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Results 251 - 300 of 1180
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Tolfvenstam Thomas - - 2011
While dengue-elicited early and transient host responses preceding defervescence could shape the disease outcome and reveal mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis, assessment of these responses are difficult as patients rarely seek healthcare during the first days of benign fever and thus data are lacking. In this study, focusing on early ...
Wang Jun - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to assess the induced apoptosis of self-assembled iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) co-loaded with daunorubicin (DNR) and 5-bromotetrandrin (Br Tet) (DNR/Br Tet-MNPs), acting as a drug depot system for the sustained release of the loaded DNR and BrTet, in the drug resistant human leukemia ...
Reuland Steven N - - 2011
Metastatic melanoma has poor prognosis and is refractory to most conventional chemotherapies. The alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ) is commonly used in treating melanoma but has a disappointing response rate. Agents that can act cooperatively with TMZ and improve its efficacy are thus highly sought after. The BH3 mimetic ABT-737, which ...
García María Angel - - 2011
The chemotherapeutic drug 5-FU is widely used in the treatment of a range of cancers, but resistance to the drug remains a major clinical problem. Since defects in the mediators of apoptosis may account for chemo-resistance, the identification of new targets involved in 5-FU-induced apoptosis is of main clinical interest. ...
Guan Hongyu - - 2011
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism through which Sphingosine kinase-1 (SPHK1) exerts its anti-apoptosis activity in glioma cancer cells. We here report that dysregulation of SPHK1 alters the sensitivity of glioma to apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Further mechanistic study examined the expression of ...
Nagoor Noor Hasima - - 2011
The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of erythrocarpine E (CEB4), a limonoid extracted from Chisocheton erythrocarpus on human oral squamous cell carcinoma. Based on preliminary dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, CEB4 treated HSC-4 cells demonstrated a cytotoxic effect and inhibited cell proliferation in a ...
Liu Juan - - 2011
Caspase-8 is a key upstream mediator in death receptor-mediated apoptosis and also participates in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis via cleavage of proapoptotic Bid. However, the role of caspase-8 in p53- and p73-dependent apoptosis induced by genotoxic drugs remains unclear. We recently reported that the reconstitution of procaspase-8 is sufficient for sensitizing cisplatin- ...
Marik Paul E - - 2011
An intact hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis with effective intracellular glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory activity is essential for host survival following exposure to an infectious agent. Glucocorticoids play a major role in regulating the activity of nuclear factor-kappa- B, which has a crucial and generalized role in inducing cytokine gene transcription after exposure to ...
Azizi Behrooz B Schepens Eye Research Institute, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, - - 2011
This study compared susceptibility of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) and normal corneal endothelial cells (CECs) to oxidative stress, and studied the mechanism of oxidative-stress-induced apoptosis in FECD-affected endothelium. For in vitro studies, immortalized normal and FECD human corneal endothelial cell lines (HCECi and FECDi, respectively) were exposed to tert-butyl ...
Beach Jessica A JA Department of Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330-8303, USA. - - 2011
Synthetic GCs serve as therapeutic agents for some lymphoid leukemias because of their ability to induce transcriptional changes via the GC receptor (GR) and trigger apoptosis. Upregulation of the BH3-only member of Bcl-2 family proteins, Bim, has been shown to be essential for GC-evoked apoptosis of leukemic lymphoblasts. Using human ...
Adelman James S - - 2010
Immune responses benefit hosts by clearing pathogens, but they also incur physiological costs and tissue damage. While wild animals differ in how they balance these costs and benefits, the physiological mechanisms underlying such differential investment in immunity remain unknown. Uncovering these mechanisms is crucial to determining how and where selection ...
Cheng An-Chin - - 2010
Garcinol, derived from Garcinia indica and other related species, has been found to modulate several cell signalling pathways involved in apoptosis and cancer development. Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153) is a member of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family of transcription factors; it is expressed at low levels ...
Gouranton E - - 2011
Obesity is associated with a low-grade inflammation which is correlated with an increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by adipose tissue, suspected to contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Because lycopene is mostly stored in adipose tissue and possesses anti-inflammatory properties, we hypothesize that lycopene could reduce the ...
Roberts Thomas - - 2010
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is the most polymorphic region of the genome, coding for proteins that mediate human immune response. This polymorphism may be maintained by balancing selection and certain populations show deviations from expected gene frequencies. Supporting this hypothesis, studies into olfactory preferences have suggested that females prefer ...
Yarandi Shadi S SS Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Lipids, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, - - 2011
Leptin was discovered in 1994 as a hormone produced by adipose tissue with a modulatory effect on feeding behavior and weight control. Recently, the stomach has been identified as an important source of leptin and growing evidence has shown diverse functions for leptin in the gastrointestinal tract. Using leptin as ...
Craft Mitchell K - - 2010
A growing body of literature suggests multifaceted alterations to the immune function in obese patients compared with a lean cohort. Although treatment in the intensive care unit has an associated risk of infectious complications, which, if any, of these immunologic alterations are causal is unclear. Obesity clearly causes abundant alterations ...
Zheng Juan - - 2010
1. Leptin, an important adipose-derived hormone, can be associated with cardiac pathophysiology; however, the role of leptin in cardiomyocyte apoptosis is poorly understood. The present study examines serum-deprivation-induced apoptosis in primary cultured cardiomyocytes treated with leptin. 2. Cardiomyocytes were subjected to serum deprivation in the presence or absence of leptin ...
Mukherjee Annice - - 2010
Hypopituitarism is not currently considered as a potential cause of immune disruption in humans. Accumulating data from in vitro and animal models support a role for the pituitary gland in immune regulation. Furthermore, the increased mortality risk noted in patients with adult hypopituitarism remains poorly explained and immune dysfunction could ...
Kaminski Denise A DA Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, - - 2010
Studies of immunity typically focus on understanding how hematopoietic cells interact within conventional secondary lymphoid tissues. However, immune reactions and their regulation occur in various environments within the body. Adipose tissue is one tissue that can influence and be influenced by adjacent and embedded lymphocytes. Despite the abundance and wide ...
Ito Taisuke - - 2010
Interest in the hair follicle (HF) has recently increased, yet the detailed mechanisms of HF function and immune privilege (IP) have not yet been elucidated. This review discusses the critical points of immunobiology and hormonal aspects of HFs. The HF is a unique mini-organ because it has its own immune ...
Kosteli Aliki - - 2010
Obesity elicits an immune response characterized by myeloid cell recruitment to key metabolic organs, including adipose tissue. However, the response of immune cells to nonpathologic metabolic stimuli has been less well studied, and the factors that regulate the metabolic-dependent accumulation of immune cells are incompletely understood. Here we characterized the ...
Kiapekou Erasmia - - 2010
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a 41-amino acid peptide synthesized by neurons of the parvocellular and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei. Central CRH is the principal regulator of the stress system influencing several systems in the brain and influenced by them. It activates the secretion of glucocorticoids and indirectly regulates the immune system ...
Conde Javier - - 2010
White adipose tissue is currently considered to be an active endocrine organ that secretes a plethora of factors named adipokines, most of them proinflammatory in nature, which probably contribute to low-level systemic inflammation; a state that is often present in metabolic syndrome-associated chronic pathologies such as obesity and atherosclerosis. Leptin ...
Reed Johanna R JR Department of Lab Medicine and Pathology, Graduate Program in Microbiology, Immunology and Cancer Biology, Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, - - 2010
Post-natal mammary gland development requires complex interactions between the epithelial cells and various cell types within the stroma. Recent studies have illustrated the importance of immune cells and their mediators during the various stages of mammary gland development. However, the mechanisms by which these immune cells functionally contribute to mammary ...
Aggarwal Bharat B BB Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. - - 2010
Extensive research within the past two decades has revealed that obesity, a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer, and other chronic diseases, is a proinflammatory disease. Several spices have been shown to exhibit activity against obesity through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Among them, curcumin, a yellow pigment ...
Meylan Sandrine - - 2010
Hormones are an important interface between genome and environment, because of their ability to modulate the animal's phenotype. In particular, corticosterone, the stress hormone in lizards, is known to reallocate energy from non-essential functions to affect morphological, physiological and behavioral traits that help the organism to deal with acute or ...
Pate Joy L - - 2010
The dynamic changes that characterize the female reproductive system are regulated by hormones. However, local cell-to-cell interactions may mediate responsiveness of tissues to hormonal signals. The corpus luteum (CL) is an excellent model for understanding how immune cells are recruited into tissues and the role played by those cells in ...
Lunin Sergey M - - 2010
Inflammatory diseases are characterized by severe immune imbalances, leading to excessive or inappropriate release of mediators, which, in turn, result in massive damage to organs and systems. Effective means to control inappropriate immune reactions are often life-critical needs. Available data on the role of thymus-derived hormones in inflammation show their ...
Kentner A C - - 2010
Acute inflammation results in alterations in both peripheral and central nervous system cytokine levels that together can exert transient but profound alterations in neuroendocrine function. This has been particularly well studied with respect to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes. There is now evidence, particularly in rodents, that an inflammation ...
Torriglia Alicia - - 2010
Corticosteroids are hormones involved in many physiological responses such as stress, immune modulation, protein catabolism and water homeostasis. The subfamily of glucocorticoids is used systemically in the treatment of inflammatory diseases or allergic reactions. In the eye, glucocorticoides are used to treat macular edema, inflammation and neovascularization. The most commonly ...
Lam Queenie Lai Kwan QL Department of Pathology and Centre of Infection and Immunology, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, - - 2010
Regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle progression plays an essential role in the maintenance of B-cell homeostasis, because a fine balance of survival and expansion is critical for preventing lymphocytic disorders. Although remarkable progress in understanding B-cell development has been achieved, much less is known concerning niches that are critical ...
Flynn Thomas J - - 2010
Women are more susceptible than men to acute liver injury from drugs and other xenobiotics. The biological mechanisms for this sex difference are unknown, but known sex differences in steroid hormone levels and immune response could play a role. A human hepatocyte cell line, HepG2, was cultured for 8 days ...
Vaughan Tamisha - - 2010
Leptin, a key adipokine involved in regulating food intake and body weight, has been recently implicated in the exacerbation of inflammation. Elevated leptin levels in blood circulation are correlated with increased inflammation in obese individuals with cardiovascular complications. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood. In this report, we ...
Muehlenbein Michael P - - 2010
There is a paucity of data on the energetic demands of human immune functions, despite the fact that both clinical medicine and evolutionary biology would benefit from further clarification of these costs. To better understand the energetic requirements of mounting a mild immune response, as well as some of the ...
Kolditz Catherine-Ines - - 2010
Adipose tissue lipolysis is a critical pathway for the maintenance of energy homeostasis through the degradation of triglycerides and the release of fatty acids into the circulation. The understanding of the cellular factors regulating triglyceride hydrolysis and the metabolic function of lipases has considerably expanded in the last few years, ...
Sell Henrike - - 2010
Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation in adipose tissue. This review presents an update on human and rodent studies analyzing the nature of fat-infiltrating immune cells, the time course of adipose tissue infiltration and underlying mechanisms. Intensive studies in rodents have shown that not only cells of the innate ...
Lee Mi-Jeong MJ Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Boston University, School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, - - 2010
Recent studies demonstrate that adipose tissue undergoes a continuous process of remodeling that is pathologically accelerated in the obese state. Contrary to earlier dogma, adipocytes die and are replaced by newly differentiated ones. This review will summarize recent advances of our knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate adipose tissue remodeling ...
Song Cai - - 2011
In patients with major depression or in animal models of depression, significantly increases in the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been consistently reported. Proinflammatory cytokines can stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to release stress hormone, glucocorticoids. As a consequence of excessive inflammatory response triggered by pro-inflammatory cytokines in the periphery, ...
Gökdal Ozdal - - 2010
The aims of the study were to investigate the effects of immunization against GnRH using OL protein (Ovalbumin-LHRH-7) on feedlot performance, carcass, meat quality and some reproductive traits in Kıvırcık ram lambs. Ram lambs in the immunization (I, n=7) group were immunized against GnRH using OL protein and boosted 2 ...
Behrendt Patrick - - 2010
The adipocyte-derived catabolic protein leptin alters cell-mediated immunity and cytokine crosstalk. This may provide new insights into the altered immune response, seen in obese individuals. Therefore, we determined the tissue distribution of immune cells in diet-induced obese (dio) and normal weight F344 rats challenged with MADB106 tumor cells or leptin. ...
Landskroner-Eiger Shira S Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, - - 2010
Mammary gland development is critically dependent on the interactions between the stromal and the epithelial compartments within the gland. These events are under the control of a complex interplay of circulating and locally acting hormones and growth factors. To analyze the temporal and quantitative contributions of stromal adipocytes, we took ...
Cifuentes Mariana - - 2010
Obesity-associated health complications are thought to be in part due to the low-grade proinflammatory state that characterizes this disease. The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), which is expressed in human adipose cells, plays an important role in diseases involving inflammation. To assess the relevance of this protein in adipose pathophysiology, we ...
Schäffler Andreas - - 2010
The understanding of the role of adipose tissue has changed from a lipid storage organ to an endocrine and immunologically active organ. Here, we summarize the evidence for an important role of adipose tissue in innate immunity. The review focuses on the expression and function of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in ...
Pitychoutis Pothitos M - - 2010
It is firmly established that women experience major depression (MD) at roughly twice the rate of men. Contemporary research has indicated that sex hormones comprise crucial orchestrators of the differences in susceptibility associated to sex in MD, as well as in certain infectious and autoimmune diseases. Interestingly, it has been ...
Anderson Emily K EK Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-0615, - - 2010
In December of 2003, two seminal articles describing the presence of macrophages in obese adipose tissue were published. These adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are inflammatory and promote local and systemic insulin resistance. Due to the continuing rise in obesity around the world, understanding how these ATMs contribute to metabolic disorders ...
Iannone F - - 2010
Obesity is one of the main risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA). For many years the association of obesity and OA has been simply attributed to the effects of overload on weight-bearing joints, and epidemiological surveys have shown a strict correlation between an increased body mass index and the severity of ...
Sun Yiyi - - 2010
Adiponectin is a protein hormone mainly secreted by adipose tissue that regulates energy homeostasis and glucose and lipid metabolism. Compared with other adipose-derived hormones, adiponectin is very abundant in plasma and is proposed to be a convenient biomarker for many diseases. A large number of in vitro and in vivo ...
Marigo L - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and the role of the parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-rP) in the inflamed pulp. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four pulp tissue specimens (24 inflamed and 10 normal pulps) from extracted third molars were studied. The presence of PTH-rP was observed by ...
Tschöp Johannes J Clinic for Anaesthesiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, D-81375 Munich, - - 2010
Sepsis describes a complex clinical syndrome that results from an infection, setting off a cascade of systemic inflammatory responses that can lead to multiple organ failure and death. Leptin is a 16 kDa adipokine that, among its multiple known effects, is involved in regulating immune function. Here we demonstrate that ...
Trevaskis James L - - 2010
Although the adipokine leptin is regarded as the prototypical long-term signal of energy balance, obese individuals are largely nonresponsive to exogenous leptin administration. Restoration of leptin responsiveness in obesity has been elusive despite a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms of leptin signaling. Recent translational research findings point to a ...
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