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Ilinskaya A N AN Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory, Cancer Research Technology Program, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Leidos Biomedical Research Inc., Frederick, Maryland - - 2014
Nanoparticle interactions with various components of immune system are determined by their physicochemical properties such as size, charge, hydrophobicity and shape. Nanoparticles can be engineered to either specifically target the immune system or to avoid immune recognition. Nevertheless, identifying their unintended impacts on the immune system and understanding the mechanisms ...
Lyte Marc M Department of Immunotherapeutics and Biotechnology; School of Pharmacy; Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center; Abilene, TX - - 2014
The ability of microorganisms, whether present as commensals within the microbiota or introduced as part of a therapeutic regimen, to influence behavior has been demonstrated by numerous laboratories over the last few years. Our understanding of the mechanisms that are responsible for microbiota-gut-brain interactions is, however, lacking. The complexity of ...
Zak Daniel E DE Seattle BioMed, Seattle, Washington 98109; email: - - 2014
Systems-level analysis of biological processes strives to comprehensively and quantitatively evaluate the interactions between the relevant molecular components over time, thereby enabling development of models that can be employed to ultimately predict behavior. Rapid development in measurement technologies (omics), when combined with the accessible nature of the cellular constituents themselves, ...
Moreno-García Miguel M Centro de Investigaciones Sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Avda. Universidad 655. Col. Sta. María Ahuacatitlán, 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos, México. Electronic address: - - 2014
The insect immune response strategy has generally been considered bipolar: either resistance or death. Lately, a much broader and subtler landscape has emerged: occurrence of tolerance and resistance has been described as a host-regulated immune response. However, little is known about the interplay between the immune response strategy mounted by ...
Momo Claudia C Departamento de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias ? FCAV, Universidade Estadual Paulista ? UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP, - - 2014
The objective of this study was to analyze morphological changes and parasite loads in the adrenal gland from 45 dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The animals were from the Zoonosis Control Center of Araçatuba, state of São Paulo, which is an endemic region for the disease. These animals were euthanized ...
Rodríguez-Nunez Iván I Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences and Center for Comparative Medicine and Translational Research, North Carolina State University, 1060 William Moore Drive, Raleigh, NC 27607, - - 2014
Five large multigene families encoding innate-type immune receptors that are comprised of immunoglobulin domains have been identified in bony fish, of which four do not possess definable mammalian orthologs. The members of some of the multigene families exhibit unusually extensive patterns of divergence and the individual family members demonstrate marked ...
Mendlová Monika - - 2014
The patterns and processes linked to the host specificity of parasites represent one of the central themes in the study of host-parasite interactions. We investigated the evolution and determinants of host specificity in gill monogeneans of Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus species parasitizing African freshwater fish of Cichlidae. We analyzed (1) the ...
Nunn Charles L CL Department of Evolutionary Anthropology and the Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina - - 2014
Abstract Most wild animals face concurrent challenges by multiple infectious organisms, and immunological responses triggered by some parasites may increase susceptibility to other infectious agents. Immune-mediated interactions among parasites have been investigated among individuals in a population, but less is known about broader comparative patterns. We investigated the "macro-micro facilitation ...
Kidd Brian A BA 1] Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, New York, New York, USA. [2] Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology, New York, New York, USA. [3] Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, - - 2014
The immune system is a highly complex and dynamic system. Historically, the most common scientific and clinical practice has been to evaluate its individual components. This kind of approach cannot always expose the interconnecting pathways that control immune-system responses and does not reveal how the immune system works across multiple ...
Versteegh Maaike A MA University of Groningen, The - - 2014
Animals cope with seasonal variation in environmental factors by adjustments of physiology and life history. When seasonal variation is partly predictable, such adjustments can be based on a genetic component or be phenotypically flexible. Animals have to allocate limited resources over different demands, including immune function. Accordingly, immune traits could ...
Portnoy S S Department of Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, - - 2014
Cellular apoptosis, a common pathway towards tumor regression, is induced by many radiotherapy and chemotherapy regimens. Imaging methods that can detect apoptosis may be able to assess treatment response earlier than typical tumor volume measurements. In this paper, a wide range of diffusion experiments and a simple model of diffusion ...
Huang Yvonne J YJ 1 Division of Pulmonary/Critical Care/Sleep and Allergy/Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, - - 2014
That the subglottic airways are not sterile, as was once believed, but are populated by a distinct "bronchial microbiome," is now accepted. Also accepted is the concept that asthma is associated with differences in the composition of this microbiome. What is not clear is whether the differences in microbial community ...
Daniele Stefano G SG Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical - - 2014
Isolation of microglia from CNS tissue is a powerful investigative tool used to study microglial biology ex vivo. The present method details a procedure for isolation of microglia from neonatal murine cortices by mechanical agitation with a rotary shaker. This microglia isolation method yields highly pure cortical microglia that exhibit ...
Darkoh Charles C The University of Texas School of Public Health, Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences, Center for Infectious Diseases, Houston, Texas, United States of - - 2014
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most frequently diagnosed disorders, affecting about 20% of the general population in Western countries. This syndrome poses an enormous socio-economic burden, impairs the quality of life substantially, and increases healthcare costs. IBS can be classified as either idiopathic (ID-IBS) with unknown etiology ...
De Boever Patrick - - 2013
A repeated measures microarray design with 22 healthy, non-smoking volunteers (aging 32±5years) was set up to study transcriptome profiles in whole blood samples. The results indicate that repeatable data can be obtained with high within-subject correlation. Probes that could discriminate between individuals are associated with immune and inflammatory functions. When ...
Vogelweith Fanny - - 2013
Two of the central goals of immunoecology are to understand natural variation in the immune system among populations and to identify those selection pressures that shape immune traits. Maintenance of the immune system can be costly, and both food quality and parasitism selection pressure are factors potentially driving immunocompetence. In ...
England Whitney E - - 2013
Host-pathogen co-evolution is a significant force which shapes the ecology and evolution of all types of organisms, and such interactions are driven by resistance and immunity mechanisms of the host. Diversity of resistance and immunity can affect the co-evolutionary trajectory of both host and pathogen. The microbial CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced ...
García-Valtanen P - - 2013
It is well known that β-defensins are key components of the host innate immune response against pathogens and potentially provide a link between innate and adaptive immunity. In zebrafish (Danio rerio), a vertebrate model species in numerous biomedical fields, three β-defensin isoforms were recently identified. To our knowledge, however, studies ...
Robins Harlan - - 2013
Advances in high-throughput sequencing have enabled the development of a powerful new technology for probing the adaptive immune system. Millions of B or T cell receptor sequences can be read in parallel from a single sample. The dynamics of an adaptive immune response, which is based on clonal expansion and ...
Keegan Lindsay T - - 2013
Despite a resurgence in control efforts, malaria remains a serious public-health problem, causing millions of deaths each year. One factor that complicates malaria-control efforts is clinical immunity, the acquired immune response that protects individuals from symptoms despite the presence of parasites. Clinical immunity protects individuals against disease, but its effects ...
Vigliano Fabricio A - - 2013
Phylogenetic diversity in fish determines high interspecific variability in morphology as well as in physiological parameters. Moreover, several haematological variables and the organ composition of haemolymphopoietic sites may vary according to sex or season. The aim of this study was to establish the haematological parameters and the cellular composition of ...
Wang Bin - - 2013
Particulate matter (PM) is a major ambient air pollutant causing millions of premature deaths each year in China. The toxicity of PM is property and size dependent. In this study, ambient PM samples collected in Beijing were divided into five size fractions with nominal aerodynamic ranges of < 0.40, 0.40 ...
Zimmermann Michael R - - 2013
Abstract Daubaylia potomaca is a nematode parasite that exhibits an unusual direct life cycle in planorbid snails in which adult females are the infective stage, after being shed from a definitive host. The present study examined the shedding patterns of this nematode to determine what cues or mechanisms might lead ...
Ye Yixin H - - 2013
Wolbachia infections confer protection for their insect hosts against a range of pathogens including bacteria, viruses, nematodes and the malaria parasite. A single mechanism that might explain this broad-based pathogen protection is immune priming, in which the presence of the symbiont upregulates the basal immune response, preparing the insect to ...
Greenblatt Matthew B - - 2013
Recent investigations have demonstrated extensive reciprocal interactions between the immune and skeletal systems, resulting in the establishment of osteoimmunology as a cross-disciplinary field. Here we highlight core concepts and recent advances in this emerging area of study.
Hegemann Arne - - 2013
Trade-offs between immune function and other physiological and behavioral processes are central in ecoimmunology, but one important problem is how to distinguish a reallocation of resources away from the immune system from a reallocation or redistribution within the immune system. While variation in baseline values of individual immune parameters is ...
Manfredini Fabio - - 2013
Successful invaders often become established in new ranges by outcompeting native species. The "evolution of increased competitive ability" hypothesis predicts that invasive species are subjected to less predation and parasitization than sympatric native species, and thus can allocate resources from defence and immunity to growth and fecundity, thereby achieving higher ...
Bochner Bruce S - - 2013
Manuscripts published in the "Mechanisms of allergy and clinical immunology" section of the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology during 2012 enhanced our knowledge of the involvement of cytokines and other mediators in allergic disorders and described novel approaches for understanding mechanisms of allergic and immunologic diseases. Also published were ...
Ji Haofeng H Dumont-UCLA Transplant Center, Division of Liver and Pancreas Transplantation, Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, - - 2013
Hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI), an exogenous antigen-independent local inflammation response, occurs in multiple clinical settings, including liver transplantation, hepatic resection, trauma, and shock. The immune system and the nervous system maintain extensive communication and mount a variety of integrated responses to danger signals through intricate chemical messengers. This ...
Medeiros Matthew C I - - 2013
Blood-feeding arthropod vectors are responsible for transmitting many parasites between vertebrate hosts. While arthropod vectors often feed on limited subsets of potential host species, little is known about the extent to which this influences the distribution of vector-borne parasites in some systems. Here, we test the hypothesis that different vector ...
Nitta Sayuri - - 2013
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection blocks cellular interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral signaling through cleavage of Cardif by HCV-NS3/4A serine protease. Like NS3/4A, NS4B protein strongly blocks IFN-β production signaling mediated by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I); however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Recently, the stimulator of interferon genes ...
Chen Xue-Qin - - 2013
It has been well known that smoking alters the property and functionality of a wide range of immune cells including dendritic cells (DCs). However, a great deal of effort in the past has been mainly devoted to dissect the effect of smoking on pulmonary DCs, while its exact impact on ...
Wagoner Kaira M - - 2013
The recent declines in managed honey bee populations are of scientific, ecological and economic concern, and are partially attributed to honey bee parasites and related disease. McDonnell et al. investigate behavioral, chemical and neurogenomic effects of parasitization by the ectoparasite Varroa destructor and the endoparasite Nosema ceranae. The study reveals ...
Lee Kim M - - 2013
Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a complex condition that exhibits a spectrum of abnormal neuropsychological and locomotor behaviors. Mechanisms for neuropathogenesis could include irregular immune activation, host soluble factors, and astrocyte dysfunction. We examined the role of astrocytes as modulators of immune function in macaques with SIB. We measured changes in ...
Fox Naomi J - - 2013
Parasitic helminths present one of the most pervasive challenges to grazing herbivores. Many macro-parasite transmission models focus on host physiological defence strategies, omitting more complex interactions between hosts and their environments. This work represents the first model that integrates both the behavioural and physiological elements of gastro-intestinal nematode transmission dynamics ...
Hegemann Arne A Animal Ecology Group, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, P,O, Box 11103, 9700, CC Groningen, The Netherlands. - - 2013
Life-history theory predicts that organisms trade off survival against reproduction. However, the time scales on which various consequences become evident and the physiology mediating the cost of reproduction remain poorly understood. Yet, explaining not only which mechanisms mediate this trade-off, but also how fast or slow the mechanisms act, is ...
Firdaus-Nawi Mohd M Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400 - - 2013
Histological assessments on the intestinal morphology and immunity of tiger grouper juveniles, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus help in determining the earliest age to start an oral vaccination. This study describes the morphological development of the intestinal immunity of tiger grouper of various ages. Clinically healthy tiger groupers were selected and divided into ...
Kamo Naoko N Dumont-UCLA Transplant Center, Division of Liver and Pancreas Transplantation, Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, - - 2013
The phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) regulates innate immune responses inversely with phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and its direct downstream target gene, Akt. The Forkhead box O (Foxo) transcription factors are essential in the regulation of tissue development, immune homeostasis, and cell survival. This study was designed ...
Baudouin Christophe - - 2012
Long-term antiglaucomatous drug administration may cause irritation, dry eye, allergy, subconjunctival fibrosis, or increased risk of glaucoma surgery failure, potentially due to the preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK), whose toxic, proinflammatory, and detergent effects have extensively been shown experimentally. We hypothesize that BAK also influences trabecular meshwork (TM) degeneration. Trabecular specimens ...
Zylberberg Maxine - - 2012
Introduced disease has been implicated in recent wildlife extinctions and population declines worldwide. Both anthropogenic-induced change and natural environmental features can affect pathogen spread. Furthermore, environmental disturbance can result in changes in stress physiology, nutrition, and social structure, which in turn can suppress immune system function. However, it remains unknown ...
Wang Yuqing - - 2012
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated as a signal for general autophagy. Both mitochondrial-produced and exogenous ROS induce autophagosome formation. However, it is unclear whether ROS are required for the selective autophagic degradation of mitochondria, a process called mitophagy. Recent work using carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), a mitochondrial-uncoupling reagent, ...
Prakash Arun - - 2012
Ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury is a sterile inflammatory process that is commonly associated with diverse clinical situations such as hemorrhage followed by resuscitation, transient embolic events, and organ transplantation. I-R injury can induce lung dysfunction whether the I-R occurs in the lung or in a remote organ. Recently, evidence has emerged ...
Sakai Nozomu - - 2012
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of interleukin-37 (IL-37) on liver cells and on liver inflammation induced by hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Mice were subjected to I/R. Some mice received recombinant IL-37 (IL-37) at the time of reperfusion. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, and liver myeloperoxidase ...
Yu Dong Hoon - - 2012
Oxidative stress such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the inflamed joint have been indicated as being involved as inflammatory mediators in the induction of arthritis. Correlations between extracellular- superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and inflammatory arthritis have been shown in several animal models of RA. However, there is a question whether ...
Bréchard Sabrina - - 2013
Reactive oxygen species, produced by the phagosomal NADPH oxidase of neutrophils, play a significant physiological role during normal defense. Their role is not only to kill invading pathogens, but also to act as modulators of global physiological functions of phagosomes. Given the importance of NADPH oxidase in the immune system, ...
Garofalo Roberto P - - 2013
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important causes of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children, for which no effective treatment is currently available. Although the mechanisms of RSV-induced airway disease remain incompletely defined, the lung inflammatory response is thought to play a ...
Li Suk-Yee - - 2012
Lutein protects retinal neurons by its anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury while its anti-inflammatory effects remain unknown. As Müller cells play a critical role in retinal inflammation, the effect of lutein on Müller cells was investigated in a murine model of I/R injury and a culture model ...
Uekermann Florian - - 2012
Pathogen-host relationships are the result of an ongoing coevolutionary race where the immune system of the host attempts to eliminate the pathogen, while the successful pathogen mutates to become invisible for the host's immune system. We here propose a minimal pathogen-host evolution model that takes into account cross immunization and ...
Sharma Upendra - - 2012
Tinospora cordifolia is used in Ayurveda as "Rasayanas" to improve the immune system and the body resistance against infections. Polysaccharides are the main constituents which are considered to be responsible for immune enhancement. In this study, immunomodulatory activity of three polysaccharide enriched fractions was evaluated using the polymorphonuclear leukocyte function ...
Kettritz R - - 2012
Neutrophils are pivotal to host defence during infectious diseases. However, activated neutrophils may also cause undesired tissue damage. Ample examples include small-vessel inflammatory diseases (vasculitis) that are associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) residing in the patients' plasma. In addition to being an important diagnostic tool, convincing evidence shows that ...
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