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Results 401 - 450 of 1158
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Masmoudi-Allouche Faïza - - 2009
This study explores and reports on the gain brought to the morphogenetic aptitude of female date palm inflorescences through in vitro hermaphrodism induction. It investigates the main factors involved in the process of sex modification through hormonal induction, such as the floral developmental stage and hormone combination and concentration. It ...
Bhavanam Sudha - - 2008
This study examined the effect of hormonal environment on intranasal and subcutaneous routes of immunization in a genital herpes infection model. Ovariectomized mice were treated with estradiol (E(2)), progesterone (P(4)) or placebo hormone pellets and immunized intranasally (i.n.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) with attenuated HSV-2. Immunized mice were subsequently challenged, intravaginally, ...
Traish Abdulmaged M - - 2009
Androgens are essential for development, growth, and maintenance of penile structure, and regulate erectile physiology by multiple mechanisms. Here we provide a concise overview of the basic research findings pertaining to androgen modulation of erectile tissue architecture and physiology. A significant body of evidence exists pointing to a critical role ...
Viveros M P - - 2008
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) consists of two receptors (CB(1) and CB(2)), several endogenous ligands (primarily anandamide and 2-AG), and over a dozen ligand-metabolizing enzymes. The ECS has deep phylogenetic roots and regulates many aspects of embryological development and homeostasis, including neuroprotection and neural plasticity, immunity and inflammation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis, ...
DeClercq Vanessa - - 2008
The ever-increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) associated with obesity is linked through signaling pathways within adipose tissue. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ, producing and secreting a variety of bioactive molecules. In obesity, the adipose tissue itself undergoes changes in cell size which alters its normal physiological function. ...
Halberg Nils N Touchstone Diabetes Center, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390-8549, - - 2008
Adipose tissue contains many cell types. Among the more abundant are adipocytes, preadipocytes, immune cells, and endothelial cells. During times of excess caloric intake, these cells have to adjust and remodel to accommodate the increased demand for triglyceride storage. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the total adipose tissue secretome, ...
Schuberth H J - - 2008
When spermatozoa, seminal plasma and semen extender reach the uterus and interact with local leukocytes and endometrial cells, several immune mechanisms are initiated which have immediate, mid-term and long-term effects on ovulation, sperm cell selection, fertilization and pregnancy success by assuring the acceptance of fetal tissues. This report gives an ...
Basu Satarupa - - 2008
The human endometrium undergoes cyclical changes regulated by sex hormones. Evidence suggests that sex hormones regulate NK cell recruitment into the uterus in large numbers. NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed on human NK cells, gammadelta and CD8 T cells. NKG2D ligands are known to be sensors of cellular "stress". ...
Winchester, Jason B
Hormones are typically considered to be chemical messengers, which are designed to be released from specific cells where they are carried to their target tissues for binding to receptors. It is this binding of a hormone molecule to its specific receptor which allows for an action to occur (Hadley and ...
Laviano Alessandro - - 2008
The anorexia-cachexia syndrome is a debilitating clinical condition characterizing the course of chronic diseases, which heavily impacts on patients' morbidity and quality of life, ultimately accelerating death. The pathogenesis is multifactorial and reflects the complexity and redundancy of the mechanisms controlling energy homeostasis under physiological conditions. Accumulating evidence indicates that, ...
Fava Giammarco - - 2008
Cholangiocarcinoma is a strongly aggressive malignancy with a very poor prognosis. Effective therapeutic strategies are lacking because molecular mechanisms regulating cholangiocarcinoma cell growth are unknown. Furthermore, experimental in vivo animal models useful to study the pathophysiologic mechanisms of malignant cholangiocytes are lacking. Leptin, the hormone regulating caloric homeostasis, which is ...
Tait A Sasha - - 2008
A bidirectional communication exists between the CNS and the immune system. The autonomic nervous system, through neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, works in parallel with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis through the actions of glucocorticoids to modulate inflammatory events. The immune system, through the action of cytokines and other factors, in turn, activates the ...
Maruna P - - 2009
Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake. During inflammatory status, leptin may contribute to the anorexia and cachexia of infection. Pulmonary endarterectomy was used as a model of non-infectious cytokine network hyperstimulation. Leptin and soluble leptin receptor (SLR) were compared with evolution of cortisol and inflammatory cytokines in twenty-two ...
Rocha Viviane Zorzanelli - - 2008
Adipose tissue (AT) can accumulate macrophages and secrete several inflammatory mediators. Despite its pivotal role in the progression of chronic inflammatory processes such as atherosclerosis, the adaptive role of immunity in obesity remains poorly explored. Visceral AT of diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice had higher numbers of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) ...
Layh-Schmitt Gerlinde - - 2008
To inform readers of recent advances in our understanding of the development and function of Th17 T cells and emerging data suggesting that the interleukin-23/interleukin-17 axis may be involved in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis. The discovery of CD4+ Th17 T cells and the interleukin-23/interleukin-17 axis has challenged existing paradigms and ...
Furuhashi Masato - - 2008
Adipose tissue inflammation is a characteristic of obesity. However, the mechanisms that regulate this inflammatory response and link adipose inflammation to systemic metabolic consequences are not fully understood. In this study, we have taken advantage of the highly restricted coexpression of adipocyte/macrophage fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) aP2 (FABP4) and mal1 ...
Chidgey Ann - - 2008
Evaluation of: Napolitano LA, Schmidt D, Gotway MB et al. Growth hormone enhances thymic function in HIV-1-infected adults. J. Clin. Invest. 118, 1085-1098 (2008). Age-induced atrophy of the thymus results in a compromised immune system characterized by a restricted T-cell receptor repertoire, skewed towards memory T cells and a global ...
Dixit Vishwa Deep - - 2008
Increasing evidence suggests a tight coupling of metabolic and immune systems. This cross-talk mediated by neuroendocrine peptides as well as numerous cytokines and chemokines is believed to be responsible for integrating energy balance to immune function. These neuroendocrine-immune interactions are heightened during the state of chronic positive energy balance, as ...
Maya-Monteiro Clarissa M - - 2008
Leptin is both a hormone/cytokine that plays a major role in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure. Beyond its central role in the hypothalamus, leptin modulates peripheral tissues' responses to growth and storage based on nutrient availability, and it regulates the innate and adaptive immune responses. mTOR (mammalian Target ...
Matarese Giuseppe - - 2008
Over the last few years, a series of molecules known to play a function in metabolism has also been shown to play an important role in the regulation of the immune response. In this context, the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin has been shown to regulate the immune response in normal as ...
Frank Stuart J - - 2008
Growth hormone plays an important role in regulating numerous functions in vertebrates. Several pathways that negatively regulate the magnitude and duration of its signaling (including expression of tyrosine phosphatases, SOCS and PIAS proteins) are shared between signaling induced by growth hormone itself and by other cytokines. Here we overview downregulation ...
Vassiliadis Simon - - 2008
Endometriosis is so far considered as an incurable inflammatory disease. The ectopical implants of endometrial cells proliferate, increase in size and thereafter bleed following the menstrual cycle. The accumulated blood aggravates the situation by developing into cysts which, depending on the place, size and number, in most cases increase pain. ...
Gökdal O - - 2009
This study was designed to evaluate the potential of using eCG or GnRH in restoring reproductive functions in GnRH immunized ewes. Thirty-three multiparous Kivircik ewes were randomly assigned into either control group (n=11) or immunization group (n=22). Ewes were immunized against GnRH by injecting with a cocktail of ovalbumin-LHRH-7 (ovalbumin-GnRH-7) ...
Iikuni Noriko - - 2008
The past few years of research on leptin have provided important information on the link between metabolism and immune homeostasis. Adipocytes influence not only the endocrine system but also the immune response through several cytokine-like mediators known as adipokines, which include leptin. It is widely accepted that leptin can directly ...
Battista N - - 2008
The use of marijuana, which today is the most used recreational drug, has been demonstrated to affect adversely reproduction. Marijuana smokers, both men and women, show impaired fertility, owing to defective signalling pathways, aberrant hormonal regulation, or wrong timing during embryo implantation. Anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) mimic Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol ...
McMaster A A Centre for Molecular Medicine, ARC/EU, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Stopford Building, Manchester M13 9PT, - - 2008
There is increasing evidence that temporal factors are important in allowing cells to gain additional information from external factors, such as hormones and cytokines. We sought to discover how cell responses to glucocorticoids develop over time, and how the response kinetics vary according to ligand structure and concentration, and hence ...
Gay Jérôme - - 2008
CRH, the hypothalamic component of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, attenuates inflammation through stimulation of glucocorticoid release, whereas peripherally expressed CRH acts as a proinflammatory mediator. CRH is expressed in the intestine and up-regulated in patients with ulcerative colitis. However, its pathophysiological significance in intestinal inflammatory diseases has just started to ...
Trayhurn Paul - - 2008
White adipose tissue is a key endocrine and secretory organ, releasing multiple adipokines, many of which are linked to inflammation and immunity. During the expansion of adipose tissue mass in obesity there is a major inflammatory response in the tissue with increased expression and release of inflammation-related adipokines, including IL-6, ...
Arukwe Augustine - - 2008
Biologically active steroids are synthesised de novo in specialised cells of several organs, including the adrenal gland, testis, ovary, brain, placenta and adipose tissue. Regardless of organ or tissue, the rate-limiting step in steroid hormone synthesis is the movement of cholesterol across the mitochondrial membrane (i.e. from the outer to ...
Molendi-Coste O - - 2008
Numerous data show that malnutrition during early life programs chronic diseases in adulthood. Many of these disorders may result from alterations in the development of neuroendocrine systems, such as the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathoadrenal system. We have previously reported that maternal 50% food restriction during late pregnancy and lactation ...
Iacobellis G - - 2008
Obesity is associated with low grade inflammation. Whether this is just an adaptive response to excess adiposity to maintain a normal oxygen supply or a chronic activation of the innate immune system is still unknown. Recent research has focused on the origin of the inflammatory markers in obesity and the ...
Redelman Doug - - 2008
Neuroendocrine hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) have been demonstrated to accelerate the recovery of the immune response after chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation and to enhance the restoration of immunity in individuals infected with HIV and in normal individuals with compromised immune systems associated with aging. ...
van Duinen Marlies A - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Psychoimmunological research in panic disorder (PD) so far focussed on single time point evaluation in resting conditions. No robust evidence for changes in the immune system was found using this method. However, PD is characterized by the occurrence of unexpected panic attacks (PAs). The current research focuses on cytokine ...
Lago Rocío - - 2008
Leptin, a 16 kDa non-glycosylated polypeptide produced primarily by adipocytes and released into the systemic circulation, exerts a multitude of regulatory functions including energy utilization and storage, regulation of various endocrine axes, bone metabolism, and thermoregulation. In addition to leptin's best known role as regulator of energy homeostasis, several studies ...
Bird Melanie D - - 2008
Cell-mediated immunity is extremely important for resolution of infection and for proper healing from injury. However, the cellular immune response is dysregulated following injuries such as burn and hemorrhage. Sex hormones are known to regulate immunity, and a well-documented dichotomy exists in the immune response to injury between the sexes. ...
You Qiumei - - 2008
Bi-directional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems is designed, in part, to maintain or restore homeostasis during physiological stress. Exposure to endotoxin during Gram-negative bacterial infection for example, elicits the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). The secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids subsequently down regulates the ...
Xie, Linglin Jr
My work focused on understanding adipocyte function and regulation because of the importance to diabetes. In addition to being a fat storage depot, adipose tissue is an endocrine tissue. Adiponectin and leptin are two adipokines that control insulin sensitivity and energy balance. In spite of their importance, there are still ...
Nishimura Satoshi - - 2008
To assess physiological and pathophysiological events that involve dynamic interplay between multiple cell types, real-time, in vivo analysis is necessary. We developed a technique based on confocal laser microscopy that enabled us to analyze and compare the 3-dimensional structures, cellular dynamics, and vascular function within mouse lean and obese adipose ...
Rier Sherry E - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence on exposure to environmental contaminants and immune system disruption, and how this has been demonstrated or hypothesized to impact reproductive health and fertility. DESIGN: Review of literature. RESULT(S): Exposure to environmental contaminants including polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other hormone disrupting chemicals are associated ...
Antuna-Puente B - - 2008
White adipose tissue was believed to be just an energy-storage organ, but it is now recognized to be an active participant in energy homoeostasis and physiological functions such as immunity and inflammation. Macrophages are components of adipose tissue and actively participate in its activities. Adipose tissue is known to express ...
Knight Stella C SC Antigen Presentation Research Group, Imperial College London, Northwick Park and St Mark's Campus, Watford Road, Harrow, UK. - - 2008
Adipose tissue around lymph nodes is usually removed prior to the study of immune activity-but is it time to reconsider this practice? Perinodal adipose tissue may provide not only a specific lipid resource but also fatty acids, dendritic cells, and soluble mediators that modulate local immunity.
Sodhi Ajit - - 2008
The role of immune-neuroendocrine interactions in the autoimmune diseases is well recognized. Autoimmune rheumatoid diseases in their active phase have been characterized by high levels of prolactin (PRL) as well as proinflammatory cytokines which suggest a co-relationship between them. In the present study, we have investigated the profile of cytokines ...
Frühbeck Gema - - 2008
As the result of its apparent structural and histological simplicity, adipose tissue (AT) functions initially were limited to energy storage, insulation, and thermoregulation. Only decades later was the extraordinarily dynamic role of AT recognized, revealing its participation in a broad range of physiological processes, including reproduction, apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis, blood ...
Harvey Natasha L - - 2008
Despite observations of a link between lymphatic vessels and lipids that date as far back as 300, a link between lymphatic vessels and adipose tissue has only recently been recognized. This review will summarize documented evidence that supports a close relationship between lymphatic vessels and adipose tissue biology. Lymphatic vessels ...
Barnard Adele - - 2008
The nervous, endocrine, and immune systems interact to adapt to infection, inflammation, and tissue injury. Neural control is mediated in several ways, one of them being through the neuroendocrine regulation of the secretion of hypothalamic and pituitary hormones. The hormonal effects on the immune system range from the impact of ...
Taub Dennis D - - 2008
There appears to be bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems. This communication is mediated by way of an array of cytokines, hormones, and neuropeptides. Inflammatory cytokines released by immune cells have been shown to act on the central nervous system to control food intake and energy homeostasis. Decrease ...
Surmi Bonnie K - - 2008
It has long been known that adipose tissue in obesity is in a heightened state of inflammation. Recently, our understanding of this has been transformed by the knowledge that immune cells such as macrophages and T cells can infiltrate adipose tissue and are responsible for the majority of inflammatory cytokine ...
MacLaren Robin - - 2008
There is increasing evidence of close interactions between the adipose and the immune systems. Adipocytes secrete multiple factors, including adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin that have both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects, and influence diseases involving the immune system. Further, adipose tissue also secretes various chemokines and cytokines, derived from ...
Choudhry Mashkoor A - - 2007
A major consequence of traumatic injury is immunosuppression. Findings from previous studies suggest that the depression of immune functions is severe in young males, ovariectomised and aged females. In contrast, the immune functions in proestrus females following trauma-haemorrhage are maintained. Studies have also shown that the survival rate in proestrus ...
Maya-Monteiro Clarissa M - - 2008
Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone/cytokine that links nutritional status with neuroendocrine and immune functions. Lipid bodies (lipid droplets) are emerging as dynamic organelles with roles in lipid metabolism and inflammation. Here we investigated the roles of leptin in signaling pathways involved in cytoplasmic lipid body biogenesis and leukotriene B(4) synthesis ...
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