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Results 301 - 350 of 1166
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Liao Guizhi - - 2010
To investigate the anti-pituitary adenoma effect of secalonic acid D (SAD) extracting from marine microorganisms, we used MTT colorimetric method to evaluate the proliferation of GH3 cells treated by SAD, the time- and dose-dependent effects and the value of IC50 were recorded. Hoechst staining, Tunel and flow cytometry methods were ...
Hepworth Matthew R - - 2010
Trichuris muris infection is an ideal model for defining T-cell-driven immunity, and also provides essential insights that may impact on potential helminth therapies currently in development. Conflicting host variables determine the efficiency of such treatments and we have identified host-derived sex steroid hormones as key factors in the development of ...
Iyer Abishek A School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, - - 2010
Survival of multicellular organisms depends on their ability to fight infection, metabolize nutrients, and store energy for times of need. Unsurprisingly, therefore, immunoregulatory and metabolic mechanisms interact in human conditions such as obesity. Both infiltrating immunoinflammatory cells and adipocytes play critical roles in the modulation of metabolic homeostasis, so it ...
Straub R H - - 2010
Energy regulation (EnR) is most important for homoeostatic regulation of physiological processes. Neuroendocrine pathways are involved in EnR. We can separate factors that provide energy-rich fuels to stores [parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS), insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, oestrogens, androgens and osteocalcin] and those that provide energy-rich substrates to consumers [sympathetic nervous ...
Fang Fugui - - 2010
Immunization using recombinant maltose binding protein-gonadotropin releasing hormone (MBP-GnRH6) altered both testicular development and transcription of the pituitary GnRH receptor (GnRHR) gene in boars. Scrotal measurement and blood samples were taken at 4-week interval after immunization at 9 weeks of age. The concentrations of testosterone and anti-GnRH antibodies in serum ...
Hazeldine Jon - - 2010
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a C19 steroid of adrenal origin. Notably, its secretion declines with age, a phenomenon referred to as the "adrenopause". For many years, the physiological significance of DHEA remained elusive. However, many studies have now shown that DHEA has significant immune modulatory function, exhibiting both immune stimulatory and ...
Gilliver Stephen C - - 2010
It is becoming increasingly clear that endogenous sex steroids are key players in a range of inflammatory contexts. Androgens and estrogens have been shown to have a profound influence on the function of inflammatory cells including macrophages and on the secretion and activation of a range of plasma-borne inflammatory mediators. ...
Del Rey Adriana - - 2010
We studied whether, in parallel to the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system, hypothalamic cytokine expression and monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations are affected during the development and chronification of arthritis induced by immunization of rats with type II collagen. Corticosterone levels were increased only transiently, and were ...
Casimir Georges Ja - - 2010
Gender influences clinical presentations and markers in inflammatory diseases. In many chronic conditions, frequency of complications is greater in females, suggesting that continuous inflammatory reaction may induce greater damage in targeted organs and functions. To investigate gender dimorphism at a cellular level, we evaluated the production of cytokines implicated in ...
Schulz Carla - - 2010
The initial discovery of leptin, an appetite-suppressing hormone originating from fat tissue, substantially supported the idea that fat-borne factors act on the brain to regulate food intake and energy expenditure. Since then, a growing number of cytokines have been found to be released from adipose tissue, thus acting in an ...
Chrousos George P - - 2010
Glucocorticoids, the major effector hormones of the stress system, influence almost all aspects of mammalian physiology. These steroids exert their effects on a large network of primary, secondary, and tertiary target genes, encompassing up to 20% of the expressed genome in a tissue. New evidence shows quantitative and qualitative gender-specific ...
Murua Ainhoa - - 2010
ver the last half century, the use of erythropoietin (Epo) in the management of malignancies has been extensively studied. Originally viewed as the renal hormone responsible for red blood cell production, many recent in vivo and clinical approaches demonstrate that various tissues locally produce Epo in response to physical or ...
Casazza Krista - - 2010
Historical data suggest that body composition is intricately involved in pubertal development. Progression through puberty is dependent on the interaction between the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH-IGF-1) axis, reproductive and metabolic hormones as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines which induce alterations in feedback mechanisms and therefore mediate body composition ...
Rivest Serge - - 2010
The growing spark of interest in research concerning the molecular links between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems has caused an explosion of new knowledge concerning the fine mechanisms that orchestrate the integrated response to an immune challenge. For instance, elevation in plasma glucocorticoid (GC) levels is one of the ...
Fain John N - - 2010
This paper considers the role of putative adipokines that might be involved in the enhanced inflammatory response of human adipose tissue seen in obesity. Inflammatory adipokines [IL-6, IL-10, ACE, TGFbeta1, TNFalpha, IL-1beta, PAI-1, and IL-8] plus one anti-inflammatory [IL-10] adipokine were identified whose circulating levels as well as in vitro ...
Tkacova Ruzena - - 2010
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Low-grade systemic inflammation is considered a hallmark of COPD that potentially links COPD to increased rate of systemic manifestations of the disease. Obesity with/without the metabolic syndrome and cachexia represent two poles of metabolic abnormalities that ...
Fernández-Riejos Patricia - - 2010
Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that secretes various humoral factors (adipokines), and its shift to production of proinflammatory cytokines in obesity likely contributes to the low-level systemic inflammation that may be present in metabolic syndrome-associated chronic pathologies such as atherosclerosis. Leptin is one of the most important hormones ...
Ocaña Aurelio - - 2010
Adipocytes contribute to inflammation and the innate immune response through expression of inflammatory mediators. High levels of these mediators have been related to chronic inflammation state and insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes type 2, among other disorders. 3-octadecylglycerol (batyl alcohol) has been described as an inflammatory agent, whereas Conjugated ...
Rivas Carmen - - 2010
Tumor suppressor p53 is widely known as 'the guardian of the genome' due to its ability to prevent the emergence of transformed cells by the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. However, recent studies indicate that p53 is also a direct transcriptional target of type I interferons (IFNs) and ...
Balistreri Carmela Rita - - 2010
Obesity is an energy-rich condition associated with overnutrition, which impairs systemic metabolic homeostasis and elicits stress. It also activates an inflammatory process in metabolically active sites, such as white adipose tissue, liver, and immune cells. As consequence, increased circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, hormone-like molecules, and other inflammatory markers are ...
Geara Abdallah Sassine - - 2010
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) function as immunologic mediator has become interesting with the recent usage of PTH analogue (teriparatide) in the management of osteoporosis. Since the early 1980s, PTH receptors were found on most immunologic cells (neutrophils, B and T cells). The in vitro evaluations for a possible role of PTH ...
Martin Carol Lynn - - 2010
A comprehensive theory of gender development must describe and explain long-term developmental patterning and changes and how gender is experienced in the short term. This review considers multiple views on gender patterning, illustrated with contemporary research. First, because developmental research involves understanding normative patterns of change with age, several theoretically ...
Mola Lucrezia - - 2011
Our previous data indicated an important role for adrenocorticotropic (ACTH)-like molecules co-operating with macrophages to control the modifications in body homeostasis during the first period of the life of sea bass (up to 30 days post-hatching) before the lymphoid cells have reached complete maturation. The aim of the study was ...
Cataldi A - - 2009
Cellular senescence implies loss of proliferative and tissue regenerative capability. Also hypoxia, producing Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), can damage cellular components through the oxidation of DNA, proteins and lipids, thus influencing the shortening of telomeres.Since ribonucleoprotein Telomerase (TERT), catalyzing the replication of the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, promotes cardiac muscle ...
Poulos Sylvia P - - 2010
White adipose tissue is a mesenchymal tissue that begins developing in the fetus. Classically known for storing the body's fuel reserves, adipose tissue is now recognized as an endocrine organ. As such, the secretions from adipose tissue are known to affect several systems such as the vascular and immune systems ...
Suga Hirotaka - - 2009
Lipedema is a disease with unknown etiology presenting as bilateral and symmetric enlargement of the lower extremities due to subcutaneous deposition of the adipose tissue. Here we describe the histopathological features of the lipedema tissue and nonaffected adipose tissue obtained from a typical patient with severe lipedema. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated ...
Yang Ce - - 2009
In trauma, infection and hemorrhagic shock derived stress, primary and secondary injury may result in severe derangement in the internal environment. The abnormal changes of immune-mediated inflammation interfere its pathogenesis and development directly. In recent years, various aspects of neuroendocrine responses, especially the regulatory effects of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetico-adrenomedullary axes ...
Dozio E - - 2009
Class-I cytokines represent a large group of molecules involved in different physiological processes including host defence, immune regulation, food intake, energy metabolism and, relevant for this review, reproduction. In this latter respect, here, we focus the attention on four of these molecules, specifically leptin, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), leukemia inhibitory ...
Shiihara Takashi - - 2010
To clarify the immune pathophysiology of West syndrome (WS). We measured peripheral blood lymphocyte subset and serum cytokine profiles in 76 WS patients and 26 age-matched controls. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is one of the most effective therapy for WS and presumably immune-modulating; therefore, we compared the measured parameters between before ...
Kalinec F - - 2009
The current clinical strategy to protect the auditory organ against inflammatory damage by migrating leukocytes is the local delivery of glucocorticoids. However, the mechanism by which glucocorticoids confer this protection remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the cellular and molecular targets of glucocorticoids in the cochlea that could be involved in ...
Alkhouri Naim - - 2010
Adipocyte death has been reported in both obese humans and rodents. However, its role in metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and inflammation associated with obesity has not been studied. We now show using real-time reverse transcription-PCR arrays that adipose tissue of obese mice display a pro-apoptotic phenotype. Moreover, ...
Smith Ulf - - 2010
Ectopic lipid accumulation is promoted by obesity and an impaired ability to accumulate triglycerides in the subcutaneous depots. The adipose tissue is dysregulated in hypertrophic obesity, i.e., when the adipose cells have become enlarged. In some individuals, however, obesity is a consequence of a recruitment of new adipocytes, i.e., a ...
Demas Gregory E - - 2010
Mounting an immune response requires a relatively substantial investment of energy and marked reductions in energy availability can suppress immune function and presumably increase disease susceptibility. We have previously demonstrated that a moderate reduction in energy stores by partial surgical lipectomy impairs humoral immunity of Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) and ...
Paz-Filho Gilberto Jorge - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The few identified leptin-deficient children have immune deficiency. AIMS: To evaluate whether a newly-identified leptin-deficient boy has immune defects; to assess the immune changes during leptin replacement. METHODS: A 5 year-old boy with congenital leptin deficiency was evaluated before, 2 weeks and 6 weeks after the initiation of recombinant ...
Cai C - - 2009
PLeptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone with pleiotropic effects on energy homeostasis, endocrine and reproductive functions, and immune responses. The multiple actions of leptin have led to the design and development of several leptin-based approaches to modulate the metabolic and endocrine status, to reduce inflammation, and to improve immune responses. Here, ...
Kasperska-Zajac Alicja E - - 2009
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEA-S) are weak androgens produced in the adrenals and serve as primary precursors in biosynthesis of both, androgens and estrogens. These hormones are proposed to perform immunoenhancing activities and may play a crucial role in regulating cytokine production by Th1/Th2 cells; however, their role ...
Tanaka Miyako - - 2010
Monocytes/macrophages are key mediators of wound repair, tissue remodeling, and inflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying macrophage recruitment to the site of inflammation is not fully understood. Leptin acts directly on the hypothalamus, thereby regulating food intake and energy expenditure. The leptin receptor, a single transmembrane protein that belongs to ...
Aron-Wisnewsky Judith - - 2009
Macrophages accumulate in adipose tissue and possibly participate in metabolic complications in obesity. Macrophage number varies with adipose tissue site and weight loss, but whether this is accompanied by phenotypic changes is unknown. The objective of the study was to characterize the activation state of adipose tissue macrophages in human ...
Alexaki Vassilia-Ismini - - 2009
Adipose tissue represents a rich source of multipotent stem cells. Mesenchymal cells, isolated from this source, can differentiate to other cell types in vitro and therefore can be used for a number of regenerative therapies. Our view of adipose tissue has recently changed, establishing adipocytes as new members of the ...
Stofkova A - - 2009
There is a growing evidence that both overnutrition and undernutrition negatively interfere with immune system. The overnutrition has been found to increase susceptibility to the development of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. On the other hand, starvation or malnutrition has been more associated with increased susceptibility to infections. In the regulation ...
Kos Katarina - - 2009
Adipose tissue can affect human physiology through its secreted products, collectively termed adipokines, which mediate complex crosstalk between organs. Adipokines have been linked to a wide range of pathologies in many tissues; however, the pathophysiological significance of these cytokines remains poorly understood, and more research is needed in this area. ...
Keophiphath Mayoura - - 2009
Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Limiting white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion and therefore reducing inflammation could be effective in preventing the progression of obesity and the development of associated complications. We investigated the effects of 1,2-vinyldithiin (1,2-DT), a garlic-derived organosulfur, on the differentiation and inflammatory state of ...
Xu De-Li - - 2010
Immune defense is important for organisms' survival and fitness. Small mammals in temperate zone often face seasonal food shortages. Generally fasting can suppress immune function in laboratory rodents and little information is available for wild rodents. The present study tested the hypothesis that Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) could inhibit T ...
Patsouris David - - 2009
The link between intra-abdominal adiposity and type II diabetes has been known for decades, and adipose tissue macrophage (ATM)-associated inflammation has recently been linked to insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms associated with ATM recruitment remain ill defined. Herein, we describe in vitro chemotaxis studies, in which adipocyte conditioned medium was ...
Xu De-Li - - 2009
The Publisher regrets that this article is an accidental duplication of an article that has already been published, doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2009.09.003. The duplicate article has therefore been withdrawn.
Csaba Gyöorgy - - 2009
The effect of histamine in 10 -9 , 10 -12 , 10 -15 and 10 -18 molar concentrations was studied on the beta-endorphin and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) content of peritoneal immune cells (lymphocytes, monocyte-granulocyte group and mast cells), using immunocytochemical flow cytometric method. The lower concentrations (10 -15 and ...
Chen Peisong - - 2009
Glucocorticoid plays a fundamental role in maintaining immune homeostasis. Resistance to glucocorticoids is a potential etiology of inflammatory/immune-mediated disease. Most of the glucocorticoid effects are mediated by glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which has a complicated promoter region with multiple promoters. Studies have found that the methylation pattern of GR promoter is ...
French Susannah S - - 2009
The primary goal of virtually all organisms is to produce genetic offspring, thereby passing on their genes to future generations. Offspring production, however, is limited by available resources within an environment. Moreover, distributing sufficient energy among competing physiological systems is challenging and can result in trade-offs between self-maintenance and offspring ...
Wood I Stuart - - 2009
Expansion of adipose tissue mass, the distinctive feature of obesity, is associated with low-grade inflammation. White adipose tissue secretes a diverse range of adipokines, a number of which are inflammatory mediators (such as TNFalpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1). The production of inflammatory adipokines is increased with obesity and ...
Miyake Sachiko - - 2009
Ghrelin is a recently identified gastric hormone that displays strong growth hormone (GH) releasing activity mediated by the GH secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). While this unique endogenous peptide participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis, increases food intake, and decreases energy expenditure, its ability to modulate immune regulation is another important ...
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