Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1158
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Woods Alison M - - 2008
ACTH is the primary regulator of adrenal function during acute stress. However, during chronic inflammatory stress additional factors play a major role in the regulation of adrenal secretion. Many cytokines circulate in the blood and are synthesized and released from adrenal tissue. Furthermore, these peptides modify adrenal function. Recently, interleukin-4 ...
Prendergast Brian J - - 2008
Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) exhibit changes in reproductive and immune function in response to seasonal variations in day length. Exposure to short days induces gonadal regression and inhibits testosterone secretion. In parallel, short days enhance immune function: increasing leukocyte numbers and attenuating cytokine and behavioral responses to infection. We examined ...
Kyurkchiev Dobroslav - - 2007
PROBLEM: Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mDCs) are present in human decidua during the first month of pregnancy where they experience the effect of the increased concentration of progesterone (Pg) and estradiol (Estr). The aim of our study was to assess the effect of these reproductive hormones on the immunomodulatory role of ...
Csaba G - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The cells of the immune system contain hormones and receptors for hormones. However, the hormonal interactions between the cells are not elucidated. In the present experiments the effect of four hormones (insulin, oxytocin, gonadotropin and epidermal growth factor) on the production of three hormones (ACTH, endorphin, triiodothyronine) in immune ...
Karagiannides Iordanes - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to present recent data on how obesity-associated conditions may affect innate immunity and its role in the development of gut inflammation. RECENT FINDINGS: Here we present studies that demonstrate the participation of adipose tissue components in the generation of inflammation. More ...
Wilson Andrea C - - 2007
Leuprolide acetate is a synthetic nonapeptide that is a potent gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) agonist used for diverse clinical applications, including the treatment of prostate cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, central precocious puberty and in vitro fertilization techniques. As its basic mechanism of action, leuprolide acetate suppresses gonadotrope secretion of luteinizing ...
Choudhry Mashkoor A - - 2008
17beta-Estradiol (i.e., estrogen or E2) is a female sex steroid, which plays an essential role in female reproductive physiology. However, several lines of evidence indicate that in addition to its role in reproductive physiology, E2 is critical for maintaining many other organ functions in stress conditions. These include immune, cardiovascular, ...
Gabler N K - - 2008
Muscle growth in meat animals is a complex process governed by integrated signals emanating from multiple endocrine and immune cells. A generalized phenomenon among meat animal industries is that animals commonly fail to meet their genetic potential for growth in commercial production settings. Recent evidence indicates that adipocytes and myofibers ...
Gil Angel - - 2007
White adipose tissue functions not only as an energy store but also as an important endocrine organ and is involved in the regulation of many pathological processes. The obese state is characterised by a low-grade systemic inflammation, mainly a result of increased adipocyte as well as fat resident- and recruited-macrophage ...
Nomiyama Takashi - - 2007
Obesity is associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation characterized by abnormal cytokine production and macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, which may contribute to the development of insulin resistance. During immune responses, tissue infiltration by macrophages is dependent on the expression of osteopontin, an extracellular matrix protein and proinflammatory ...
Arnal Jean-François - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Whereas hormone therapy may increase the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in menopausal women, epidemiological studies (protection in premenopausal women) suggest and experimental studies (prevention of fatty streak development in animals) demonstrate a major atheroprotective action of estradiol. There is also evidence for a thrombogenic ...
Williams Allan J AJ Molecular Endocrinology Group, Division of Medicine & MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, - - 2007
Thyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factors are critically important for normal development. Recent evidence points to complex interactions between thyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factors that regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. We discuss mechanisms of thyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor action, and identify downstream signalling responses that offer opportunities ...
Smith Eric M - - 2008
There exists a bidirectional regulatory circuit between the nervous and immune systems. This regulation has been shown to be mediated in part through neuroendocrine hormones and cytokines. Both systems have receptors for both types of signal molecules. The nervous system has receptors for cytokines and it also synthesizes cytokines. The ...
Gustafson Birgit - - 2007
The metabolic syndrome is associated with a dysregulated adipose tissue; in part a consequence of adipose cell enlargement and the associated infiltration of macrophages. Adipose cell enlargement leads to a proinflammatory state in the cells with reduced secretion of adiponectin and with increased secretion of several cytokines and chemokines including ...
Gerez Juan - - 2007
Highly sophisticated mechanisms confer on the immune system the capacity to respond with a certain degree of autonomy. However, the final outcome of an immune response depends on the interaction of the immune system with other systems. The immune and neuroendocrine systems have an intimate cross-communication that makes possible a ...
Pernis Alessandra B - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many autoimmune rheumatic autoimmune disorders predominantly affect women. Sex hormones, in particular estrogen, can influence CD4 T-helper development and function. We highlight recent studies that begin to provide insights into the mechanisms by which estrogen modulates CD4 T-cell development and function, and thus potentially contribute to disease ...
Lea Richard G - - 2007
Effective ovarian and uterine function relies on a complex interplay between the endocrine and immune systems. It is generally accepted that in reproductive tissues, oestradiol and progesterone have pro- and anti-inflammatory activities respectively and, in this regard, the paracrine effects of the sex steroids on the ovary are similar to ...
Khardori Romesh - - 2007
Infections and stress, immune responses, and hormones are interconnected, ensuring immune competence to deal with immediate threat of overwhelming infection and metabolic collapse. Emergence of cytokines as key signal mediators and appreciation of autocrine-paracrine influences of hormones have helped explain how signals are transmitted and responses evoked. This has led ...
Gruen Marnie L - - 2007
The growing worldwide obesity epidemic is frequently linked to an increased risk of developing diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. These diseases are associated with the infiltration of macrophages in white adipose tissue (WAT), the artery wall, and tumors, respectively; and these macrophages likely contribute to disease progression ...
Tam Neville N C - - 2007
Oxidative and nitrosative stress have been implicated in prostate carcinogenesis, but the cause(s) of redox imbalance in the gland remains poorly defined. We and others have reported that administration of testosterone plus 17beta-estradiol to Noble rats for 16 weeks induces dysplasia and stromal inflammation of the lateral prostate (LP) but ...
Schäffler A - - 2007
Adipose tissue has long been regarded as a mostly resting tissue that is dedicated solely to energy storage and release. However, in recent years, this view has changed dramatically following new insights into the metabolic and immunological functions of preadipocytes and adipocytes. There are several lines of evidence for the ...
Esquifino Ana I - - 2007
Virtually all neuroendocrine and immunological variables investigated in animals and humans display biological periodicity. Circadian rhythmicity is revealed for every hormone in circulation as well as for circulating immune cells, lymphocyte metabolism and transformability, cytokines, receptors, and adhesion molecules. Clock genes, notably the three Period (Per1/Per2/Per3) genes and two Cryptochrome ...
Matarese G - - 2007
It has recently become apparent that several molecules involved in the control of metabolism also play an important function in the regulation of immune responses. Among those molecules, the adipocyte-derived cytokine leptin has been shown to significantly influence innate and adaptive immune responses both in normal and in pathological conditions. ...
Straub Rainer H - - 2007
There is still an unresolved paradox with respect to the immunomodulating role of estrogens. On one side, we recognize inhibition of bone resorption and suppression of inflammation in several animal models of chronic inflammatory diseases. On the other hand, we realize the immunosupportive role of estrogens in trauma/sepsis and the ...
Elenkov Ilia J - - 2008
The neuroendocrine system affects the immune system through the neuroendocrine humoral outflow via the pituitary, and through direct neuronal influences via the sympathetic, parasympathetic (cholinergic) and peptidergic/sensory innervation of peripheral tissues. Circulating hormones or locally released neurotransmitters and neuropeptides regulate major immune functions, such as antigen presentation, antibody production, lymphocyte ...
Nilsson B-O - - 2007
Gender differences and variations in inflammatory disease (e. g. atherosclerosis, neurological disorders, periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis) severity with female sex hormone level have been reported, suggesting that female sex hormones modulate the inflammatory response. Estrogens act on gene transcription via estrogen receptors alpha and beta. Identification of estrogen-regulated genes is ...
Atanasov Atanas G - - 2007
Glucocorticoids play a pivotal role in the regulation of most essential physiological processes, including energy metabolism, maintenance of electrolyte balance and blood pressure, immune-modulation and stress responses, cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as regulation of memory and cognitive functions. There are several levels at which glucocorticoid action can be ...
Singer Georg - - 2007
Obesity is a growing health care problem that is increasing the incidence and morbidity of cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that obesity is associated with a systemic inflammatory response that is characterized by endothelial cell dysfunction, oxidative stress, and the activation of circulating immune cells. Adipocytes produce and release a ...
Alessi Marie-Christine - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is a physiological inhibitor of plasminogen activators (urokinase and tissue types) and vitronectin. It is synthesized by adipose tissue, and its levels in plasma are increased in obesity and reduced with weight loss. Circulating PAI-1 level predicts development of type 2 diabetes, suggesting ...
Ashwin Patel J - - 2007
Obesity is an increasing health problem not only in the industrialized western countries but, also in the developing countries like India. The adipose tissue specific obese (ob) gene and its peptide product leptin were discovered in 1994. Leptin binding to specific receptors in the hypothalamus results in altered expression of ...
Spolarics Zoltán - - 2007
Females as compared with males display better general health status, longevity, and improved clinical course after injury and infection. It is generally believed that the female advantage is associated with the effects of sex hormones. This review argues that the sex benefit of females during the host response is associated ...
Chrousos George P - - 2007
Glucocorticoids contribute fundamentally to the maintenance of basal and stress-related homeostasis in all higher organisms. These hormones influence a large percentage of the expressed human genome and their effects spare almost no organs or tissues. Glucocorticoids influence many functions of the central nervous system, such as arousal, cognition, mood and ...
Lago Francisca - - 2007
Interest in the biology of white adipose tissue (WAT) has increased dramatically since the discovery of leptin in 1994. The identification of the product of the gene obese (ob) threw light on the role of adipose tissue in the physiopathology of obesity-related diseases, and spurred the identification of numerous other ...
Eertmans Frank - - 2007
The murine, gonadotropic LbetaT2 cell line was assessed as a potential in vitro model to analyze estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated regulation of luteinizing hormone (LH) synthesis and secretion. In agreement with limited literature data, repeated exposure to (sub) physiological concentrations of gonadotropin-releasing hormone enhanced LHbeta-subunit gene expression, being the rate-limiting step ...
Crosby K M - - 2007
Estrogen has received considerable attention as a potential therapeutic agent against various forms of neurodegenerative diseases including stroke. Experimental data in animal models of stroke have provided exhaustive evidence of the neuroprotective properties of this steroid hormone. Our laboratory in particular has demonstrated that acute estrogen treatment in male rats ...
Moro C - - 2007
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Increased adipose tissue secretion of adipokines and cytokines has been implicated in the chronic low-grade inflammation state and insulin resistance associated with obesity. We tested here whether the cardiovascular and metabolic hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was able to modulate adipose tissue secretion of several adipokines (derived from adipocytes) ...
Tu Huolin - - 2007
AIM: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a mediator for interactions between the immune and neuroendocrine systems. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) have been shown to activate the HPA axis. Recently, interleukin-10, an important anti-inflammatory cytokine in the immune system, has been shown ...
Ouchi Noriyuki - - 2007
Obesity is characterized by low-grade systemic inflammation. Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone, which is downregulated in obesity. Adiponectin displays protective actions on the development of various obesity-linked diseases. Several clinical studies demonstrate the inverse relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and several inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein. Adiponectin attenuates inflammatory ...
Lam Queenie Lai Kwan - - 2007
Leptin, a protein hormone produced by the adipocytes, has long been recognized to regulate metabolism, neuroendorine and other physiological functions. Early findings of increased leptin production during infection and inflammation and dysregulated immune response in leptin signaling-deficient mice provide strong evidence for the involvement of leptin in the immune responses. ...
López Miguel - - 2007
More than 70 years ago the glucostatic, lipostatic and aminostatic hypotheses proposed that the central nervous system sensed circulating levels of different metabolites, changing feeding behaviour in response to the levels of those molecules. In the last 20 years the rapid increase in obesity and associated pathologies in developed countries ...
Bretveld Reini - - 2007
Several studies have shown a decline in human semen quality and increased risks of male subfertility. This paper provides an overview of the mechanisms of pesticide-induced reproductive toxicity and the effects on male fertility since exposure to pesticides may be one of the causes of these disorders. Pesticides may directly ...
Bourgeon Sophie - - 2007
Immunity is believed to share limited resources with other physiological functions and this may partly account for the fitness costs of reproduction. Previous studies have shown that the acquired immunity of female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) is suppressed during the incubation fast. To save energy, triiodothyronine (T(3)) is adaptively decreased ...
Cheng Ching-Wen CW Reproductive Molecular Research Group, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP, United Kingdom. - - 2007
The endometrium is a dynamic tissue that undergoes periodic growth, remodeling and breakdown under the influence of ovarian steroid hormones. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, we used a murine model to mimic the decidualization and regression observed in humans. Ovariectomized mice were treated sequentially with steroid hormones, ...
de Kloet C S - - 2007
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis). In addition, there is evidence for altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression and function in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The aim of the present study was to differentiate between the effect of trauma exposure and PTSD ...
Lucin, Kurt M
Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) are known to be highly susceptible to infection. This susceptibility is increased in individuals with high thoracic and cervical injuries. It has been widely speculated, but never proven, that dysfunctional sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses after SCI are involved in ...
Barrell G K - - 2007
One of the consequences of activation of the immune system, with its associated inflammatory responses and operation of the stress axes, is a generalised inhibition of reproductive function. This can be considered as part of the all-encompassing effects of an activated immune system, included in which is the 'immunological cost' ...
Kose Mehmet - - 2007
Acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) induces thrombocytopenia by means of an autoimmune mechanism. Recent studies suggested that T helper immune response is responsible for the pathogenesis of chronic ITP. Despite several studies that were carried out, we do not have a clue as to what triggers the autoimmunity. Leptin is ...
Roy Deodutta - - 2007
The cross-talk between the cell nucleus and mitochondria appears to control hormone-induced signaling involved in the apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation of both normal and malignant cells. Evaluation of the defects in genetics and physiology of human endocrine diseases, such as cancer, may manifest as a result of mitochondrial physiologic and ...
Kalantaridou Sophia - - 2007
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), the principal regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, has been identified in various organ systems, including the immune and the female and male reproductive systems. CRH-like immunoreactivity has been reported in peripheral inflammatory sites and in a number of reproductive organs, including the ovaries, endometrial glands, decidualized endometrial ...
Imai A - - 2007
This review aimed to critically discuss the current protocols using gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) for the management of chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure. In in-vitro experiments, GnRHa retards doxorubicin-induced granulosa cell damage, suggesting an additional GnRH's activity to protect the gonads during chemotherapy through GnRH receptor-mediated mechanism(s). GnRHa acts to protect ...
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