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Vincent Crystal M CM Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3G5 - - 2014
Sex differences in immunity are often observed, with males generally having a weaker immune system than females. However, recent data in a sex-role-reversed species in which females compete to mate with males suggest that sexually competitive females have a weaker immune response. These findings support the hypothesis that sexual dimorphism ...
Vincent Crystal M CM Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada - - 2014
A critical task in evolutionary genetics is to explain the persistence of heritable variation in fitness-related traits such as immunity. Ecological factors can maintain genetic variation in immunity, but less is known about the role of other factors, such as antagonistic pleiotropy, on immunity. Sexually dimorphic immunity-with females often being ...
Yang Canchao C Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Tropical Plant and Animal Ecology, College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, 571158, Hainan Province, - - 2014
Parasites may, in multi-parasite systems, block the defenses of their hosts and thus thwart host recognition of parasites by frequency-dependent selection. Nest defenses as frontline may block or promote the subsequent stage of defenses such as egg recognition. We conducted comparative studies of the defensive strategies of a host of ...
Grencis Richard K RK Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, - - 2014
Immune responses to gastrointestinal nematodes have been studied extensively for over 80 years and intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. The use of laboratory models has led to the discovery of new mechanisms of protective immunity and made major contributions to our fundamental understanding of both innate and adaptive responses. In ...
Gil-Ramírez Yolanda Y Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología e Instituto de Salud Tropical, Universidad de Navarra, 31008 Pamplona (Spain). Electronic address: - - 2014
Brucellosis is a worldwide extended zoonosis caused by Brucella spp. These gram-negative bacteria are not readily detected by innate immunity, a virulence-related property largely linked to their surface lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The role of the LPS lipid A and O-polysaccharide in virulence is well known. Moreover, mutation of the glycosyltransferase gene ...
Fredensborg B L BL Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark - - 2014
A trade-off between resource-specialization and the breadth of the ecological niche is one of the most fundamental biological characteristics. A true generalist (Jack-of-all-trades) displays a broad ecological niche with little resource specialization while the opposite is true for a resource-specialist that has a restricted ecological niche that it masters. Parasites ...
Moeller Mark M Institute for Biostatistics and Informatics in Medicine und Ageing Research, Rostock University Medical Center, Rostock, - - 2014
Traditionally, biomarkers of aging are classified as either pro-longevity or antilongevity. Using longitudinal data sets from the large-scale inbred mouse strain study at the Jackson Laboratory Nathan Shock Center, we describe a protocol to identify two kinds of biomarkers: those with prognostic implication for lifespan and those with longitudinal evidence. ...
Williams Gareth R GR Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry; 2 Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, John Radcliffe Hospital; and 3 Department of Statistics; University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, England, - - 2014
There is currently no paradigm in immunology that enables an accurate prediction of how the immune system will respond to any given agent. Here we show that the immunological responses induced by members of a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials are controlled purely by their physicochemical properties in a ...
Kemgang T S TS Department of Animal Biochemistry, National Dairy Research Institute, 132001, Karnal, Haryana state, India; Department of Food Science/Nutrition, National School of AgroIndustrial Sciences, University of Ngaoundere, PO Box: 455, Ngaoundere, Adamaoua, - - 2014
The mechanism by which probiotic lactobacilli affect the immune system is strain specific. As the immune system is multi-compartmental system, each strain has his way to interact with it and induce a visible and quantifiable effect. This review summarises the interplay existing between the host immune system, with emphasis on ...
Ilinskaya A N AN Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory, Cancer Research Technology Program, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Leidos Biomedical Research Inc., Frederick, Maryland - - 2014
Nanoparticle interactions with various components of immune system are determined by their physicochemical properties such as size, charge, hydrophobicity and shape. Nanoparticles can be engineered to either specifically target the immune system or to avoid immune recognition. Nevertheless, identifying their unintended impacts on the immune system and understanding the mechanisms ...
Kubli Shawn P SP Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7, - - 2014
Abstract In short-lived animals, innate immunity is an important component of fitness and quality. Although receivers cannot generally assess a signaler's immune function directly, sexually selected displays such as birdsong may reflect past or current condition. We investigated the degree to which song complexity and consistency, thought to reflect condition ...
Lyte Marc M Department of Immunotherapeutics and Biotechnology; School of Pharmacy; Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center; Abilene, TX - - 2014
The ability of microorganisms, whether present as commensals within the microbiota or introduced as part of a therapeutic regimen, to influence behavior has been demonstrated by numerous laboratories over the last few years. Our understanding of the mechanisms that are responsible for microbiota-gut-brain interactions is, however, lacking. The complexity of ...
Zak Daniel E DE Seattle BioMed, Seattle, Washington 98109; email: - - 2014
Systems-level analysis of biological processes strives to comprehensively and quantitatively evaluate the interactions between the relevant molecular components over time, thereby enabling development of models that can be employed to ultimately predict behavior. Rapid development in measurement technologies (omics), when combined with the accessible nature of the cellular constituents themselves, ...
Moreno-García Miguel M Centro de Investigaciones Sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Avda. Universidad 655. Col. Sta. María Ahuacatitlán, 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos, México. Electronic address: - - 2014
The insect immune response strategy has generally been considered bipolar: either resistance or death. Lately, a much broader and subtler landscape has emerged: occurrence of tolerance and resistance has been described as a host-regulated immune response. However, little is known about the interplay between the immune response strategy mounted by ...
Momo Claudia C Departamento de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias ? FCAV, Universidade Estadual Paulista ? UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP, - - 2014
The objective of this study was to analyze morphological changes and parasite loads in the adrenal gland from 45 dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The animals were from the Zoonosis Control Center of Araçatuba, state of São Paulo, which is an endemic region for the disease. These animals were euthanized ...
Rodríguez-Nunez Iván I Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences and Center for Comparative Medicine and Translational Research, North Carolina State University, 1060 William Moore Drive, Raleigh, NC 27607, - - 2014
Five large multigene families encoding innate-type immune receptors that are comprised of immunoglobulin domains have been identified in bony fish, of which four do not possess definable mammalian orthologs. The members of some of the multigene families exhibit unusually extensive patterns of divergence and the individual family members demonstrate marked ...
Mendlová Monika - - 2014
The patterns and processes linked to the host specificity of parasites represent one of the central themes in the study of host-parasite interactions. We investigated the evolution and determinants of host specificity in gill monogeneans of Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus species parasitizing African freshwater fish of Cichlidae. We analyzed (1) the ...
Nunn Charles L CL Department of Evolutionary Anthropology and the Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina - - 2014
Abstract Most wild animals face concurrent challenges by multiple infectious organisms, and immunological responses triggered by some parasites may increase susceptibility to other infectious agents. Immune-mediated interactions among parasites have been investigated among individuals in a population, but less is known about broader comparative patterns. We investigated the "macro-micro facilitation ...
Kidd Brian A BA 1] Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, New York, New York, USA. [2] Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology, New York, New York, USA. [3] Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, - - 2014
The immune system is a highly complex and dynamic system. Historically, the most common scientific and clinical practice has been to evaluate its individual components. This kind of approach cannot always expose the interconnecting pathways that control immune-system responses and does not reveal how the immune system works across multiple ...
Versteegh Maaike A MA University of Groningen, The - - 2014
Animals cope with seasonal variation in environmental factors by adjustments of physiology and life history. When seasonal variation is partly predictable, such adjustments can be based on a genetic component or be phenotypically flexible. Animals have to allocate limited resources over different demands, including immune function. Accordingly, immune traits could ...
Portnoy S S Department of Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, - - 2014
Cellular apoptosis, a common pathway towards tumor regression, is induced by many radiotherapy and chemotherapy regimens. Imaging methods that can detect apoptosis may be able to assess treatment response earlier than typical tumor volume measurements. In this paper, a wide range of diffusion experiments and a simple model of diffusion ...
Huang Yvonne J YJ 1 Division of Pulmonary/Critical Care/Sleep and Allergy/Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, - - 2014
That the subglottic airways are not sterile, as was once believed, but are populated by a distinct "bronchial microbiome," is now accepted. Also accepted is the concept that asthma is associated with differences in the composition of this microbiome. What is not clear is whether the differences in microbial community ...
Daniele Stefano G SG Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical - - 2014
Isolation of microglia from CNS tissue is a powerful investigative tool used to study microglial biology ex vivo. The present method details a procedure for isolation of microglia from neonatal murine cortices by mechanical agitation with a rotary shaker. This microglia isolation method yields highly pure cortical microglia that exhibit ...
Darkoh Charles C The University of Texas School of Public Health, Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences, Center for Infectious Diseases, Houston, Texas, United States of - - 2014
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most frequently diagnosed disorders, affecting about 20% of the general population in Western countries. This syndrome poses an enormous socio-economic burden, impairs the quality of life substantially, and increases healthcare costs. IBS can be classified as either idiopathic (ID-IBS) with unknown etiology ...
MaczyƄski Marcin - - 2014
Potential immunological activities of three compounds: RM54 and its two derivatives RM55 and RM56, were evaluated in several, selected in vitro and in vivo tests such as: mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production, the humoral immune response in vitro and carrageenan test. Leflunomide served as a reference drug. The studied compounds ...
Muraille Eric E Laboratoire de Parasitologie, Faculté de Médecine, Université Libre de Bruxelles , Brussels , - - 2014
The fitness gains resulting from development of the adaptive immune system (AIS) during evolution are still the subject of hot debate. A large random repertoire of antigenic receptors is costly to develop and could be the source of autoimmune reactions. And yet, despite their drawbacks, AIS-like systems seem to have ...
De Boever Patrick - - 2013
A repeated measures microarray design with 22 healthy, non-smoking volunteers (aging 32±5years) was set up to study transcriptome profiles in whole blood samples. The results indicate that repeatable data can be obtained with high within-subject correlation. Probes that could discriminate between individuals are associated with immune and inflammatory functions. When ...
Vogelweith Fanny - - 2013
Two of the central goals of immunoecology are to understand natural variation in the immune system among populations and to identify those selection pressures that shape immune traits. Maintenance of the immune system can be costly, and both food quality and parasitism selection pressure are factors potentially driving immunocompetence. In ...
England Whitney E - - 2013
Host-pathogen co-evolution is a significant force which shapes the ecology and evolution of all types of organisms, and such interactions are driven by resistance and immunity mechanisms of the host. Diversity of resistance and immunity can affect the co-evolutionary trajectory of both host and pathogen. The microbial CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced ...
García-Valtanen P - - 2013
It is well known that β-defensins are key components of the host innate immune response against pathogens and potentially provide a link between innate and adaptive immunity. In zebrafish (Danio rerio), a vertebrate model species in numerous biomedical fields, three β-defensin isoforms were recently identified. To our knowledge, however, studies ...
Robins Harlan - - 2013
Advances in high-throughput sequencing have enabled the development of a powerful new technology for probing the adaptive immune system. Millions of B or T cell receptor sequences can be read in parallel from a single sample. The dynamics of an adaptive immune response, which is based on clonal expansion and ...
Keegan Lindsay T - - 2013
Despite a resurgence in control efforts, malaria remains a serious public-health problem, causing millions of deaths each year. One factor that complicates malaria-control efforts is clinical immunity, the acquired immune response that protects individuals from symptoms despite the presence of parasites. Clinical immunity protects individuals against disease, but its effects ...
Vigliano Fabricio A - - 2013
Phylogenetic diversity in fish determines high interspecific variability in morphology as well as in physiological parameters. Moreover, several haematological variables and the organ composition of haemolymphopoietic sites may vary according to sex or season. The aim of this study was to establish the haematological parameters and the cellular composition of ...
Wang Bin - - 2013
Particulate matter (PM) is a major ambient air pollutant causing millions of premature deaths each year in China. The toxicity of PM is property and size dependent. In this study, ambient PM samples collected in Beijing were divided into five size fractions with nominal aerodynamic ranges of < 0.40, 0.40 ...
Zimmermann Michael R - - 2013
Abstract Daubaylia potomaca is a nematode parasite that exhibits an unusual direct life cycle in planorbid snails in which adult females are the infective stage, after being shed from a definitive host. The present study examined the shedding patterns of this nematode to determine what cues or mechanisms might lead ...
Ye Yixin H - - 2013
Wolbachia infections confer protection for their insect hosts against a range of pathogens including bacteria, viruses, nematodes and the malaria parasite. A single mechanism that might explain this broad-based pathogen protection is immune priming, in which the presence of the symbiont upregulates the basal immune response, preparing the insect to ...
Greenblatt Matthew B MB Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2013
Recent investigations have demonstrated extensive reciprocal interactions between the immune and skeletal systems, resulting in the establishment of osteoimmunology as a cross-disciplinary field. Here we highlight core concepts and recent advances in this emerging area of study.
Medeiros Matthew C I MC Department of Biology, University of Missouri-St Louis, One University Boulevard, St Louis, MO 63121-4499, USA. - - 2013
Blood-feeding arthropod vectors are responsible for transmitting many parasites between vertebrate hosts. While arthropod vectors often feed on limited subsets of potential host species, little is known about the extent to which this influences the distribution of vector-borne parasites in some systems. Here, we test the hypothesis that different vector ...
Hegemann Arne - - 2013
Trade-offs between immune function and other physiological and behavioral processes are central in ecoimmunology, but one important problem is how to distinguish a reallocation of resources away from the immune system from a reallocation or redistribution within the immune system. While variation in baseline values of individual immune parameters is ...
Manfredini Fabio - - 2013
Successful invaders often become established in new ranges by outcompeting native species. The "evolution of increased competitive ability" hypothesis predicts that invasive species are subjected to less predation and parasitization than sympatric native species, and thus can allocate resources from defence and immunity to growth and fecundity, thereby achieving higher ...
Bochner Bruce S - - 2013
Manuscripts published in the "Mechanisms of allergy and clinical immunology" section of the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology during 2012 enhanced our knowledge of the involvement of cytokines and other mediators in allergic disorders and described novel approaches for understanding mechanisms of allergic and immunologic diseases. Also published were ...
Ji Haofeng H Dumont-UCLA Transplant Center, Division of Liver and Pancreas Transplantation, Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, - - 2013
Hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI), an exogenous antigen-independent local inflammation response, occurs in multiple clinical settings, including liver transplantation, hepatic resection, trauma, and shock. The immune system and the nervous system maintain extensive communication and mount a variety of integrated responses to danger signals through intricate chemical messengers. This ...
Nitta Sayuri - - 2013
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection blocks cellular interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral signaling through cleavage of Cardif by HCV-NS3/4A serine protease. Like NS3/4A, NS4B protein strongly blocks IFN-β production signaling mediated by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I); however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Recently, the stimulator of interferon genes ...
Chen Xue-Qin - - 2013
It has been well known that smoking alters the property and functionality of a wide range of immune cells including dendritic cells (DCs). However, a great deal of effort in the past has been mainly devoted to dissect the effect of smoking on pulmonary DCs, while its exact impact on ...
Wagoner Kaira M - - 2013
The recent declines in managed honey bee populations are of scientific, ecological and economic concern, and are partially attributed to honey bee parasites and related disease. McDonnell et al. investigate behavioral, chemical and neurogenomic effects of parasitization by the ectoparasite Varroa destructor and the endoparasite Nosema ceranae. The study reveals ...
Lee Kim M - - 2013
Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a complex condition that exhibits a spectrum of abnormal neuropsychological and locomotor behaviors. Mechanisms for neuropathogenesis could include irregular immune activation, host soluble factors, and astrocyte dysfunction. We examined the role of astrocytes as modulators of immune function in macaques with SIB. We measured changes in ...
Fox Naomi J - - 2013
Parasitic helminths present one of the most pervasive challenges to grazing herbivores. Many macro-parasite transmission models focus on host physiological defence strategies, omitting more complex interactions between hosts and their environments. This work represents the first model that integrates both the behavioural and physiological elements of gastro-intestinal nematode transmission dynamics ...
Hegemann Arne A Animal Ecology Group, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, P,O, Box 11103, 9700, CC Groningen, The Netherlands. - - 2013
Life-history theory predicts that organisms trade off survival against reproduction. However, the time scales on which various consequences become evident and the physiology mediating the cost of reproduction remain poorly understood. Yet, explaining not only which mechanisms mediate this trade-off, but also how fast or slow the mechanisms act, is ...
Firdaus-Nawi Mohd M Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400 - - 2013
Histological assessments on the intestinal morphology and immunity of tiger grouper juveniles, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus help in determining the earliest age to start an oral vaccination. This study describes the morphological development of the intestinal immunity of tiger grouper of various ages. Clinically healthy tiger groupers were selected and divided into ...
Kamo Naoko N Dumont-UCLA Transplant Center, Division of Liver and Pancreas Transplantation, Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, - - 2013
The phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) regulates innate immune responses inversely with phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and its direct downstream target gene, Akt. The Forkhead box O (Foxo) transcription factors are essential in the regulation of tissue development, immune homeostasis, and cell survival. This study was designed ...
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