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Donauer Julia - - 2011
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous environmental pollutants formed during incomplete combustion of organic material. For example benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a constituent and contaminant of cigarette smoke, automobile exhaust, industrial waste and even food products. B[a]P is carcinogenic to rodents and humans. B[a]P induces its own metabolism, which generates different metabolites ...
Yin Yan - - 2011
Tubeimoside-1 is a triterpenoid saponin extracted from the traditional Chinese herb Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim.) Franquet (Cucurbitaceae). We investigated the cytotoxic effect and apoptosis mechanism of tubeimoside-1. Tubeimoside-1 was cytotoxic in seven human cancer cell lines, with HepG2 the most sensitive. Tubeimoside-1 induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells dose and time dependently. ...
Rink Jonathan S - - 2012
Islets are susceptible to damage by proinflammatory cytokines via activation of transcription factor NF-κB. We hypothesized that inhibition of NF-κB activity will decrease cytokine-mediated β-cell injury and improve islet transplant functional outcome. We created a transgenic mouse expressing a degradation resistant N-terminally deleted IκBα (ΔNIκBα) under the control of a ...
Torres-Chávez Karla E - - 2011
Temporomandibular joint pain-related conditions are generally characterized by local inflammation; however, little studies have focused on the role of gonadal hormones in the expression of inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines. Therefore, we asked whether gonadal steroid hormones affect formalin-induced cytokines expression in the rat temporomcandibular joint. The expression of tumor ...
Chatterjee Arunachal - - 2011
Cardiac hypertrophy leading to eventual heart failure is the most common cause of mortality throughout the world. The triggering mechanisms for cardiac hypertrophy are not clear but both apoptosis and cell proliferation have been reported in sections of failing hearts. In this study, we utilized both angiotensin II (AngII) treatment ...
Eto K - - 2012
The programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4), a translation inhibitor, plays an essential role in tumor suppression, but its role in apoptosis remains unclear. Here we show that Pdcd4 is a critical suppressor of apoptosis by inhibiting the translation of procaspase-3 mRNA. Pdcd4 protein decreased more rapidly through microRNA-mediated translational repression ...
Jin C-Q - - 2011
Introduction:  Dysfunctional cellular immunity is considered to be essential to the pathophysiology of Epstein-Barr virus-related idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (EBV-ITP). Cytokines in peripheral blood and the gene expression of transcription factors in T lymphocytes of patients with were investigated to correlate the polarization of T helper cell type 1 (Th1)/T helper ...
Pinto Rodrigues J F N - - 2011
Background  Recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU) is considered to be an acute inflammatory disease of unknown pathogenesis. Apoptosis may represent an important event in the control of inflammation. Objectives  The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis process in RAU using immunohistochemistry. Methods  We studied the expression and location of ...
Liu Yu-Huei - - 2012
Abrin (ABR), a protein purified from the seeds of Abrus precatorius, induces apoptosis in various types of cancer cells. However, the detailed mechanism remains largely uncharacterized. By using a cDNA microarray platform, we determined that prohibitin (PHB), a tumor suppressor protein, is significantly upregulated in ABR-triggered apoptosis. ABR-induced upregulation of ...
Legutko Agnieszka - - 2011
Sirtuins are a unique class of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases that regulate diverse biological functions such as aging, metabolism, and stress resistance. Recently, it has been shown that sirtuins may have anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting proinflammatory transcription factors such as NF-κB. In contrast, we report in this study that pharmacological inhibition of ...
Crozat Karine - - 2011
Subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) have been described according to their functions and anatomical locations. Conventional DC subsets are defined by reciprocal expression of CD11b and CD8α in lymphoid tissues (LT), and of CD11b and CD103 in non-LT (NLT). Spleen CD8α(+) and dermal CD103(+) DCs share a high efficiency for ...
Ludke Ana - - 2011
Understanding the molecular basis of doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cardiomyopathy is crucial to finding cardioprotective strategies. Oxidative stress-mediated pathways are known to contribute to cardiomyocyte apoptosis due to Dox. Improving the antioxidant defenses of cardiomyocytes could be one strategy for cardiac protection. We tested the effects of vitamin C (Vit C), a ...
Na Tae-Young - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease of the arteries that is characterized by subendothelial accumulation of lipid-rich macrophages, called foam cells. We sought to identify the molecular details of cross-talk between liver X receptor α (LXRα) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) for the formation of triglyceride-rich foam ...
Raffetseder Ute - - 2011
Chemokines (chemoattractant cytokines) are crucial regulators of immune cell extravasation from the bloodstream into inflamed tissue. Dysfunctional regulation and perpetuated chemokine gene expression are linked to progressive chronic inflammatory diseases and, in respect to transplanted organs, may trigger graft rejection. RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted ...
Li Tai - - 2011
Neuroblastoma is one of the most common solid tumors in children, and comprises about 8-10% of all childhood malignancies. More than 22% cases have N-myc amplification which is associated with aggressively growing neuroblastomas. Oncogene-induced sensitization of cells to apoptosis is an important mechanism for suppression of tumorigenesis. Tumor suppressors often ...
Jang Seung I - - 2011
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in host defense against a variety of microorganisms including protozoan parasites. Interestingly, some microbial pathogens also express a MIF-like protein, although its role in disease pathogenesis is not well understood. The aim of this study was ...
Wang Jun - - 2011
The FOXO family of transcription factors have recently been implicated in innate immunity, especially in case of DAF-16 from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. However, previous studies with this nematode proposed that DAF-16 is not directly activated by pathogens. Rather, DAF-16 mediates resistance if activated by some other cue as part ...
Nakajima Wataru - - 2011
Tumor suppressor p53 induces apoptosis by transcriptional induction of Noxa and Puma, which encode the proapoptotic BH3-only member of the Bcl-2 family proteins. In the p53-mediated tumor surveillance system, p53 induces apoptosis or replicative senescence in oncogene-expressing cells, resulting in elimination of such cells. In this context, we previously found ...
Simões Sato Alex Yuri - - 2011
Mesangial cells (MC) play an essential role in normal function of the glomerulus. Phenotypic changes in MC lead to the development of glomerular diseases such as diabetic nephropathy and glomerulosclerosis. The late phase of diabetic glomerulopathy is characterized by MC death and fibrosis. Current data highlight the growth factor TGF-β ...
Li Shitao - - 2011
To systematically investigate innate immune signaling networks regulating production of type I interferon, we analyzed protein complexes formed after microbial recognition. Fifty-eight baits were associated with 260 interacting proteins forming a human innate immunity interactome for type I interferon (HI5) of 401 unique interactions; 21% of interactions were modulated by ...
Nutsch Katherine - - 2011
In this issue, Dang et al. (2011) report a role for the hypoxia-induced transcription factor HIF-1α in regulating the differentiation of T cell subsets that impact both inflammation and its resolution. Their findings illustrate how metabolic signals can alter the balance between inflammation and tolerance and present a potential therapeutic opportunity for ...
Shlevkov E - - 2012
Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is a conserved process aimed to eliminate unwanted cells. The key molecules are a group of proteases called caspases that cleave vital proteins, which leads to the death of cells. In Drosophila, the apoptotic pathway is usually represented as a cascade of events in which an ...
Olagnier David - - 2011
CD36 is the major receptor mediating nonopsonic phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized erythrocytes by macrophages. Its expression on macrophages is mainly controlled by the nuclear receptor PPARγ. Here, we demonstrate that inflammatory processes negatively regulate CD36 expression on human and murine macrophages, and hence decrease Plasmodium clearance directly favoring the worsening ...
Spurlock Charles F CF - - 2011
Low-dose methotrexate (MTX) is an effective therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), yet its mechanism of action is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to explore the induction of apoptosis by MTX. Flow cytometry was performed to assess changes in the levels of intracellular proteins, reactive oxygen species (ROS), ...
Wang Kewei - - 2011
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 6 (HNF6) is one of liver-enriched transcription factors. HNF6 utilizes the bipartite onecut-homeodomain sequence to localize the HNF6 protein to the nuclear compartment and binds to specific DNA sequences of numerous target gene promoters. HNF6 regulates an intricate network and mediates complex biological processes that are best ...
Lehman Jason A - - 2011
The p53 family member, p73, has been characterized as a tumor suppressor and functions in a similar manner as p53 to induce cellular death. The phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) can function as a dual specificity lipid/protein phosphatase. However, recent data have described multiple roles for nuclear PTEN independent of ...
Ping Jie - - 2011
Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) play a pivotal role in liver fibrosis, and the clearance of activated HSC by apoptosis is associated with the resolution of liver fibrosis. The development of strategies that promote this process in a selective way is therefore important. We evaluated the effects of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a ...
Pan D - - 2011
Naturally oncolytic reovirus preferentially kills cancer cells, making it a promising cancer therapeutic. Mutations in tumour suppressor p53 are prevalent in cancers, yet the role of p53 in reovirus oncolysis is relatively unexplored. Human cancer cell lines were exposed to Nutlin-3a, reovirus or a combination of the two and cells ...
Lamers Fieke - - 2011
BIRC5 (Survivin) is one of the genes located on chromosome arm 17q in the region that is often gained in neuroblastoma. BIRC5 is a protein in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway that interacts with XIAP and DIABLO leading to CASP3 and CASP9 inactivation. BIRC5 is also involved in stabilizing the microtubule-kinetochore ...
Day Bryan W - - 2011
Glioma is the most common adult primary brain tumor. Its most malignant form, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is almost invariably fatal, due in part to the intrinsic resistance of GBM to radiation- and chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. We analyzed B-cell leukemia-2 (Bcl-2) anti-apoptotic proteins in GBM and found myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) to ...
Fan De-Gang - - 2011
Bladder cancer-associated protein (BLCAP) is a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene identified from human bladder carcinoma and highly associated with the invasion of bladder cancer. We previously reported that it also plays a key role in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of human osteosarcoma. In the present study, we constructed a ...
Zhao Jinbing - - 2011
Previous studies indicate that administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) protects cortical neurons following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The mechanisms of rhEPO's neuroprotection are complex and interacting, including anti-apoptosis. Here we aim to demonstrate the role of janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) pathway on the ...
Morishima Nobuhiro - - 2011
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in both physiological and pathological apoptosis. ER stress triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR), which can then initiate apoptosis, when the cell fails to restore ER homeostasis. However, the mechanism employed by the UPR to lead cells into apoptosis is unknown. Among the three ...
Chang Yung-Lung - - 2011
The anthracyclin antibiotic agent doxorubicin (DXR) has been widely used as a chemotherapeutic drug for more than 40 years, but its clinical use has been limited by its cardiotoxicity. The mechanism of action of DXR remains uncertain and controversial. A series of 1,2-heteroannelated anthraquinones and anthra[1,2-d]imidazole-6,11-dione compounds were synthesized and ...
Wang Yan-Dong - - 2011
Gpbar1 (TGR5), a membrane-bound bile acid receptor, is well known for its roles in regulation of energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. TGR5 also displays strong attenuation of macrophage reactivity in vitro, but the physiological roles of TGR5 in inflammatory response, and its mechanism, is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that TGR5 ...
Andrabi Shaida - - 2011
Although members of a virus family produce similar gene products, those products may have quite different functions. Simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (LT), for example, targets p53 directly, but murine polyomavirus LT does not. SV40 small T antigen (SVST) has received considerable attention because of its ability to ...
Sharma Manu - - 2011
Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria that cause widespread diseases in humans. Due to the intimate association between bacterium and host, Chlamydia evolved various strategies to protect their host cell against death-inducing stimuli, allowing the bacterium to complete its development cycle. An RNA interference (RNAi)-based screen was used to identify ...
Jennewein C - - 2011
We recently reported that nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) promotes DNA damage-triggered apoptosis in glioblastoma, the most common brain tumor. In the present study, we investigated the role of NF-κB in death receptor-mediated apoptosis. Here, we identify a novel pro-apopotic function of NF-κB in TRAIL- and CD95-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of NF-κB ...
Rudolf E - - 2011
Various DNA-targeting agents may initiate p53-dependent as well as p53-independent response and subsequent apoptosis via alternative cellular systems which include for instance p73, caspase-2 or Bcl-2 family proteins. The scope of involvement of individual molecules in this process and the mechanisms governing their potential interplay are still not entirely understood, ...
Jian-Suo Zhou - - 2011
Objective To investigate the mechanism of anti-death receptor 5-10 (AD5-10) combined with epirubicin in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods We detected the cell viability of the fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from RA patients with MTT. The expression level of apoptosis signaling pathways protein, p53, and p21 were evaluated with Western blot. ...
Sharda Daniel R - - 2011
M1 activation of macrophages promotes inflammation and immunity to intracellular pathogens, whereas M2 macrophage activation promotes resolution of inflammation, wound healing, and tumor growth. These divergent phenotypes are characterized, in part, by the expression of inducible NO synthase and arginase I (Arg1) in M1 versus M2 activated macrophages, respectively. In ...
Rutkowski Rachael R Wellcome Trust Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, United - - 2011
Maintaining genome stability in the germline is thought to be an evolutionarily ancient role of the p53 family. The sole Caenorhabditis elegans p53 family member CEP-1 is required for apoptosis induction in meiotic, late-stage pachytene germ cells in response to DNA damage and meiotic recombination failure. In an unbiased genetic ...
Santos A - - 2011
PMKT (Pichia membranifaciens killer toxin) reportedly has antimicrobial activity against yeasts and filamentous fungi. In previous research we posited that high PMKT concentrations pose a serious challenge for cell survival by disrupting plasma membrane electrochemical gradients, inducing a transcriptional response similar to that of certain stimuli such as hyperosmotic shock. ...
An Joo-Hee - - 2011
As a transcription factor, p53 modulates several cellular responses including cell-cycle control, apoptosis, and differentiation. In this study, we have shown that an actin regulatory protein, gelsolin (GSN), can physically interact with p53. The nuclear localization of p53 is inhibited by GSN overexpression in hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Additionally, we demonstrate ...
Jiang Lili - - 2011
ABSTRACT The mature microRNA hsa-miR-125a-5p is derived from the 5' end of pre-miR-125a. Although hsa-miR-125a-5p is dysregulated in some tumors, its specific roles in lung cancer cell apoptosis is still unknown. To study its function, the authors examined the effects of hsa-miR-125a-5p on apoptosis in lung cancer cells and investigated ...
Kuo Kung-Kai - - 2011
The objective was to investigate the upstream apoptotic mechanisms that were triggered by a styrylpyrone derivative, goniothalamin (GTN), in tumor protein p53 (TP53)-positive and -negative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-derived cells. Effects of GTN were evaluated by the flow cytometry, alkaline comet assay, immunocytochemistry, small-hairpin RNA interference, mitochondria/cytosol fractionation, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase ...
Cocco Claudia - - 2011
B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common hematologic tumor of pediatric age. Although patient survival has been improved, some cases still relapse and need alternative therapies. In this context, the role of microRNA in cancer is actually matter of investigation due to their regulatory function implicated in human tumorigenesis ...
Xu Zhengli - - 2011
Silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO(2) NPs) have attracted increasing interest as nanovehicles for delivering drugs, genes and bio-active molecules into cells. However, it is still unknown whether SiO(2) NPs could cause side-effects to normal cells. In the present study, human lung fibroblasts (HFL-Is) were directly exposed to two different sizes of ...
Kuribayashi Kageaki - - 2011
The p53 pathway displays a large degree of redundancy in the expression of a number of pro-apoptotic mechanisms following DNA damage that, among others, involves increased expression of several pro-apoptotic genes through transactivation. Spatial and temporal cellular contexts contribute to the complexity of the regulation of apoptosis, hence different genes ...
Hayashi Masami - - 2011
Tumor hypoxia is correlated with genetic alteration and malignant progression. Our previous studies indicated that the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor, HIF-1α, is responsible for hypoxic suppression of DNA repair in tumor cells by a non-canonical mode of action that requires the HIF-1α PAS-B subdomain. The involvement of HIF-1α in genetic alteration ...
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