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Results 351 - 400 of 1166
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Egger G - - 2010
The discovery of a form of low-grade systemic inflammation (called 'metaflammation'), and the close evolutionary link between the immune and metabolic systems, poses questions about the supposed antigens (inducers) of such an immune reaction. Initially, this was thought to be mediated through obesity. However, we have identified a number of ...
Sirotkin A V - - 2010
The aim of our studies was to compare the roles of leptin and ghrelin in the direct control of proliferation, apoptosis, and secretory activity by porcine ovarian cells. In our in vitro experiments, we analyzed the effects of leptin and ghrelin treatments (at 0, 1, 10, or 100ng/mL medium) on ...
Maeda Takehiko - - 2009
Nerve injury may result in neuropathic pain, characterized by allodynia and hyperalgesia. Accumulating evidence suggests the existence of a molecular substrate for neuropathic pain produced by neurons, glia, and immune cells. Here, we show that leptin, an adipokine exclusively produced by adipocytes, is critical for the development of tactile allodynia ...
Pietsch Constanze - - 2009
The involvement of steroid hormones in direct and indirect regulation and modulation of immune responses is well recognized in mammals. Here, we demonstrate that progestogens are capable of influencing the innate immunity in fish as well. Therefore, we confirmed the known immunosuppressive effects of natural progesterone (P4), and compared them ...
Suganami Takayoshi - - 2009
Obese adipose tissue is markedly infiltrated by macrophages, suggesting that they may participate in the inflammatory pathways that are activated in obese adipose tissue. Evidence has suggested that saturated fatty acids released via adipocyte lipolysis serve as a naturally occurring ligand that stimulates Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 signaling, thereby inducing the ...
Sheldon I Martin - - 2009
Uterine microbial disease affects half of all dairy cattle after parturition, causing infertility by disrupting uterine and ovarian function. Infection with Escherichia coli, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, and bovine herpesvirus 4 causes endometrial tissue damage. Toll-like receptors on endometrial cells detect pathogen-associated molecules such as bacterial DNA, lipids, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), leading ...
Duffaut Carine - - 2009
The primary inflammatory events occurring in the adipose tissue (AT) during high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity are poorly defined. The present study was undertaken to characterize, in wild-type(+/+) and lymphocyte deficient RAG2(-/-) mice under HFD, the changes in AT immune cells by flow cytometry analyses. In (+/+) mice, early accumulation ...
Ghosh Rita - - 2009
The Noble rat is an established model for studying hormone-induced development of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostatic adenocarcinoma. It is known that for a period, hormones in the prostate generate reactive molecules that have the capacity to overwhelm intracellular defenses, damage macromolecules, and modulate redox-regulated signaling pathways leading to increased ...
Rettew Jennifer A - - 2009
Gender-based differences exist in infectious disease susceptibility. In general, females generate more robust and potentially protective humoral and cell-mediated immune responses after antigenic challenge than their male counterparts. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating that sex may also influence the early perception of microbial challenges and the generation of inflammatory immune responses ...
Hodkinson Clare F - - 2009
A reciprocal relationship between the endocrine and immune system has been demonstrated under pathophysiological conditions. However, few studies have assessed the relationship between thyroid hormones and immune function in apparently healthy individuals. Therefore, to clarify our understanding of normal physiological endocrine-immune interactions this study aimed to examine the interrelationships between ...
Iwanowicz Luke R - - 2009
The brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus is a species of the family Ictaluridae commonly used as a sentinel of environmental contamination. While these fish have been utilized for this purpose in areas contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), few controlled, laboratory-based studies have been designed to document the effects of PCB mixtures ...
Rybczynski Robert - - 2009
Prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) is a homodimeric brain peptide hormone that positively regulates the production of ecdysteroids by the prothoracic gland of Lepidoptera and probably other insects. PTTH was first purified from heads of adult domestic silkworms, Bombyx mori. Prothoracic glands of Bombyx and Manduca sexta undergo apoptosis well before the ...
Dixit Vishwa D - - 2009
Ghrelin (Grln) is a peptide hormone that is predominantly produced in the stomach and stimulates appetite and induces growth hormone (GH) release. We have previously reported that ghrelin is also expressed in T cells and exerts prothymic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the biologic relevance of T cell-derived ghrelin remains to ...
Greenstein Adam S - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Inflammation in adipose tissue has been implicated in vascular dysfunction, but the local mechanisms by which this occurs are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Small arteries with and without perivascular adipose tissue were taken from subcutaneous gluteal fat biopsy samples and studied with wire myography and immunohistochemistry. We established that ...
Harikrishnan Thilagam - - 2009
A wide range of environmental contaminants can interfere with hormonal regulation in both vertebrates and invertebrates. These endocrine disrupting chemicals are of high relevance for human and wildlife health. There is growing evidence that contaminants may be partly responsible for the observed increase in disease in marine organisms by adversely ...
Moulin Cristiane Martins - - 2009
Studies evaluating immune function in obese humans and experimental animals indicate that the excess adiposity is associated with impaired in immune responses. Obesity is related to a higher rate of infections and to some types of cancer. Nutritional, metabolic and endocrine factors are implicated in the immunological changes. The adipose ...
Tomaszewska-Zaremba Dorota - - 2009
This article reviews data concerning the interactions between immune and neuroendocrine systems in the regulation of reproduction processes at the hypothalamic and pituitary level during immunological stress. Hypothalamus seems to play the most important role in the inhibitory action of immune challenge on the gonadoliberin (GnRH) and gonadotropin secretion as ...
Mattioli Benedetta - - 2009
Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone/cytokine that modulates immune responses. It induces functional and morphological changes in human dendritic cells (DCs), licensing them towards Th1 priming and promoting DC survival. Here we found that leptin protects DCs from spontaneous, UVB and H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis, by triggering the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B ...
Madani Rana - - 2009
Obesity is associated with elevated inflammatory signals from various adipose tissue depots. This study aimed to evaluate release of regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) by human adipose tissue in vivo and ex vivo, in reference to monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) release. Arteriovenous ...
Van Houdenhove Boudewijn - - 2009
The etiopathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) remains poorly understood. Although neuroendocrine disturbances - and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hypofunction in particular - have been found in a large proportion of CFS patients, it is not clear whether these disturbances are cause or consequence of the illness. After a review of ...
Yellon Steven M - - 2009
Prepartum cervical ripening is associated with remodeling of collagen structure and with inflammation. Progesterone withdrawal is critical for parturition, but the effects of progesterone decline on cervical morphology are unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that progesterone withdrawal promotes processes associated with remodeling of the cervix. Adult, virgin, female ...
Farooqi I Sadaf - - 2009
The identification of the hormone leptin by Friedman et al (1) in 1994 has proved to be a seminal observation in biomedical science. The discovery that a circulating protein secreted almost exclusively by adipocytes could regulate body weight through its effects on food intake and energy expenditure represented a remarkable ...
Borghetti Paolo - - 2009
The Central Nervous (CNS) and Immune Systems (IS) are the two major adaptive systems which respond rapidly to numerous challenges that are able to compromise health. The defensive response strictly linking innate to acquired immunity, works continuously to limit pathogen invasion and damage. The efficiency of the innate response is ...
Kovac Suzana - - 2009
To describe recent advances in the processing of gastrointestinal hormones, and the consequences for human disease of mutations in the enzymes involved. Although gastrointestinal prohormones were long regarded as devoid of biological activity, recent data indicate that the prohormones for both gastrin and gastrin-releasing peptide are bioactive, through different receptors ...
Weiss Gerson - - 2009
Inflammatory disorders account for a significant percentage of gynecologic disease, particularly in reproductive age women. Inflammation is a basic method by which we respond to infection, irritation, or injury. Inflammation is now recognized as a type of nonspecific immune response, either acute or chronic. In gynecology, inflammation leads to anatomic ...
Hattori Naoki - - 2009
Immune and neuroendocrine systems have bidirectional communications. Growth hormone (GH) and an orexigenic hormone ghrelin are expressed in various immune cells such as T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils. These immune cells also bear receptors for hormones: growth hormone receptor (GHR) for GH and growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) ...
Nunn Charles L - - 2009
Sexual dimorphism in immune function is a common pattern in vertebrates and also in a number of invertebrates. Most often, females are more 'immunocompetent' than males. The underlying causes are explained by either the role of immunosuppressive substances, such as testosterone, or by fundamental differences in male and female life ...
Pérez Ana Rosa - - 2009
During infectious diseases, neuroendocrine and immune networks act in concert, facilitating host response. It is known that infections cause profound immune changes, but the impact upon immunoendocrine circuits has been less studied. Disorders in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were frequently observed associated with infections, and these changes often occur in ...
Bjelaković Gordana - - 2009
Glucocorticoids represent the most powerful endogenous anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effectors, interfering with virtually every step of immunoinflammatory responses. Glucocorticoids are often the most effective therapy in the prevention or suppression of inflammation and other immunologically mediated processes, but their use is limited by systemic side effects induced by the over-production ...
Subramanian Vidya - - 2009
The World Health Organization estimates that since 1980 the prevalence of obesity has increased more than threefold throughout much of the world, and this increase is not limited to developed nations. Indeed, the incidence of obesity is increasing most rapidly among rapidly industrializing countries raising the spectre of a burgeoning ...
Herr Ingrid - - 2009
More than a quarter of a century ago, the phenomenon of glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in the majority of hematological cells was first recognized. More recently, glucocorticoid-induced antiapoptotic signaling associated with apoptosis resistance towards cytotoxic therapy has been identified in cells of epithelial origin, most of malignant solid tumors and some other ...
Matteucci E - - 2009
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) or adenosine deaminase complexing protein 2 (ADCP 2) or T-cell activation antigen CD26 (EC 3.4.14.5.) is a serine exopeptidase belonging to the S9B protein family that cleaves X-proline dipeptides from the N-terminus of polypeptides, such as chemokines, neuropeptides, and peptide hormones. The enzyme is a type II ...
Priftis Kostas N - - 2009
The present review highlights adrenal function in the context of endocrine-immune interactions and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in asthmatic children on long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Activation of the HPA axis by specific cytokines increases the release of cortisol, which in turn feeds back and suppresses the immune reaction. ...
Strande Jennifer L - - 2009
Abdominal obesity is associated with pro-thrombotic and inflammatory states. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the expression of thrombin receptors (PAR1 and PAR4) human adipose tissue and whether thrombin stimulates an inflammatory cytokine and growth factor profile in human adipose tissue. Human adipose tissue, isolated preadipocytes and ...
Procaccini Claudio - - 2009
Leptin is a hormone whose central role is to regulate endocrine functions and to control energy expenditure. After the discovery that leptin can also have pro-inflammatory effects, several studies have tried to address - at the molecular level - the pathways involved in leptin-induced modulation of the immune functions in ...
Choi Bong-Hyuk - - 2009
In our previous study, we have shown that berberine has both anti-adipogenic and anti-inflammatory effects on 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and the anti-adipogenic effect is due to the down-regulation of adipogenic enzymes and transcription factors. Here we focused more on anti-inflammatory effect of berberine using real time RT-PCR and found it changes ...
Wise Phyllis M - - 2009
The concept that estrogens exert important neuroprotective actions has gained considerable attention during the past decade. Numerous studies have provided a deep understanding of the seemingly contradictory actions of estrogens. We realize more than ever that the effects of estrogens (with and without simultaneous or sequential progestins) are diverse and ...
Cutolo Maurizio - - 2009
The neuroendocrine immune (NEI) system is regarded as a fundamental network for the maintenance of health status (homeostasis), and it plays an important role in several systemic diseases, including autoimmune disorders. Among the major players of NEI pathways are steroid hormones of the adrenal (cortisol) and gonadal glands (sex hormones), ...
Nicot Arnaud - - 2009
Several lines of evidence indicate that gender affects the susceptibility and course of multiple sclerosis (MS) with a higher disease prevalence and overall better prognosis in women than men. This sex dimorphism may be explained by sex chromosome effects and effects of sex steroid hormones on the immune system, blood ...
Perretti Mauro M William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK. - - 2009
Glucocorticoids are widely used for the management of inflammatory diseases. Their clinical application stems from our understanding of the inhibitory effect of the corticosteroid hormone cortisol on several components of the immune system. Endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoids mediate their multiple anti-inflammatory effects through many effector molecules. In this Opinion article, ...
Wozniak Susan E - - 2009
Fat is either white or brown, the latter being found principally in neonates. White fat, which comprises adipocytes, pre-adipocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and leukocytes, actively participates in hormonal and inflammatory systems. Adipokines include hormones such as leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, apelin, vaspin, hepcidine, chemerin, omentin, and inflammatory cytokines, including tumor ...
Bourgeon Sophie - - 2009
Available resources being limited, life-history theory predicts that natural selection favours the evolution of physiological mechanisms that ensure their optimal allocation between competing activities. Accordingly, to maximize their selective value, long-lived species face a trade-off between survival and reproduction. Immunity is hypothesized to share limited resources with other physiological functions ...
Martin Vincent T - - 2008
Hormonal and nonhormonal factors play a role in the pathophysiology of menstrual migraine, but estrogen withdrawal appears to be the most potent of these factors. It is postulated that estrogen withdrawal directly enhances excitability of trigeminal afferents, modulates the synthesis of neuropeptides, activates/deactivates specific neurotransmitter systems, and influences the function ...
Gauster M - - 2009
In the human placenta, turnover of villous trophoblast involves proliferation, differentiation and fusion of mononucleated cytotrophoblasts with the overlying syncytiotrophoblast. In this way the syncytiotrophoblast is continuously supplied with compounds derived from the fusing cytotrophoblasts. Acquisition of fresh cellular components is balanced by a concomitant release of apoptotic material as ...
Abolhassani Mohammad - - 2008
We have shown that ObRb, the leptin receptor, is overexpressed in colorectal cancer cells, and that this may influence the patients' outcome. We investigated colonocytes as leptin targets and characterized their pivotal role in antitumor immune response. Cytokine and chemokine mRNAs in HT29 cells were measured by targeted arrays. In ...
Kolthur-Seetharam Ullas - - 2009
Sirtuins (SIRTs) are class-III NAD-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) that regulate various physiological processes. Inactivation of SIRT1 in the mouse leads to male sterility, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenotype have not been determined. Here we show that fetal testis development appears normal in Sirt1(-/-) mice. In contrast, the ...
Tanaka Tetsuji - - 2008
The biological functions of leptin in the human endometrial epithelium were investigated using the human endometrial epithelial cell line, HHUA. Specifically, the effects of leptin on the proliferation and apoptosis of HHUA cells induced by treatment with anti-Fas IgM or anticancer drugs were examined. RT-PCR detected the expression of four ...
Goetzl Edward J - - 2008
Modern investigations of the mechanisms of both neuroregulation of immunity and neural effects of immune reactions have focused on identification of the mediators, their receptors, and signal transduction pathways in both systems. Less attention has been directed to delineation of the tissue context of neuroregulation of immunity that determines the ...
Roubenoff Ronenn - - 2008
Inflammation alters energy metabolism, macro- and micronutrient balances, and body composition. This review briefly describes the current understanding of how this happens, focusing on the effect of immune system activation on energy balance. Conversely, malnutrition also has a large impact on immune function, with both undernutrition (causing immune suppression) and ...
Komatsu Kensei - - 2008
Glucocorticoids are highly effective in the control of many inflammatory and immune diseases. Despite the importance of glucocorticoids in suppressing immune and inflammatory responses, the molecular basis for the inhibitory effect of glucocorticoids on mucin overproduction, a hallmark of chronic respiratory diseases, still remains unclear. Here we show that glucocorticoids ...
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