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Results 401 - 450 of 1175
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Bourgeon Sophie - - 2009
Available resources being limited, life-history theory predicts that natural selection favours the evolution of physiological mechanisms that ensure their optimal allocation between competing activities. Accordingly, to maximize their selective value, long-lived species face a trade-off between survival and reproduction. Immunity is hypothesized to share limited resources with other physiological functions ...
Martin Vincent T - - 2008
Hormonal and nonhormonal factors play a role in the pathophysiology of menstrual migraine, but estrogen withdrawal appears to be the most potent of these factors. It is postulated that estrogen withdrawal directly enhances excitability of trigeminal afferents, modulates the synthesis of neuropeptides, activates/deactivates specific neurotransmitter systems, and influences the function ...
Gauster M - - 2009
In the human placenta, turnover of villous trophoblast involves proliferation, differentiation and fusion of mononucleated cytotrophoblasts with the overlying syncytiotrophoblast. In this way the syncytiotrophoblast is continuously supplied with compounds derived from the fusing cytotrophoblasts. Acquisition of fresh cellular components is balanced by a concomitant release of apoptotic material as ...
Abolhassani Mohammad - - 2008
We have shown that ObRb, the leptin receptor, is overexpressed in colorectal cancer cells, and that this may influence the patients' outcome. We investigated colonocytes as leptin targets and characterized their pivotal role in antitumor immune response. Cytokine and chemokine mRNAs in HT29 cells were measured by targeted arrays. In ...
Kolthur-Seetharam Ullas - - 2009
Sirtuins (SIRTs) are class-III NAD-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) that regulate various physiological processes. Inactivation of SIRT1 in the mouse leads to male sterility, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenotype have not been determined. Here we show that fetal testis development appears normal in Sirt1(-/-) mice. In contrast, the ...
Tanaka Tetsuji - - 2008
The biological functions of leptin in the human endometrial epithelium were investigated using the human endometrial epithelial cell line, HHUA. Specifically, the effects of leptin on the proliferation and apoptosis of HHUA cells induced by treatment with anti-Fas IgM or anticancer drugs were examined. RT-PCR detected the expression of four ...
Goetzl Edward J - - 2008
Modern investigations of the mechanisms of both neuroregulation of immunity and neural effects of immune reactions have focused on identification of the mediators, their receptors, and signal transduction pathways in both systems. Less attention has been directed to delineation of the tissue context of neuroregulation of immunity that determines the ...
Roubenoff Ronenn - - 2008
Inflammation alters energy metabolism, macro- and micronutrient balances, and body composition. This review briefly describes the current understanding of how this happens, focusing on the effect of immune system activation on energy balance. Conversely, malnutrition also has a large impact on immune function, with both undernutrition (causing immune suppression) and ...
Komatsu Kensei - - 2008
Glucocorticoids are highly effective in the control of many inflammatory and immune diseases. Despite the importance of glucocorticoids in suppressing immune and inflammatory responses, the molecular basis for the inhibitory effect of glucocorticoids on mucin overproduction, a hallmark of chronic respiratory diseases, still remains unclear. Here we show that glucocorticoids ...
Fantuzzi Giamila G Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1919 W Taylor Street MC517, Chicago, IL 60612, USA. - - 2009
Leptin is a protein produced by adipocytes (and other cell types) that acts in the brain to regulate appetite and energy expenditure according to the amount of energy stored in adipose tissue. Leptin also exerts a variety of other functions, including important roles as a regulator of immune and inflammatory ...
Kamath J - - 2009
Decades of research have established that the biological functions of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) extend far beyond its role as a regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Gary et al. [Gary, K.A., Sevarino, K.A., Yarbrough, G.G., Prange, A.J. Jr., Winokur, A. (2003). The thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) hypothesis of homeostatic regulation: implications for ...
Veldhuis Johannes D - - 2008
Endocrine glands communicate with remote target cells via a mixture of continuous and intermittent signal exchange. Continuous signaling allows slowly varying control, whereas intermittency permits large rapid adjustments. The control systems that mediate such homeostatic corrections operate in a species-, gender-, age-, and context-selective fashion. Significant progress has been made ...
Konstantinidis Diamantis - - 2009
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Leptin, a 16-kDa cytokine that is released mainly by the adipose tissue, is known to affect a wide assortment of processes, ranging from energy homeostasis to angiogenesis and the immune response. In the present study, the effect of leptin on atherosclerosis-related properties of human monocytes was investigated. methods: Monocytes ...
Zemel Michael B - - 2008
Calcitriol, a calcitrophic hormone that can be suppressed by high dietary calcium, favors fatty acid synthesis and inhibits lipolysis via non-genomic modulation of Ca(2+) influx. Calcitriol also suppresses UCP2 expression via the nVDR and thereby increases energy efficiency. Calcitriol exerts a dose-dependent impact on adipocyte apoptosis and regulates adipose tissue ...
Fuite Jim - - 2008
This work investigates the significance of changes in association patterns linking indicators of neuroendocrine and immune activity in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Gene sets preferentially expressed in specific immune cell isolates were integrated with neuroendocrine data from a large population-based study. Co-expression patterns linking immune cell activity with ...
Trayhurn Paul - - 2008
White adipose tissue is a major endocrine and signalling organ. It secretes multiple protein hormones and factors, termed adipokines (such as adiponectin, leptin, IL-6, MCP-1, TNFalpha) which engage in extensive cross-talk within adipose tissue and with other tissues. Many adipokines are linked to inflammation and immunity and these include cytokines, ...
Wells Jonathan C K - - 2009
Evidence increasingly suggests that ethnic differences in cardiovascular risk are partly mediated by adipose tissue biology, which refers to the regional distribution of adipose tissue and its differential metabolic activity. This paper proposes a novel evolutionary hypothesis for ethnic genetic variability in adipose tissue biology. Whereas medical interest focuses on ...
Masmoudi-Allouche Faïza - - 2009
This study explores and reports on the gain brought to the morphogenetic aptitude of female date palm inflorescences through in vitro hermaphrodism induction. It investigates the main factors involved in the process of sex modification through hormonal induction, such as the floral developmental stage and hormone combination and concentration. It ...
Bhavanam Sudha - - 2008
This study examined the effect of hormonal environment on intranasal and subcutaneous routes of immunization in a genital herpes infection model. Ovariectomized mice were treated with estradiol (E(2)), progesterone (P(4)) or placebo hormone pellets and immunized intranasally (i.n.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) with attenuated HSV-2. Immunized mice were subsequently challenged, intravaginally, ...
Traish Abdulmaged M - - 2009
Androgens are essential for development, growth, and maintenance of penile structure, and regulate erectile physiology by multiple mechanisms. Here we provide a concise overview of the basic research findings pertaining to androgen modulation of erectile tissue architecture and physiology. A significant body of evidence exists pointing to a critical role ...
Viveros M P - - 2008
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) consists of two receptors (CB(1) and CB(2)), several endogenous ligands (primarily anandamide and 2-AG), and over a dozen ligand-metabolizing enzymes. The ECS has deep phylogenetic roots and regulates many aspects of embryological development and homeostasis, including neuroprotection and neural plasticity, immunity and inflammation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis, ...
DeClercq Vanessa - - 2008
The ever-increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) associated with obesity is linked through signaling pathways within adipose tissue. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ, producing and secreting a variety of bioactive molecules. In obesity, the adipose tissue itself undergoes changes in cell size which alters its normal physiological function. ...
Halberg Nils N Touchstone Diabetes Center, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390-8549, - - 2008
Adipose tissue contains many cell types. Among the more abundant are adipocytes, preadipocytes, immune cells, and endothelial cells. During times of excess caloric intake, these cells have to adjust and remodel to accommodate the increased demand for triglyceride storage. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the total adipose tissue secretome, ...
Schuberth H J - - 2008
When spermatozoa, seminal plasma and semen extender reach the uterus and interact with local leukocytes and endometrial cells, several immune mechanisms are initiated which have immediate, mid-term and long-term effects on ovulation, sperm cell selection, fertilization and pregnancy success by assuring the acceptance of fetal tissues. This report gives an ...
Basu Satarupa S Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH 03756, - - 2008
The human endometrium undergoes cyclical changes regulated by sex hormones. Evidence suggests that sex hormones regulate NK cell recruitment into the uterus in large numbers. NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed on human NK cells, gammadelta and CD8 T cells. NKG2D ligands are known to be sensors of cellular "stress". ...
Winchester, Jason B
Hormones are typically considered to be chemical messengers, which are designed to be released from specific cells where they are carried to their target tissues for binding to receptors. It is this binding of a hormone molecule to its specific receptor which allows for an action to occur (Hadley and ...
Laviano Alessandro - - 2008
The anorexia-cachexia syndrome is a debilitating clinical condition characterizing the course of chronic diseases, which heavily impacts on patients' morbidity and quality of life, ultimately accelerating death. The pathogenesis is multifactorial and reflects the complexity and redundancy of the mechanisms controlling energy homeostasis under physiological conditions. Accumulating evidence indicates that, ...
Fava Giammarco G Department of Gastroenterology, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy. - - 2008
Cholangiocarcinoma is a strongly aggressive malignancy with a very poor prognosis. Effective therapeutic strategies are lacking because molecular mechanisms regulating cholangiocarcinoma cell growth are unknown. Furthermore, experimental in vivo animal models useful to study the pathophysiologic mechanisms of malignant cholangiocytes are lacking. Leptin, the hormone regulating caloric homeostasis, which is ...
Tait A Sasha - - 2008
A bidirectional communication exists between the CNS and the immune system. The autonomic nervous system, through neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, works in parallel with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis through the actions of glucocorticoids to modulate inflammatory events. The immune system, through the action of cytokines and other factors, in turn, activates the ...
Maruna P - - 2009
Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake. During inflammatory status, leptin may contribute to the anorexia and cachexia of infection. Pulmonary endarterectomy was used as a model of non-infectious cytokine network hyperstimulation. Leptin and soluble leptin receptor (SLR) were compared with evolution of cortisol and inflammatory cytokines in twenty-two ...
Rocha Viviane Zorzanelli VZ Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 77 Ave Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA, 02115, - - 2008
Adipose tissue (AT) can accumulate macrophages and secrete several inflammatory mediators. Despite its pivotal role in the progression of chronic inflammatory processes such as atherosclerosis, the adaptive role of immunity in obesity remains poorly explored. Visceral AT of diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice had higher numbers of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) ...
Layh-Schmitt Gerlinde - - 2008
To inform readers of recent advances in our understanding of the development and function of Th17 T cells and emerging data suggesting that the interleukin-23/interleukin-17 axis may be involved in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis. The discovery of CD4+ Th17 T cells and the interleukin-23/interleukin-17 axis has challenged existing paradigms and ...
Chidgey Ann - - 2008
Evaluation of: Napolitano LA, Schmidt D, Gotway MB et al. Growth hormone enhances thymic function in HIV-1-infected adults. J. Clin. Invest. 118, 1085-1098 (2008). Age-induced atrophy of the thymus results in a compromised immune system characterized by a restricted T-cell receptor repertoire, skewed towards memory T cells and a global ...
Furuhashi Masato M Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, - - 2008
Adipose tissue inflammation is a characteristic of obesity. However, the mechanisms that regulate this inflammatory response and link adipose inflammation to systemic metabolic consequences are not fully understood. In this study, we have taken advantage of the highly restricted coexpression of adipocyte/macrophage fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) aP2 (FABP4) and mal1 ...
Dixit Vishwa Deep - - 2008
Increasing evidence suggests a tight coupling of metabolic and immune systems. This cross-talk mediated by neuroendocrine peptides as well as numerous cytokines and chemokines is believed to be responsible for integrating energy balance to immune function. These neuroendocrine-immune interactions are heightened during the state of chronic positive energy balance, as ...
Maya-Monteiro Clarissa M - - 2008
Leptin is both a hormone/cytokine that plays a major role in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure. Beyond its central role in the hypothalamus, leptin modulates peripheral tissues' responses to growth and storage based on nutrient availability, and it regulates the innate and adaptive immune responses. mTOR (mammalian Target ...
Matarese Giuseppe - - 2008
Over the last few years, a series of molecules known to play a function in metabolism has also been shown to play an important role in the regulation of the immune response. In this context, the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin has been shown to regulate the immune response in normal as ...
Frank Stuart J - - 2008
Growth hormone plays an important role in regulating numerous functions in vertebrates. Several pathways that negatively regulate the magnitude and duration of its signaling (including expression of tyrosine phosphatases, SOCS and PIAS proteins) are shared between signaling induced by growth hormone itself and by other cytokines. Here we overview downregulation ...
Vassiliadis Simon - - 2008
Endometriosis is so far considered as an incurable inflammatory disease. The ectopical implants of endometrial cells proliferate, increase in size and thereafter bleed following the menstrual cycle. The accumulated blood aggravates the situation by developing into cysts which, depending on the place, size and number, in most cases increase pain. ...
Gökdal O - - 2009
This study was designed to evaluate the potential of using eCG or GnRH in restoring reproductive functions in GnRH immunized ewes. Thirty-three multiparous Kivircik ewes were randomly assigned into either control group (n=11) or immunization group (n=22). Ewes were immunized against GnRH by injecting with a cocktail of ovalbumin-LHRH-7 (ovalbumin-GnRH-7) ...
Iikuni Noriko - - 2008
The past few years of research on leptin have provided important information on the link between metabolism and immune homeostasis. Adipocytes influence not only the endocrine system but also the immune response through several cytokine-like mediators known as adipokines, which include leptin. It is widely accepted that leptin can directly ...
Battista N - - 2008
The use of marijuana, which today is the most used recreational drug, has been demonstrated to affect adversely reproduction. Marijuana smokers, both men and women, show impaired fertility, owing to defective signalling pathways, aberrant hormonal regulation, or wrong timing during embryo implantation. Anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) mimic Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol ...
McMaster A A Centre for Molecular Medicine, ARC/EU, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Stopford Building, Manchester M13 9PT, - - 2008
There is increasing evidence that temporal factors are important in allowing cells to gain additional information from external factors, such as hormones and cytokines. We sought to discover how cell responses to glucocorticoids develop over time, and how the response kinetics vary according to ligand structure and concentration, and hence ...
Gay Jérôme - - 2008
CRH, the hypothalamic component of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, attenuates inflammation through stimulation of glucocorticoid release, whereas peripherally expressed CRH acts as a proinflammatory mediator. CRH is expressed in the intestine and up-regulated in patients with ulcerative colitis. However, its pathophysiological significance in intestinal inflammatory diseases has just started to ...
Trayhurn Paul - - 2008
White adipose tissue is a key endocrine and secretory organ, releasing multiple adipokines, many of which are linked to inflammation and immunity. During the expansion of adipose tissue mass in obesity there is a major inflammatory response in the tissue with increased expression and release of inflammation-related adipokines, including IL-6, ...
Arukwe Augustine - - 2008
Biologically active steroids are synthesised de novo in specialised cells of several organs, including the adrenal gland, testis, ovary, brain, placenta and adipose tissue. Regardless of organ or tissue, the rate-limiting step in steroid hormone synthesis is the movement of cholesterol across the mitochondrial membrane (i.e. from the outer to ...
Molendi-Coste O - - 2008
Numerous data show that malnutrition during early life programs chronic diseases in adulthood. Many of these disorders may result from alterations in the development of neuroendocrine systems, such as the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathoadrenal system. We have previously reported that maternal 50% food restriction during late pregnancy and lactation ...
Iacobellis G - - 2008
Obesity is associated with low grade inflammation. Whether this is just an adaptive response to excess adiposity to maintain a normal oxygen supply or a chronic activation of the innate immune system is still unknown. Recent research has focused on the origin of the inflammatory markers in obesity and the ...
van Duinen Marlies A - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Psychoimmunological research in panic disorder (PD) so far focussed on single time point evaluation in resting conditions. No robust evidence for changes in the immune system was found using this method. However, PD is characterized by the occurrence of unexpected panic attacks (PAs). The current research focuses on cytokine ...
Lago Rocío - - 2008
Leptin, a 16 kDa non-glycosylated polypeptide produced primarily by adipocytes and released into the systemic circulation, exerts a multitude of regulatory functions including energy utilization and storage, regulation of various endocrine axes, bone metabolism, and thermoregulation. In addition to leptin's best known role as regulator of energy homeostasis, several studies ...
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