Ac(2-26)) significantly stimulates nonphlogistic phagocytosis of apoptotic polymorphonuclear ...
Borges João Carlos Shimada - - 2005
The echinoderms are deuterostomic animals with a nonspecific immune system similar to that of vertebrates. Among coelomocytes, phagocytic amoebocytes have a key role in the nonspecific immune response in sea urchin, being responsible for microorganisms elimination through phagocytosis and also for humoral secretions of a wide spectrum. Sub-populations of phagocytic ...
Rampersad Gregory C - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Patients having immune cytopenias produce antibodies that target hematopoietic cells resulting in their phagocytosis and intracellular destruction. Early reports suggested that phagocytosis could be inhibited by interfering with membrane thiol (SH) groups on phagocytes. Thus, whether chemical compounds that interact with SH or disulfide (SS) groups on mononuclear phagocytes ...
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