Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1016
< 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >
Li Yankun - - 2006
Macrophage apoptosis and the ability of phagocytes to clear these apoptotic cells are important processes in advanced atherosclerosis. Phagocytic clearance not only disposes of dead cells but usually elicits an anti-inflammatory response. To study this process in a model of advanced lesional macrophage death, macrophages rendered apoptotic by free cholesterol ...
Májai Gyöngyike - - 2006
Although under normal conditions many cells die daily mainly by apoptosis in human tissues, inflammation does not occur. The redundant function of a relatively large number of molecules are available to recognize changes occurring on the surface of apoptotic cells, to opsonize the dead cells and to engulf the apoptotic ...
Kwon Young Jik - - 2005
Activating the immune system to trigger a specific response is a major challenge in vaccine development. In particular, activating sufficient cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated cellular immunity, which is crucial for the treatment of many diseases including cancer and AIDS, has proven to be especially challenging. In this study, antigens were encapsulated ...
Marion Sabrina - - 2006
Phagocytosis plays a major role during the invasive process of the human intestine by the pathogenic amoeba E. histolytica. This parasite is the etiologic agent causing amoebic dysentery, a worldwide disease causing 50 million of clinical cases leading to about 100,000 deaths annually. The invasive process is characterized by a ...
Murray Rachael Z - - 2005
Membrane traffic in activated macrophages is required for two critical events in innate immunity: proinflammatory cytokine secretion and phagocytosis of pathogens. We found a joint trafficking pathway linking both actions, which may economize membrane transport and augment the immune response. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is trafficked from the Golgi ...
Shukla Ravi - - 2005
Macrophages are one of the principal immune effector cells that play essential roles as secretory, phagocytic, and antigen-presenting cells in the immune system. In this study, we address the issue of cytotoxicity and immunogenic effects of gold nanoparticles on RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles has been correlated ...
Wang Ruibo - - 2006
The extracellular presence of endotoxin-free heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) enhances the rate and capacity of macrophage-mediated phagocytosis at 6 times the basal rate. It is protein-specific, dose- and time-dependent and involves the internalization of inert microspheres, Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and fungi. Structurally, exogenous HSP70 binds the macrophage plasma ...
Li Jiangwei - - 2005
Caveolae are plasma membrane invaginations that function as important regulators of numerous cellular processes, including signal transduction, cholesterol trafficking, and endocytosis. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) constitutes the main structural protein of caveolae membranes. Here, we report an in vivo increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the thymus and spleen of ...
Vogel Christoph Franz Adam - - 2005
Exposure to particulate matter air pollution causes inflammatory responses and is associated with the progression of atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular mortality. Macrophages play a key role in atherogenesis by releasing proinflammatory cytokines and forming foam cells in subendothelial lesions. The present study quantified the inflammatory response in a human macrophage ...
Vega Virginia L - - 2005
The response to injury is activated at the systemic and cellular levels. At the systemic level, phagocytosis plays a key role in controlling infections and clearing necrotic and apoptotic cells. The expression of heat shock proteins (Hsp), which is a well-conserved process, is a major component of cellular response to ...
Nakai Yuji - - 2005
We previously isolated a monoclonal antibody named PH2 that inhibits phosphatidylserine-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages. We report here the identification of the cognate antigen. A protein bound by PH2 in Western blotting was identified as the 170-kDa subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3 p170/eIF3a). When eIF3a ...
Saijo Shinji - - 2005
Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, reportedly suppresses the production of TNF-alpha and IL-6 by LPS-stimulated human or porcine macrophages, and the phagocytosis of microbeads by human macrophages. In this study, we used a high molecular weight form of adiponectin purified from human plasma to examine its effects on the phagocytosis of ...
Maderna Paola - - 2005
Phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells plays a pivotal role in the resolution of inflammation. Recent evidence has shown that such processes can be regulated by endogenous mediators, suggesting that specific mimetics may have therapeutic potential in chronic inflammation and autoimmune disorders. Here we review the mechanisms underlying recognition and engulfment ...
Hammond John A - - 2005
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to have detrimental effects on the innate immune system of several mammalian species. Top predators such as marine mammals may be badly affected as PCBs can bioaccumulate in their blubber to high concentrations and previous studies have suggested that harbour seals may be particularly vulnerable ...
Hetland Ragna B - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated an association between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Inflammation seems to play an important role in the observed health effects. However, the predominant particle component(s) that drives the inflammation is still not fully clarified. In this study representative coarse ...
Milligan Gregg N - - 2005
Ideally, a vaginally-applied microbicide would be effective against a broad range of pathogens but would have minimal effects on the female genital tract. The aim of this study was to determine if representative candidate detergent-type and sulfated/sulfonated polymer-type microbicides altered the composition or function of innate immune cells normally found ...
Geh Stefan - - 2006
Considering the biological reactivity of pure quartz in lung cells, there is a strong interest to clarify the cellular effects of respirable siliceous dusts, like bentonites. In the present study, we investigated the cellular uptake and the cytotoxic potential of bentonite particles (Ø< 10 microm) with an alpha-quartz content of ...
Devlin Robert B - - 2005
Many epidemiology studies have reported associations between inhaled environmental pollutants, especially particles, and mortality or morbidity. Despite these impressive associations, fundamental uncertainties exist as to the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for mortality or morbidity following exposure to air pollutants. In vitro toxicology provides a powerful approach to describe these mechanisms ...
Ling Erjun - - 2006
Phagocytosis is an important innate immune response against microbial infections and an effective mechanism to eliminate apoptotic cells. In vertebrates, phagocytes such as macrophages and dendritic cells are involved in phagocytosis. We demonstrate here that insect hemocytes have distinct functions in phagocytosis of foreign particles and self dead cells. Plasmatocytes ...
Pilsczek Florian H - - 2005
Complement-opsonized particles become immune adherent to complement receptor 1 (CR1 or CD35) on human erythrocytes, allowing particles to be ingested by phagocytes in the liver and the spleen. We investigated the role that immune adherence plays in the uptake and killing of Salmonella montevideo by human neutrophils. Exposure to serum ...
Soloviev Alexander - - 2005
The manner in which wear debris initiates intracellular signaling and macrophage activation remains poorly understood. While particle phagocytosis has been implicated in this process, recent studies have shown that phagocytosis is not required for macrophage activation. We examined the hypothesis that titanium particles stimulate macrophages through membrane associated signaling events ...
Chaves-Pozo Elena - - 2005
It has been shown previously that professional phagocytic granulocytes are present in the testis of the gilthead seabream, a seasonal breeding teleost that offers an excellent model for studying the testicular regression process that occurs in seasonal testicular involution and sex change. It is unexpected that testicular granulocytes produce interleukin-1beta, ...
Gupta Ajay Kumar - - 2005
The aim of this study was to modify the surfaces of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) with pullulan in order to reduce the cytotoxicity and enhance the cellular uptake of the nanoparticles. In this study, we have prepared and characterised the pullulan coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Pn-SPION) of size ...
Singh Uma - - 2005
Our aim was to investigate the contribution of decidual macrophages, which constitute an important immune component of the decidua in late gestation, to intrauterine defence mechanisms. Using flow cytometry we examined the ability of decidual macrophages, isolated from term decidua, to bind and phagocytose fluorescence-labelled bacterial and yeast bioparticles. We ...
Stuart Lynda M - - 2005
Phagocytosis requires receptor-mediated recognition of particles, usually in the guise of infectious agents and apoptotic cells. Phagosomes fuse with lysosomes to generate phagolysosomes, which play a key role in enzymatic digestion of the internalized contents into component parts. Recent findings indicate that a simple paradigm of a single cognate receptor ...
Grandjean-Laquerriere Alexia - - 2005
A possible complication associated with the implantation of hydroxyapatite (HA)-based prosthesis is the release of particles. Those particles can be phagocyted by monocytes that are among the first cells to colonize the inflammatory site. The activated monocytes produce inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines, which cause osteoclasts activation. It has previously ...
Sampaio S C - - 2005
Recent work demonstrated that crotoxin, the main toxin of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, inhibits macrophage spreading and phagocytic activities. The crotoxin molecule is composed of two subunits, an acidic non-toxic and non-enzymatic polypeptide named crotapotin and a weakly toxic basic phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)). In the present work, the active subunit ...
Kato Shinya - - 2005
Corpora lutea disappear from ovaries in the absence of conception. The present study was undertaken to examine the hypothesis that disappearance of corpora lutea is accomplished through apoptosis-dependent phagocytosis of luteal cells. When bone marrow cells expressing green fluorescence protein were transplanted into X-ray-irradiated mice, macrophages derived from donor mice ...
Yellon Steven M - - 2005
The time course of select phagocyte and natural killer activities to short days was determined. In advance of testes regression, circulating granulocyte and monocyte cell numbers in hamsters decreased while lymphocyte numbers increased; phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity also decreased. To determine whether the pineal gland influences these innate immune ...
Maderna Paola - - 2005
Phagocytic clearance of apoptotic leukocytes plays an important role in the resolution of inflammation. The glucocorticoid-inducible protein annexin 1 and annexin 1-derived peptides show potent anti-inflammatory responses in acute and chronic inflammation. In this study, we report that the annexin 1-derived peptide (Ac(2-26)) significantly stimulates nonphlogistic phagocytosis of apoptotic polymorphonuclear ...
Rampersad Gregory C - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Patients having immune cytopenias produce antibodies that target hematopoietic cells resulting in their phagocytosis and intracellular destruction. Early reports suggested that phagocytosis could be inhibited by interfering with membrane thiol (SH) groups on phagocytes. Thus, whether chemical compounds that interact with SH or disulfide (SS) groups on mononuclear phagocytes ...
Borges João Carlos Shimada - - 2005
The echinoderms are deuterostomic animals with a nonspecific immune system similar to that of vertebrates. Among coelomocytes, phagocytic amoebocytes have a key role in the nonspecific immune response in sea urchin, being responsible for microorganisms elimination through phagocytosis and also for humoral secretions of a wide spectrum. Sub-populations of phagocytic ...
Dizer Ufuk - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is one of the important health problems for both humans and animals in Turkey since agriculture and stock raising appears to be the most important means of subsistence. Investigations on the pathogenesis of brucellosis reveal that the etiologic agent can survive in phagocytic cells, and cell-mediated immunity plays ...
Hose Stacey - - 2005
Several studies have shown that macrophages play an active role in the initiation and completion of the programmed cell death process during development. Macrophages are called professional phagocytes, as their primary role is phagocytosis. The process of phagocytosis is complex and to date only poorly defined. It has also been ...
Simitsopoulou Maria - - 2005
Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida spp. can cause serious infections in hospitalized and immunocompromised patients. A large number of antifungal agents and immunomodulators have been developed and may interact with both polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocytes against blastoconidia and pseudohyphae of Candida spp. Blastoconidia are predominantly destroyed by phagocytosis, whereas pseudohyphal ...
Skoberne M - - 2005
Clearance of apoptotic cells by phagocytes can result in either anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects or prostimulatory consequences through presentation of cell-associated antigens to T cells. The differences in outcome are due to the conditions under which apoptosis is induced, the type of phagocytic cell, the nature of the receptors involved ...
Grau Georges E - - 2005
Programmed cell death plays a crucial role in the maintenance of cell homeostasis. An initial, effector phase leads to the generation of apoptotic corpses and is closely followed by a swift clearance by professional or amateur phagocytes. Several aspects distinguish this latter process of engulfment of dying cells from the ...
Devitt Andrew - - 2004
Interaction of macrophages with apoptotic cells involves multiple steps including recognition, tethering, phagocytosis, and anti-inflammatory macrophage responses. Defective apoptotic cell clearance is associated with pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. CD14 is a surface receptor that functions in vitro in the removal of apoptotic cells by human and murine macrophages, but its ...
Huang Yuh-Chin T - - 2004
Pollutant particles induce apoptosis and inflammation, but the relationship between these two biological processes is not entirely clear. In this study, we compared the proapoptotic and proinflammatory effects of four particles: residual oil fly ash (ROFA), St. Louis particles SRM 1648 (SL), Chapel Hill PM10 (CHP), and Mount St. Helens ...
Lombaert Noömi - - 2004
The present study aimed at comparing in vitro the apoptogenic properties of metallic cobalt (Co), tungsten carbide (WC) and tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) in conditions known to cause genotoxicity. Human peripheral blood mononucleated cells were incubated with 2.0-6.0 microg/ml of Co alone or mixed with WC particles and 33.3-100.0 microg/ml WC ...
Sun E - - 2004
Cell death through apoptosis plays a critical role in regulating cellular homeostasis. Whether the disposal of apoptotic cells through phagocytosis can actively induce immune tolerance in vivo, however, remains controversial. Here, we report in a rat model that without using immunosuppressants, transfusion of apoptotic splenocytes from the donor strain prior ...
Germain Ronald N - - 2004
"Nature has provided, in the white corpuscles as you call them-in the phagocytes as we call them-a natural means of devouring and destroying all disease germs. There is at bottom only one genuinely scientific treatment for all diseases, and that is to stimulate the phagocytes." So opined B.B. in G.B. ...
Yamauchi Akira - - 2004
The Rho family GTPase Rac is a crucial participant in numerous cellular functions and acts as a molecular switch for signal transduction. Mice deficient in hemopoietic-specific Rac2 exhibited agonist-specific defects in neutrophil functions including chemoattractant-stimulated filamentous actin polymerization and chemotaxis, and superoxide production elicited by phorbol ester, fMLP, or IgG-coated ...
Balduzzi M - - 2004
The RAW 246.7 macrophage cell line was exposed in vitro to aged crystalline silica particles of respirable size for 24 h at a range of doses starting from 15 microg/2 x 10(6) cells, which is a realistic exposure level of macrophages in the airways of ambiently exposed individuals. The particle ...
Gregory Christopher D - - 2004
Macrophages play important roles in the clearance of dying and dead cells. Typically, and perhaps simplistically, they are viewed as the professional phagocytes of apoptotic cells. Clearance by macrophages of cells undergoing apoptosis is a non-phlogistic phenomenon which is often associated with actively anti-inflammatory phagocyte responses. By contrast, macrophage responses ...
Gold Elizabeth S - - 2004
Macrophages play a critical role in both innate and acquired immunity because of their unique ability to internalize, kill, and degrade bacterial pathogens through the process of phagocytosis. The adaptor protein, amphiphysin IIm, participates in phagocytosis and is transiently associated with early phagosomes. Certain pathogens, including Chlamydia pneumoniae, have evolved ...
Iyer Shankar S - - 2004
Phagocytosis is a fundamental feature of the innate immune system, required for antimicrobial defense, resolution of inflammation, and tissue remodeling. Furthermore, phagocytosis is coupled to a diverse range of cytotoxic effector mechanisms, including the respiratory burst, secretion of inflammatory mediators and Ag presentation. Phospholipase D (PLD) has been linked to ...
Veranth John M - - 2004
Cultured human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were treated in vitro with PM(2.5)-enriched particles of soil-derived mineral dust from nine sites in the western United States. The particle samples simulate windblown dust and vehicle-generated emissions from unpaved roads. Five of the sites yielded relatively benign dust. Particles from three sites caused ...
Cunha Elisabete M - - 2004
Phagocytes remove and store mercury (Hg) that enters the body. Macrophages and granulocytes respond in opposite ways to Hg: macrophages loose cell viability, and neutrophils become protected from apoptosis. We have investigated the cytology of early intake of Hg by macrophages and neutrophils after a short period (2-4 min) of ...
Yagil-Kelmer Efrat - - 2004
It is well recognized that wear particles derived from orthopaedic implants have the potential to induce inflammation, which may eventually lead to aseptic loosening of the artificial joint. We hypothesized that alumina ceramic particles of different sizes cause a differential cytokine response by human monocytes. To test this hypothesis a ...
< 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >