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Vincent Crystal M CM Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3G5 - - 2014
Sex differences in immunity are often observed, with males generally having a weaker immune system than females. However, recent data in a sex-role-reversed species in which females compete to mate with males suggest that sexually competitive females have a weaker immune response. These findings support the hypothesis that sexual dimorphism ...
Zhu Minmin M Department of Anesthesiology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, No 270 DongAn Road, Shanghai, 200032, People's Republic of China, - - 2014
Hippocampal neuronal oxidative stress and apoptosis have been reported to be involved in cognitive impairment, and angiotensin II could induce hippocampal oxidative stress and apoptosis. Propofol is a widely used intravenous anesthetic agent in clinical practice, and it demonstrates significant neuroprotective activities. In this study, we investigated the mechanism how ...
Santhosh M Sebastin MS Department of Studies in Biochemistry, University of Mysore, Mysore, 570 006, Karnataka, - - 2014
Viper envenomation results in inflammation at the bitten site as well as target organs. Neutrophils and other polymorphonuclear leukocytes execute inflammation resolving mechanism and will undergo apoptosis after completing the task. However, the target specific toxins induce neutrophil apoptosis at the bitten site and in circulation prior to their function, ...
Huang Q Q School of Optometry and Ophthalmology and Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, - - 2014
Apoptosis has essential roles in a variety of cellular and developmental processes. Although the pathway is well studied, how the activities of individual components in the pathway are regulated is less understood. In Drosophila, a key component in apoptosis is Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (DIAP1), which is required ...
Ma S B SB Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 1 G Royal Parade, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria, - - 2014
In non-apoptotic cells, Bak constitutively resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. In contrast, Bax is in a dynamic equilibrium between the cytosol and mitochondria, and is commonly predominant in the cytosol. In response to an apoptotic stimulus, Bax and Bak change conformation, leading to Bax accumulation at mitochondria and Bak/Bax ...
Chun Jaemoo J Natural Products Research Institute, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742, Republic of - - 2014
In the present study, we investigated the effects of 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-fucopyranosyl] quillaic acid, named compound 1, on the induction of apoptosis and autophagy in human gastric cancer AGS cells. Compound 1, a triterpenoid saponin isolated from the root of Adenophora triphylla var. japonica, effectively inhibited the growth of AGS cells by ...
Wei Teng T College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, 130062, Jilin, - - 2014
Oxidative stress is a major component of harmful cascades activated in neurodegenerative disorders. We sought to elucidate possible effects of phillyrin, an active constituent isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Forsythia suspense, on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell death and determine the underlying molecular mechanisms in neuron-like PC12 cells. By MTT ...
Mazzon Emanuela E IRCCS Centro Neurolesi "Bonino-Pulejo", Via Provinciale Palermo, Messina, - - 2014
Spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs following damage to the spinal column. Following trauma, tissue damage is further exacerbated by a secondary damage due to a SCI-activated inflammatory process. Control of leukocytes activity is essential to therapeutic inhibition of the spinal cord damage to ameliorate the patient's conditions. The mechanisms that ...
Norouzi Mahnaz M Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, Kharazmi University, Tehran, - - 2014
Recently, much effort has been directed toward the search for compounds that influence apoptosis and to understand their mechanisms of action. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors may induce apoptosis through the COX-2-independent mechanism via a mitochondrial pathway. In view of the reported antiproliferative activities of two COX-2 inhibitor derivatives (1, 2) in ...
Yen Benjamin B Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York - - 2014
Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) VP35 is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding protein that inhibits RIG-I signaling and interferon (IFN)-α/β responses by both dsRNA-binding dependent and independent mechanisms. VP35 also suppresses DC maturation. Here, we define the pathways and mechanisms through which VP35 impairs DC maturation. Wild-type VP35 (VP35-WT) and two well-characterized ...
Dufey Estefanie E University of - - 2014
Increased demand on the protein folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a salient feature of secretory cells, a condition that engages an adaptive reaction known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR regulates protein translation and the expression of numerous target genes that contribute to restore ER ...
Shengyou Yu Y Department of Pediatrics, Guangzhou First People's Hospital, affiliate to Guangzhou Medical University, - - 2014
the objective of this article is to evaluate the role of siRNA-silenced TRPC6 on podocyte autophagy and apoptosis induced by AngII. mouse podocyte cell lines were cultured in vitro. The apoptosis rates of each group were detected using flow cytometry. The expression of LC3-II protein and changes in distribution were ...
Benkhalifa Moncef M Reproductive Medicine & Medical Cytogenetics, Centre of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Refional University Hospital and School of Medicine. Picardie University Jules Verne, Amiens, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
Mitochondria is a powerhouse organelle involved in ATP synthesis, calcium signaling, reactive oxygen species (ROS) by oxidative stress production, cell cycle arrest via apoptosis and sex steroid hormones biosynthesis. Improvement of sperm parameters such as motility, capacitation, acrosome reaction and oocyte interaction, involve regulation of ROS levels by the mitochondria. ...
Zanetti Filippo F Department of Pediatrics, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Medical School, University of Geneva, - - 2014
Nicotine contributes to the onset and progression of several pulmonary diseases. Among the different pathophysiological mechanisms triggered by nicotine, oxidative stress and cell death are reported in several cell types. We found that chronic exposure to nicotine (48h) induced NOX1-dependent oxidative stress and apoptosis in primary pulmonary cells. In a ...
Seo Kyuhwa K College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759, South - - 2014
Methylglyoxal is found in high levels in the blood and other tissues of diabetic patients and exerts deleterious effects on cells and tissues. Previously, we reported that resveratrol, a polyphenol in grapes, induced the expression of Sestrin2 (SESN2), a novel antioxidant protein, and inhibited hepatic lipogenesis. This study investigated whether ...
Li Xue-Tao XT State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China; School of Pharmacy, Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Dalian, - - 2014
Most anticancer drugs are not able to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) effectively while surgery and radiation therapy cannot eradicate brain glioma cells and glioma stem cells (GSCs), hence resulting in poor prognosis with high recurrence rates. In the present study, a kind of multifunctional targeting daunorubicin plus quinacrine liposomes ...
Vincent Crystal M CM Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada - - 2014
A critical task in evolutionary genetics is to explain the persistence of heritable variation in fitness-related traits such as immunity. Ecological factors can maintain genetic variation in immunity, but less is known about the role of other factors, such as antagonistic pleiotropy, on immunity. Sexually dimorphic immunity-with females often being ...
Barker Bethan L - - 2014
Background:Relationships between airway inflammation and respiratory potentially pathogenic microorganisms (PPMs) quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in subjects with COPD are unclear. Our aim was to evaluate mediators of airway inflammation and their association with PPMs in COPD subjects at stable state and during exacerbations. Methods:Sputum from 120 stable ...
Leung Anna M AM Department of Surgery, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, - - 2014
The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their resultant oxidative damage is a common pathway for gastric mucosal injury. Developing strategies to protect the gastric epithelium against oxygen free radical damage is of profound pathophysiological interest. We have previously shown caspase-mediated apoptosis as a major cause of ROS-induced cell ...
Yang Canchao C Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Tropical Plant and Animal Ecology, College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, 571158, Hainan Province, - - 2014
Parasites may, in multi-parasite systems, block the defenses of their hosts and thus thwart host recognition of parasites by frequency-dependent selection. Nest defenses as frontline may block or promote the subsequent stage of defenses such as egg recognition. We conducted comparative studies of the defensive strategies of a host of ...
Grencis Richard K RK Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, - - 2014
Immune responses to gastrointestinal nematodes have been studied extensively for over 80 years and intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. The use of laboratory models has led to the discovery of new mechanisms of protective immunity and made major contributions to our fundamental understanding of both innate and adaptive responses. In ...
Gil-Ramírez Yolanda Y Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología e Instituto de Salud Tropical, Universidad de Navarra, 31008 Pamplona (Spain). Electronic address: - - 2014
Brucellosis is a worldwide extended zoonosis caused by Brucella spp. These gram-negative bacteria are not readily detected by innate immunity, a virulence-related property largely linked to their surface lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The role of the LPS lipid A and O-polysaccharide in virulence is well known. Moreover, mutation of the glycosyltransferase gene ...
Fredensborg B L BL Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark - - 2014
A trade-off between resource-specialization and the breadth of the ecological niche is one of the most fundamental biological characteristics. A true generalist (Jack-of-all-trades) displays a broad ecological niche with little resource specialization while the opposite is true for a resource-specialist that has a restricted ecological niche that it masters. Parasites ...
Moeller Mark M Institute for Biostatistics and Informatics in Medicine und Ageing Research, Rostock University Medical Center, Rostock, - - 2014
Traditionally, biomarkers of aging are classified as either pro-longevity or antilongevity. Using longitudinal data sets from the large-scale inbred mouse strain study at the Jackson Laboratory Nathan Shock Center, we describe a protocol to identify two kinds of biomarkers: those with prognostic implication for lifespan and those with longitudinal evidence. ...
Williams Gareth R GR Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry; 2 Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, John Radcliffe Hospital; and 3 Department of Statistics; University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, England, - - 2014
There is currently no paradigm in immunology that enables an accurate prediction of how the immune system will respond to any given agent. Here we show that the immunological responses induced by members of a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials are controlled purely by their physicochemical properties in a ...
Suchy Dariusz D Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Katowice, Poland. Electronic address: - - 2014
The immune system of humans is strongly affected by the processes of aging and what is called immunosenescence and inflammaging. Aging processes are also associated with altered macrophage functions and their ability to undergo differential activation. As a result, the risk of macrophage-related disorders like atherosclerosis is increased in the ...
Kemgang T S TS Department of Animal Biochemistry, National Dairy Research Institute, 132001, Karnal, Haryana state, India; Department of Food Science/Nutrition, National School of AgroIndustrial Sciences, University of Ngaoundere, PO Box: 455, Ngaoundere, Adamaoua, - - 2014
The mechanism by which probiotic lactobacilli affect the immune system is strain specific. As the immune system is multi-compartmental system, each strain has his way to interact with it and induce a visible and quantifiable effect. This review summarises the interplay existing between the host immune system, with emphasis on ...
Ilinskaya A N AN Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory, Cancer Research Technology Program, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Leidos Biomedical Research Inc., Frederick, Maryland - - 2014
Nanoparticle interactions with various components of immune system are determined by their physicochemical properties such as size, charge, hydrophobicity and shape. Nanoparticles can be engineered to either specifically target the immune system or to avoid immune recognition. Nevertheless, identifying their unintended impacts on the immune system and understanding the mechanisms ...
Kubli Shawn P SP Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7, - - 2014
Abstract In short-lived animals, innate immunity is an important component of fitness and quality. Although receivers cannot generally assess a signaler's immune function directly, sexually selected displays such as birdsong may reflect past or current condition. We investigated the degree to which song complexity and consistency, thought to reflect condition ...
Lyte Marc M Department of Immunotherapeutics and Biotechnology; School of Pharmacy; Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center; Abilene, TX - - 2014
The ability of microorganisms, whether present as commensals within the microbiota or introduced as part of a therapeutic regimen, to influence behavior has been demonstrated by numerous laboratories over the last few years. Our understanding of the mechanisms that are responsible for microbiota-gut-brain interactions is, however, lacking. The complexity of ...
Zak Daniel E DE Seattle BioMed, Seattle, Washington 98109; email: - - 2014
Systems-level analysis of biological processes strives to comprehensively and quantitatively evaluate the interactions between the relevant molecular components over time, thereby enabling development of models that can be employed to ultimately predict behavior. Rapid development in measurement technologies (omics), when combined with the accessible nature of the cellular constituents themselves, ...
Moreno-García Miguel M Centro de Investigaciones Sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Avda. Universidad 655. Col. Sta. María Ahuacatitlán, 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos, México. Electronic address: - - 2014
The insect immune response strategy has generally been considered bipolar: either resistance or death. Lately, a much broader and subtler landscape has emerged: occurrence of tolerance and resistance has been described as a host-regulated immune response. However, little is known about the interplay between the immune response strategy mounted by ...
Momo Claudia C Departamento de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias ? FCAV, Universidade Estadual Paulista ? UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP, - - 2014
The objective of this study was to analyze morphological changes and parasite loads in the adrenal gland from 45 dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The animals were from the Zoonosis Control Center of Araçatuba, state of São Paulo, which is an endemic region for the disease. These animals were euthanized ...
Rodríguez-Nunez Iván I Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences and Center for Comparative Medicine and Translational Research, North Carolina State University, 1060 William Moore Drive, Raleigh, NC 27607, - - 2014
Five large multigene families encoding innate-type immune receptors that are comprised of immunoglobulin domains have been identified in bony fish, of which four do not possess definable mammalian orthologs. The members of some of the multigene families exhibit unusually extensive patterns of divergence and the individual family members demonstrate marked ...
Mendlová Monika - - 2014
The patterns and processes linked to the host specificity of parasites represent one of the central themes in the study of host-parasite interactions. We investigated the evolution and determinants of host specificity in gill monogeneans of Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus species parasitizing African freshwater fish of Cichlidae. We analyzed (1) the ...
Nunn Charles L CL Department of Evolutionary Anthropology and the Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina - - 2014
Abstract Most wild animals face concurrent challenges by multiple infectious organisms, and immunological responses triggered by some parasites may increase susceptibility to other infectious agents. Immune-mediated interactions among parasites have been investigated among individuals in a population, but less is known about broader comparative patterns. We investigated the "macro-micro facilitation ...
Kidd Brian A BA 1] Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, New York, New York, USA. [2] Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology, New York, New York, USA. [3] Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, - - 2014
The immune system is a highly complex and dynamic system. Historically, the most common scientific and clinical practice has been to evaluate its individual components. This kind of approach cannot always expose the interconnecting pathways that control immune-system responses and does not reveal how the immune system works across multiple ...
Versteegh Maaike A MA University of Groningen, The - - 2014
Animals cope with seasonal variation in environmental factors by adjustments of physiology and life history. When seasonal variation is partly predictable, such adjustments can be based on a genetic component or be phenotypically flexible. Animals have to allocate limited resources over different demands, including immune function. Accordingly, immune traits could ...
Portnoy S S Department of Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, - - 2014
Cellular apoptosis, a common pathway towards tumor regression, is induced by many radiotherapy and chemotherapy regimens. Imaging methods that can detect apoptosis may be able to assess treatment response earlier than typical tumor volume measurements. In this paper, a wide range of diffusion experiments and a simple model of diffusion ...
Huang Yvonne J YJ 1 Division of Pulmonary/Critical Care/Sleep and Allergy/Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, - - 2014
That the subglottic airways are not sterile, as was once believed, but are populated by a distinct "bronchial microbiome," is now accepted. Also accepted is the concept that asthma is associated with differences in the composition of this microbiome. What is not clear is whether the differences in microbial community ...
Daniele Stefano G SG Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical - - 2014
Isolation of microglia from CNS tissue is a powerful investigative tool used to study microglial biology ex vivo. The present method details a procedure for isolation of microglia from neonatal murine cortices by mechanical agitation with a rotary shaker. This microglia isolation method yields highly pure cortical microglia that exhibit ...
Darkoh Charles C The University of Texas School of Public Health, Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences, Center for Infectious Diseases, Houston, Texas, United States of - - 2014
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most frequently diagnosed disorders, affecting about 20% of the general population in Western countries. This syndrome poses an enormous socio-economic burden, impairs the quality of life substantially, and increases healthcare costs. IBS can be classified as either idiopathic (ID-IBS) with unknown etiology ...
MaczyƄski Marcin - - 2014
Potential immunological activities of three compounds: RM54 and its two derivatives RM55 and RM56, were evaluated in several, selected in vitro and in vivo tests such as: mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production, the humoral immune response in vitro and carrageenan test. Leflunomide served as a reference drug. The studied compounds ...
Muraille Eric E Laboratoire de Parasitologie, Faculté de Médecine, Université Libre de Bruxelles , Brussels , - - 2014
The fitness gains resulting from development of the adaptive immune system (AIS) during evolution are still the subject of hot debate. A large random repertoire of antigenic receptors is costly to develop and could be the source of autoimmune reactions. And yet, despite their drawbacks, AIS-like systems seem to have ...
Fan Yuhua Y College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University-Daqing, Daqing, - - 2014
Cardiotoxicity is an aggravating side effect of many clinical antineoplastic agents such as arsenic trioxide (As2O3), which is the first-line treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Clinically, drug combination strategies are widely applied for complex disease management. Here, an optimized, cardiac-friendly therapeutic strategy for APL was investigated using a combination ...
Totzeck Matthias M Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Pulmonary Diseases and Vascular Medicine, Medical Faculty, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, - - 2014
The systemic response to decreasing oxygen levels is hypoxic vasodilation. While this mechanism has been known for more than a century, the underlying cellular events have remained incompletely understood. Nitrite signaling is critically involved in vessel relaxation under hypoxia. This can be attributed to the presence of myoglobin in the ...
Siddiqui Tamjeed T Toronto Western Research Institute, Genes and Development Division, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, - - 2014
Microglia rapidly respond to CNS injury and disease and can assume a spectrum of activation states. While changes in gene expression and production of inflammatory mediators have been extensively described after classical (LPS-induced) and alternative (IL4-induced) microglial activation, less is known about acquired de-activation in response to IL10. It is ...
Pal Srabani S Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy laboratory, Division of Pharmacognosy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, - - 2014
Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF- κB) as a mechanism of host defense against infection and stress is the central mediator of inflammatory responses. A normal (acute) inflammatory response is activated on urgent basis and is auto-regulated. Chronic inflammation that results due to failure in the regulatory mechanism, however, is ...
De Boever Patrick - - 2013
A repeated measures microarray design with 22 healthy, non-smoking volunteers (aging 32±5years) was set up to study transcriptome profiles in whole blood samples. The results indicate that repeatable data can be obtained with high within-subject correlation. Probes that could discriminate between individuals are associated with immune and inflammatory functions. When ...
Vogelweith Fanny - - 2013
Two of the central goals of immunoecology are to understand natural variation in the immune system among populations and to identify those selection pressures that shape immune traits. Maintenance of the immune system can be costly, and both food quality and parasitism selection pressure are factors potentially driving immunocompetence. In ...
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