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Results 251 - 300 of 1158
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Conde Javier - - 2010
White adipose tissue is currently considered to be an active endocrine organ that secretes a plethora of factors named adipokines, most of them proinflammatory in nature, which probably contribute to low-level systemic inflammation; a state that is often present in metabolic syndrome-associated chronic pathologies such as obesity and atherosclerosis. Leptin ...
Reed Johanna R JR Department of Lab Medicine and Pathology, Graduate Program in Microbiology, Immunology and Cancer Biology, Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, - - 2010
Post-natal mammary gland development requires complex interactions between the epithelial cells and various cell types within the stroma. Recent studies have illustrated the importance of immune cells and their mediators during the various stages of mammary gland development. However, the mechanisms by which these immune cells functionally contribute to mammary ...
Aggarwal Bharat B BB Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. - - 2010
Extensive research within the past two decades has revealed that obesity, a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer, and other chronic diseases, is a proinflammatory disease. Several spices have been shown to exhibit activity against obesity through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Among them, curcumin, a yellow pigment ...
Meylan Sandrine - - 2010
Hormones are an important interface between genome and environment, because of their ability to modulate the animal's phenotype. In particular, corticosterone, the stress hormone in lizards, is known to reallocate energy from non-essential functions to affect morphological, physiological and behavioral traits that help the organism to deal with acute or ...
Pate Joy L - - 2010
The dynamic changes that characterize the female reproductive system are regulated by hormones. However, local cell-to-cell interactions may mediate responsiveness of tissues to hormonal signals. The corpus luteum (CL) is an excellent model for understanding how immune cells are recruited into tissues and the role played by those cells in ...
Lunin Sergey M - - 2010
Inflammatory diseases are characterized by severe immune imbalances, leading to excessive or inappropriate release of mediators, which, in turn, result in massive damage to organs and systems. Effective means to control inappropriate immune reactions are often life-critical needs. Available data on the role of thymus-derived hormones in inflammation show their ...
Kentner A C - - 2010
Acute inflammation results in alterations in both peripheral and central nervous system cytokine levels that together can exert transient but profound alterations in neuroendocrine function. This has been particularly well studied with respect to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes. There is now evidence, particularly in rodents, that an inflammation ...
Torriglia Alicia - - 2010
Corticosteroids are hormones involved in many physiological responses such as stress, immune modulation, protein catabolism and water homeostasis. The subfamily of glucocorticoids is used systemically in the treatment of inflammatory diseases or allergic reactions. In the eye, glucocorticoides are used to treat macular edema, inflammation and neovascularization. The most commonly ...
Lam Queenie Lai Kwan - - 2010
Regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle progression plays an essential role in the maintenance of B-cell homeostasis, because a fine balance of survival and expansion is critical for preventing lymphocytic disorders. Although remarkable progress in understanding B-cell development has been achieved, much less is known concerning niches that are critical ...
Flynn Thomas J - - 2010
Women are more susceptible than men to acute liver injury from drugs and other xenobiotics. The biological mechanisms for this sex difference are unknown, but known sex differences in steroid hormone levels and immune response could play a role. A human hepatocyte cell line, HepG2, was cultured for 8 days ...
Vaughan Tamisha - - 2010
Leptin, a key adipokine involved in regulating food intake and body weight, has been recently implicated in the exacerbation of inflammation. Elevated leptin levels in blood circulation are correlated with increased inflammation in obese individuals with cardiovascular complications. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood. In this report, we ...
Muehlenbein Michael P - - 2010
There is a paucity of data on the energetic demands of human immune functions, despite the fact that both clinical medicine and evolutionary biology would benefit from further clarification of these costs. To better understand the energetic requirements of mounting a mild immune response, as well as some of the ...
Kolditz Catherine-Ines - - 2010
Adipose tissue lipolysis is a critical pathway for the maintenance of energy homeostasis through the degradation of triglycerides and the release of fatty acids into the circulation. The understanding of the cellular factors regulating triglyceride hydrolysis and the metabolic function of lipases has considerably expanded in the last few years, ...
Sell Henrike - - 2010
Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation in adipose tissue. This review presents an update on human and rodent studies analyzing the nature of fat-infiltrating immune cells, the time course of adipose tissue infiltration and underlying mechanisms. Intensive studies in rodents have shown that not only cells of the innate ...
Lee Mi-Jeong - - 2010
Recent studies demonstrate that adipose tissue undergoes a continuous process of remodeling that is pathologically accelerated in the obese state. Contrary to earlier dogma, adipocytes die and are replaced by newly differentiated ones. This review will summarize recent advances of our knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate adipose tissue remodeling ...
Song Cai - - 2011
In patients with major depression or in animal models of depression, significantly increases in the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been consistently reported. Proinflammatory cytokines can stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to release stress hormone, glucocorticoids. As a consequence of excessive inflammatory response triggered by pro-inflammatory cytokines in the periphery, ...
Gökdal Ozdal - - 2010
The aims of the study were to investigate the effects of immunization against GnRH using OL protein (Ovalbumin-LHRH-7) on feedlot performance, carcass, meat quality and some reproductive traits in Kıvırcık ram lambs. Ram lambs in the immunization (I, n=7) group were immunized against GnRH using OL protein and boosted 2 ...
Behrendt Patrick - - 2010
The adipocyte-derived catabolic protein leptin alters cell-mediated immunity and cytokine crosstalk. This may provide new insights into the altered immune response, seen in obese individuals. Therefore, we determined the tissue distribution of immune cells in diet-induced obese (dio) and normal weight F344 rats challenged with MADB106 tumor cells or leptin. ...
Landskroner-Eiger Shira S Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, - - 2010
Mammary gland development is critically dependent on the interactions between the stromal and the epithelial compartments within the gland. These events are under the control of a complex interplay of circulating and locally acting hormones and growth factors. To analyze the temporal and quantitative contributions of stromal adipocytes, we took ...
Cifuentes Mariana - - 2010
Obesity-associated health complications are thought to be in part due to the low-grade proinflammatory state that characterizes this disease. The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), which is expressed in human adipose cells, plays an important role in diseases involving inflammation. To assess the relevance of this protein in adipose pathophysiology, we ...
Schäffler Andreas - - 2010
The understanding of the role of adipose tissue has changed from a lipid storage organ to an endocrine and immunologically active organ. Here, we summarize the evidence for an important role of adipose tissue in innate immunity. The review focuses on the expression and function of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in ...
Pitychoutis Pothitos M - - 2010
It is firmly established that women experience major depression (MD) at roughly twice the rate of men. Contemporary research has indicated that sex hormones comprise crucial orchestrators of the differences in susceptibility associated to sex in MD, as well as in certain infectious and autoimmune diseases. Interestingly, it has been ...
Anderson Emily K - - 2010
In December of 2003, two seminal articles describing the presence of macrophages in obese adipose tissue were published. These adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are inflammatory and promote local and systemic insulin resistance. Due to the continuing rise in obesity around the world, understanding how these ATMs contribute to metabolic disorders ...
Iannone F - - 2010
Obesity is one of the main risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA). For many years the association of obesity and OA has been simply attributed to the effects of overload on weight-bearing joints, and epidemiological surveys have shown a strict correlation between an increased body mass index and the severity of ...
Sun Yiyi - - 2010
Adiponectin is a protein hormone mainly secreted by adipose tissue that regulates energy homeostasis and glucose and lipid metabolism. Compared with other adipose-derived hormones, adiponectin is very abundant in plasma and is proposed to be a convenient biomarker for many diseases. A large number of in vitro and in vivo ...
Marigo L - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and the role of the parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-rP) in the inflamed pulp. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four pulp tissue specimens (24 inflamed and 10 normal pulps) from extracted third molars were studied. The presence of PTH-rP was observed by ...
Tschöp Johannes J Clinic for Anaesthesiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, D-81375 Munich, - - 2010
Sepsis describes a complex clinical syndrome that results from an infection, setting off a cascade of systemic inflammatory responses that can lead to multiple organ failure and death. Leptin is a 16 kDa adipokine that, among its multiple known effects, is involved in regulating immune function. Here we demonstrate that ...
Trevaskis James L - - 2010
Although the adipokine leptin is regarded as the prototypical long-term signal of energy balance, obese individuals are largely nonresponsive to exogenous leptin administration. Restoration of leptin responsiveness in obesity has been elusive despite a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms of leptin signaling. Recent translational research findings point to a ...
Zunszain Patricia A - - 2011
Major depression (MD) is a common psychiatric disorder with a complex and multifactor aetiology. Potential mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of this disorder include monoamine deficits, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunctions, inflammatory and/or neurodegenerative alterations. An increased secretion and reactivity of cortisol together with an altered feedback inhibition are the most ...
Vendrell Joan - - 2010
CONTEXT: Adipose tissue hypoxia and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress may link the presence of chronic inflammation and macrophage infiltration in severely obese subjects. We previously reported the up-regulation of TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK)/fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) axis in adipose tissue of severely obese type 2 diabetic subjects. ...
Khan W I - - 2010
Gut inflammation is characterized by mucosal recruitment of activated cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. In addition to immune cells, inflammation in the gut is associated with an alteration in enteric endocrine cells and various biologically active compounds produced by these cells. Although the change in enteric ...
Oh-I Shinsuke - - 2010
In peripheral tissues, the link between obesity and insulin resistance involves low-grade inflammation induced by macrophage activation and proinflammatory cytokine signaling. Since proinflammatory cytokines are also induced in the hypothalamus of animals placed on a high-fat (HF) diet and can inhibit neuronal signal transduction pathways required for normal energy homeostasis, ...
Cutolo Maurizio - - 2010
Immunological, epidemiological, and clinical evidence suggest that female sex hormones play an important role in the etiology and pathophysiology of chronic immune/inflammatory diseases. Several significant factors generate confusion and opposite conclusions in evaluating the role of estrogens in these diseases, including relatively superficial translational studies from animals to the human ...
Elks Carrie M - - 2010
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of metabolic derangements and underlying factors that significantly increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. MetS is a low-grade inflammatory condition, with systemic inflammation and inflammation of central abdominal fat as contributors. Systemic inflammation in MetS is thought to involve ...
Golub Valeriy - - 2010
A number of mammals undergo hibernation during their lifespan. The euthermal condition that occurs prior to hibernation is characterized by inhibition of cellular proliferation, reduction of stress reactivity, a decrease in metabolism, and changes in the immune system (seasonal thymus involution). Analysis of data of young red voles (Clethrionomys glareolus), ...
Suganami Takayoshi - - 2010
The adipose tissue secretes a large number of bioactive substances, adipocytokines, which may be involved in a variety of physiologic and pathologic processes. Unbalanced production of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipocytokines seen in visceral fat obesity contributes critically to the development of the metabolic syndrome. Evidence has accumulated indicating that obesity ...
Wira Charles R CR Department of Physiology, Dartmouth Medical School, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA. - - 2010
The immune system in the female reproductive tract (FRT) does not mount an attack against HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STI) with a single endogenously produced microbicide or with a single arm of the immune system. Instead, the body deploys dozens of innate antimicrobials to the secretions of the ...
Seggewiss Ruth - - 2010
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has advanced to a common procedure for treating also older patients with malignancies and immunodeficiency disorders by redirecting the immune system. Unfortunately, cure is often hampered by relapse of the underlying disease, graft-versus-host disease, or severe opportunistic infections, which account for the majority of ...
Negri Ilaria - - 2010
Wolbachia pipientis is known to infect only arthropods and nematodes (mainly filarial worms). A unique feature shared by the two Phyla is the ability to replace the exoskeleton, a process known as ecdysis. This shared characteristic is thought to reflect a common ancestry. Arthropod moulting is induced by the steroid ...
Lumeng Carey N - - 2010
A body of research has strongly implicated inflammation in the genesis of obesity-associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. An outstanding issue is how obesity-induced metabolic signals are translated into an inflammatory response. In this issue of Science Translational Medicine, Kishore et al. demonstrate that the action ...
Adori M?nika - - 2010
Estrogen plays a critical regulatory role in the development and maintenance of immunity. Its role in the regulation of antibody synthesis in vivo is still not completely clear. Here, we have compared the effect of estrogen on T cell-dependent (TD) and T cell-independent type 2 (TI-2) antibody responses. The results ...
Johnsen Inga K - - 2010
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of ligands that impact on a multitude of biological processes including cell type specification, differentiation and organogenesis. Furthermore, a large body of evidence points towards important BMP-dependent mechanisms in tumorigenesis. In accordance with their diverse actions, BMPs have ...
Iyer Abishek - - 2010
Survival of multicellular organisms depends on their ability to fight infection, metabolize nutrients, and store energy for times of need. Unsurprisingly, therefore, immunoregulatory and metabolic mechanisms interact in human conditions such as obesity. Both infiltrating immunoinflammatory cells and adipocytes play critical roles in the modulation of metabolic homeostasis, so it ...
Liao Guizhi - - 2010
To investigate the anti-pituitary adenoma effect of secalonic acid D (SAD) extracting from marine microorganisms, we used MTT colorimetric method to evaluate the proliferation of GH3 cells treated by SAD, the time- and dose-dependent effects and the value of IC50 were recorded. Hoechst staining, Tunel and flow cytometry methods were ...
Hepworth Matthew R - - 2010
Trichuris muris infection is an ideal model for defining T-cell-driven immunity, and also provides essential insights that may impact on potential helminth therapies currently in development. Conflicting host variables determine the efficiency of such treatments and we have identified host-derived sex steroid hormones as key factors in the development of ...
Straub R H - - 2010
Energy regulation (EnR) is most important for homoeostatic regulation of physiological processes. Neuroendocrine pathways are involved in EnR. We can separate factors that provide energy-rich fuels to stores [parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS), insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, oestrogens, androgens and osteocalcin] and those that provide energy-rich substrates to consumers [sympathetic nervous ...
Fang Fugui - - 2010
Immunization using recombinant maltose binding protein-gonadotropin releasing hormone (MBP-GnRH6) altered both testicular development and transcription of the pituitary GnRH receptor (GnRHR) gene in boars. Scrotal measurement and blood samples were taken at 4-week interval after immunization at 9 weeks of age. The concentrations of testosterone and anti-GnRH antibodies in serum ...
Hazeldine Jon - - 2010
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a C19 steroid of adrenal origin. Notably, its secretion declines with age, a phenomenon referred to as the "adrenopause". For many years, the physiological significance of DHEA remained elusive. However, many studies have now shown that DHEA has significant immune modulatory function, exhibiting both immune stimulatory and ...
Gilliver Stephen C - - 2010
It is becoming increasingly clear that endogenous sex steroids are key players in a range of inflammatory contexts. Androgens and estrogens have been shown to have a profound influence on the function of inflammatory cells including macrophages and on the secretion and activation of a range of plasma-borne inflammatory mediators. ...
Del Rey Adriana - - 2010
We studied whether, in parallel to the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system, hypothalamic cytokine expression and monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations are affected during the development and chronification of arthritis induced by immunization of rats with type II collagen. Corticosterone levels were increased only transiently, and were ...
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