Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1158
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Fagenholz Peter J - - 2011
To the Editor: In their review article on hypoxia and inflammation, Eltzschig and Carmeliet (Feb. 17 issue)(1) were thorough in promoting the role of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) and related mechanisms to regain homeostasis in hypoxic tissue environments. Although very exacting in its discussion, the review unfortunately failed to include ...
Wilcox Ian - - 2011
To the Editor: In their review article on hypoxia and inflammation, Eltzschig and Carmeliet (Feb. 17 issue)(1) were thorough in promoting the role of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) and related mechanisms to regain homeostasis in hypoxic tissue environments. Although very exacting in its discussion, the review unfortunately failed to include ...
Ahamed Maqusood - - 2011
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly recognized for their utility in biological applications, including biosensor and medicine. However, little is known about the toxicity mechanisms of ZnO nanorods in human cells. This study was designed to investigate the possible mechanisms of apoptosis induced by ZnO nanorods in human alveolar ...
Kim Duk Hoon - - 2011
Nephrotoxicity is one of the important dose-limiting factors during cisplatin treatment. There is a growing body of evidence that activation of p53 has a critical role in cisplatin-induced renal apoptotic injury. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent protein deacetylase SIRT1 decreases apoptosis through deacetylating of p53, and resveratrol is known as an ...
Zhang Xiao-Peng - - 2011
The tumor suppressor p53 mainly induces cell cycle arrest/DNA repair or apoptosis in the DNA damage response. How to choose between these two outcomes is not fully understood. We proposed a four-module model of the p53 signaling network and associated the network dynamics with cellular outcomes after ionizing radiation. We ...
Wickremasinghe R G - - 2011
The p53 tumor suppressor protein has a key role in the induction of apoptosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Abnormalities within the p53 pathway identify a subset of patients with a poor prognosis. This review describes recent advances in understanding the mechanisms that regulate p53 levels and the role ...
Tsuchiya Naoto - - 2011
Selective activation of p53-target genes in response to various cellular stresses is a critical step in determining the ability to induce cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Here we report that the identification of the microRNA, miR-22, as a p53 target gene that selectively determines the induction of p53-dependent apoptosis by ...
Audrito Valentina - - 2011
Due to its relatively indolent clinical course, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) offers a versatile model for testing novel therapeutic regimens and drug combinations. Nicotinamide is the main NAD+ precursor and a direct inhibitor of four classes of enzymes, including the sirtuins. SIRT1, the main member of the sirtuin family, inactivates ...
Hao Hongying - - 2011
E2F-1-deleted mutant, "truncated E2F" (E2Ftr, E2F-1[1-375]), lacking the carboxy-terminal transactivation domain, was shown to be more potent at inducing cancer cell apoptosis than wild-type E2F-1 (wtE2F-1; full-length E2F-1). Mechanisms by which wtE2F-1 and E2Ftr induce apoptosis, however, are not fully elucidated. Our study demonstrates molecular effects of pro-apoptotic BH3-only Bcl-2 ...
Han Weinong W Section of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, - - 2011
In response to ultraviolet B damage, keratinocytes undergo apoptosis to eliminate damaged cells, thereby preventing tumorigenic transformation. Caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive substance, produces complex pharmacological actions; it has been shown to be chemopreventive in non-melamona skin cancer in mice through increasing apoptosis. Here we have investigated the molecular ...
Bian Zhen - - 2011
Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are associated with differential expression of genes involved in inflammation and tissue remodelling. We surveyed the expression profile of apoptosis-related microRNAs by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in a dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) murine model of colitis. We found that miR-150 was strongly ...
Wu Li-Chen - - 2011
Quercetin, rich in fruits and vegetables, has been used as a nutritional supplement because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. Its positive effects on anti-hepatic fibrosis have also been suggested. However the anti-hepatofibrotic mechanisms upon which quercetin acts have yet to be well characterized. In the present study, we investigated ...
Polyakova V O - - 2011
Immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of proapoptotic protein P53 and proliferation protein Ki-67 in human pineal gland showed that in people over 60 years pinealocyte proliferation is virtually absent. Moreover, pinealocyte apoptosis is more pronounced in elderly, whereas in senile and long-living individuals its intensity decreases.
Zhang Hui-Zhen - - 2011
Toxic cyanobacterial blooms in freshwater have been considered as threats to human health. Microcystins are a family of cyclic polypeptides produced by cyanobacteria and are toxic to plants and animals. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most toxic variant among the microcystin family and could cause oxidative stress in various organs, including ...
Han Yan-Tao - - 2011
Aims: Purple sweet potato (PSP) pigments were proved to protect murine thymocytes from (60)Co γ-ray-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in our previous study. In this study, we further investigated the effect of PSP pigments on apoptosis related ROS, p53 and Bcl-2 family. Methods: Cell viability was analyzed by MTT. Apoptosis was certified ...
Malki Ahmed - - 2011
Metformin is the most widely used antidiabetic drug for type II diabetes in the world. Recent studies provide clues that the use of metformin may be associated with reduced incidence and improved prognosis of certain cancers and there is increasing evidence of a potential efficacy of this agent as an ...
Guo Wangang - - 2011
Backgrounds: RNA-binding protein QKI is abundantly expressed in the brain and heart. The role of QKI in the nervous system has been well characterized, but its function in cardiac muscle is still poorly understood. The present study was to investigate the role of QKI in ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. Methods: ...
Farrell Kelly A - - 2011
C-Myb is a DNA-binding transcription factor that functions in apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. The role of c-Myb in vascular injury has been investigated previously both in vitro and in vivo, where knock-down of c-Myb is known to lead to a reduction in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis of vascular ...
Stavrum Ruth - - 2011
[This corrects the article on p. e26295 in vol. 6.].
Beach Jessica A - - 2011
Synthetic GCs serve as therapeutic agents for some lymphoid leukemias because of their ability to induce transcriptional changes via the GC receptor (GR) and trigger apoptosis. Upregulation of the BH3-only member of Bcl-2 family proteins, Bim, has been shown to be essential for GC-evoked apoptosis of leukemic lymphoblasts. Using human ...
Pratheeshkumar P - - 2011
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of OA, a triterpene on inducing apoptosis in B16F-10 melanoma cells. Treatment of B16F-10 cells with nontoxic concentration of OA showed the presence of apoptotic bodies and induced DNA fragmentation in a dose-depended manner. Cell cycle analysis and TUNEL assay ...
Hazar-Rethinam Mehlika - - 2011
The E2F transcription factor family is traditionally associated with cell cycle control. However, recent data has shown that activating E2Fs (E2F1-3a) are potent activators of apoptosis. In contrast, the recently cloned inhibitory E2Fs (E2F7 and 8) appear to antagonize E2F-induced cell death. In this review we will discuss (i) the ...
Burgess Stewart T G - - 2011
Sheep scab, caused by infestation with the ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis, results in the rapid development of cutaneous inflammation and leads to the crusted skin lesions characteristic of the disease. We described previously the global host transcriptional response to infestation with P. ovis, elucidating elements of the inflammatory processes which ...
Stavrum Ruth - - 2011
The outcome of many infections depends on the initial interactions between agent and host. Aiming at elucidating the effect of the M. tuberculosis Mce1 protein complex on host transcriptional and immunological responses to infection with M. tuberculosis, RNA from murine macrophages at 15, 30, 60 min, 4 and 10 hrs ...
Li Wei - - 2011
Deregulated thermal factors have been frequently implicated in the pathogenesis of male infertility, but the molecular basis through which certain responses are directed remain largely unknown. We previously reported that overexpression of exogenous Metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) protects spermatogenic tumor cells GC-2spd (ts) against heat-induced apoptosis. To further dissect the ...
Roy Sanjit K - - 2011
The forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FOXO) play a direct role in cellular proliferation, oxidative stress response, and tumorigenesis. The objectives of this study were to examine whether FOXOs regulate antitumor activities of resveratrol in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Pancreatic cancer cell lines were ...
Marfè Gabriella - - 2011
n our previous study, we have shown that canine coronavirus type II (CCoV-II) activates both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathway in a canine fibrosarcoma cell line (A-72 cells). Herein we investigated the role of Sirtuin and Forkhead box O (FOXO) families in this experimental model using Nortern Blot and Western ...
Kvitt Hagit - - 2011
Elevated seawater temperatures are associated with coral bleaching events and related mortality. Nevertheless, some coral species are able to survive bleaching and recover. The apoptotic responses associated to this ability were studied over 3 years in the coral Stylophora pistillata from the Gulf of Eilat subjected to long term thermal ...
Azizi Behrooz - - 2011
This study compared susceptibility of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) and normal corneal endothelial cells (CECs) to oxidative stress, and studied the mechanism of oxidative-stress-induced apoptosis in FECD-affected endothelium. For in vitro studies, immortalized normal and FECD human corneal endothelial cell lines (HCECi and FECDi, respectively) were exposed to tert-butyl ...
Feridooni Tiam - - 2011
Doxorubicin (Dox) is an anthracycline used to effectively treat several forms of cancer. Unfortunately, the use of Dox is limited due to its association with cardiovascular complications which are manifested as acute and chronic cardiotoxicity. The pathophysiological mechanism of Dox induced cardiotoxicity appears to involve increased expression of the tumor ...
Tolfvenstam Thomas - - 2011
While dengue-elicited early and transient host responses preceding defervescence could shape the disease outcome and reveal mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis, assessment of these responses are difficult as patients rarely seek healthcare during the first days of benign fever and thus data are lacking. In this study, focusing on early ...
Wang Jun - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to assess the induced apoptosis of self-assembled iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) co-loaded with daunorubicin (DNR) and 5-bromotetrandrin (Br Tet) (DNR/Br Tet-MNPs), acting as a drug depot system for the sustained release of the loaded DNR and BrTet, in the drug resistant human leukemia ...
Reuland Steven N - - 2011
Metastatic melanoma has poor prognosis and is refractory to most conventional chemotherapies. The alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ) is commonly used in treating melanoma but has a disappointing response rate. Agents that can act cooperatively with TMZ and improve its efficacy are thus highly sought after. The BH3 mimetic ABT-737, which ...
García María Angel - - 2011
The chemotherapeutic drug 5-FU is widely used in the treatment of a range of cancers, but resistance to the drug remains a major clinical problem. Since defects in the mediators of apoptosis may account for chemo-resistance, the identification of new targets involved in 5-FU-induced apoptosis is of main clinical interest. ...
Guan Hongyu - - 2011
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism through which Sphingosine kinase-1 (SPHK1) exerts its anti-apoptosis activity in glioma cancer cells. We here report that dysregulation of SPHK1 alters the sensitivity of glioma to apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Further mechanistic study examined the expression of ...
Nagoor Noor Hasima - - 2011
The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of erythrocarpine E (CEB4), a limonoid extracted from Chisocheton erythrocarpus on human oral squamous cell carcinoma. Based on preliminary dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, CEB4 treated HSC-4 cells demonstrated a cytotoxic effect and inhibited cell proliferation in a ...
Liu Juan - - 2011
Caspase-8 is a key upstream mediator in death receptor-mediated apoptosis and also participates in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis via cleavage of proapoptotic Bid. However, the role of caspase-8 in p53- and p73-dependent apoptosis induced by genotoxic drugs remains unclear. We recently reported that the reconstitution of procaspase-8 is sufficient for sensitizing cisplatin- ...
Marik Paul E - - 2011
An intact hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis with effective intracellular glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory activity is essential for host survival following exposure to an infectious agent. Glucocorticoids play a major role in regulating the activity of nuclear factor-kappa- B, which has a crucial and generalized role in inducing cytokine gene transcription after exposure to ...
Adelman James S - - 2010
Immune responses benefit hosts by clearing pathogens, but they also incur physiological costs and tissue damage. While wild animals differ in how they balance these costs and benefits, the physiological mechanisms underlying such differential investment in immunity remain unknown. Uncovering these mechanisms is crucial to determining how and where selection ...
Cheng An-Chin - - 2010
Garcinol, derived from Garcinia indica and other related species, has been found to modulate several cell signalling pathways involved in apoptosis and cancer development. Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153) is a member of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family of transcription factors; it is expressed at low levels ...
Gouranton E - - 2011
Obesity is associated with a low-grade inflammation which is correlated with an increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by adipose tissue, suspected to contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Because lycopene is mostly stored in adipose tissue and possesses anti-inflammatory properties, we hypothesize that lycopene could reduce the ...
Roberts Thomas - - 2010
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is the most polymorphic region of the genome, coding for proteins that mediate human immune response. This polymorphism may be maintained by balancing selection and certain populations show deviations from expected gene frequencies. Supporting this hypothesis, studies into olfactory preferences have suggested that females prefer ...
Yarandi Shadi S SS Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Lipids, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, - - 2011
Leptin was discovered in 1994 as a hormone produced by adipose tissue with a modulatory effect on feeding behavior and weight control. Recently, the stomach has been identified as an important source of leptin and growing evidence has shown diverse functions for leptin in the gastrointestinal tract. Using leptin as ...
Craft Mitchell K - - 2010
A growing body of literature suggests multifaceted alterations to the immune function in obese patients compared with a lean cohort. Although treatment in the intensive care unit has an associated risk of infectious complications, which, if any, of these immunologic alterations are causal is unclear. Obesity clearly causes abundant alterations ...
Zheng Juan - - 2010
1. Leptin, an important adipose-derived hormone, can be associated with cardiac pathophysiology; however, the role of leptin in cardiomyocyte apoptosis is poorly understood. The present study examines serum-deprivation-induced apoptosis in primary cultured cardiomyocytes treated with leptin. 2. Cardiomyocytes were subjected to serum deprivation in the presence or absence of leptin ...
Mukherjee Annice - - 2010
Hypopituitarism is not currently considered as a potential cause of immune disruption in humans. Accumulating data from in vitro and animal models support a role for the pituitary gland in immune regulation. Furthermore, the increased mortality risk noted in patients with adult hypopituitarism remains poorly explained and immune dysfunction could ...
Kaminski Denise A - - 2010
Studies of immunity typically focus on understanding how hematopoietic cells interact within conventional secondary lymphoid tissues. However, immune reactions and their regulation occur in various environments within the body. Adipose tissue is one tissue that can influence and be influenced by adjacent and embedded lymphocytes. Despite the abundance and wide ...
Ito Taisuke - - 2010
Interest in the hair follicle (HF) has recently increased, yet the detailed mechanisms of HF function and immune privilege (IP) have not yet been elucidated. This review discusses the critical points of immunobiology and hormonal aspects of HFs. The HF is a unique mini-organ because it has its own immune ...
Kosteli Aliki - - 2010
Obesity elicits an immune response characterized by myeloid cell recruitment to key metabolic organs, including adipose tissue. However, the response of immune cells to nonpathologic metabolic stimuli has been less well studied, and the factors that regulate the metabolic-dependent accumulation of immune cells are incompletely understood. Here we characterized the ...
Kiapekou Erasmia - - 2010
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a 41-amino acid peptide synthesized by neurons of the parvocellular and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei. Central CRH is the principal regulator of the stress system influencing several systems in the brain and influenced by them. It activates the secretion of glucocorticoids and indirectly regulates the immune system ...
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