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Ma Yihua Y Department of Marine Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009, China. Electronic address: - - 2014
A new water-soluble polysaccharide (SEP-2), with a molecular weight of 6.78×10(5)Da, was isolated from Strongylocentrotus nudus eggs under the extraction conditions optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Preliminary characterization of SEP-2 was performed by HPSEC and GC-MS, indicating that SEP-2 could be a d-glucan containing a (1→4)-linked d-Glcp backbone with ...
Elawadli I I Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, 419 Gordon Street, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 - - 2014
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are of interest because of their potential to modulate immune responses. The effects of LAB range from regulation to stimulation of the immune system. A series of studies were performed in vitro to study the effects of six lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Lactobacillus helveticus LH-2, Lactobacillus ...
Lo Ying-Chun YC aDepartment of Oncology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA bChang-Gung Transplantation Institute, Department of Liver and Transplantation Surgery, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to the writing of this - - 2014
In this review, we discuss the recent advances with regard to the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and focus on how this pathway modulates immune responses. Overall, these insights provide important clues in terms of strategically integrating mTOR and metabolic inhibitors into transplantation rejection protocols. mTOR is regulated ...
Su Chang C Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, 76107, USA, - - 2014
Oxidative stress has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and stroke. While high levels of oxidative stress are generally associated with cell death, a slight rise of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels can be protective by "preconditioning" cells to develop a resistance ...
Zhao Peng P Health Management Center, Hangzhou Sanatorium of PLA, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310007, P.R. - - 2014
Quercetin can inhibit the growth of cancer cells with the ability to act as a 'chemopreventer'. Its cancer-preventive effect has been attributed to various mechanisms, including the induction of cell-cycle arrest and/or apoptosis, as well as its antioxidant functions. Quercetin can also reduce adipogenesis. Previous studies have shown that quercetin ...
Mhaidat Nizar M NM Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, - - 2014
Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms by which 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) induces apoptosis is required in order to understand the resistance of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to 5-FU. In the current study, 5-FU-induced apoptosis was assessed using the propidium iodide method. Involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) was assessed by evaluating the ...
Xiao Xiao X Department of Pharmacology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, P.R. - - 2014
Gliomas are one of the most common types of malignant tumors worldwide, however, an effective therapeutic strategy not yet been fully determined. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-glioma activity and underlying mechanisms of pregnenolone, which originates from cholesterol and is metabolized into important steroid hormones in the body. ...
Dhingra Nikhil N 1] The Laboratory for Investigative Dermatology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, USA [2] Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, - - 2014
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with the effects of T helper type 2 (Th2) and Th22 cytokines. Recent studies, however, have also implicated Th17 in acute AD. Functional studies of Th2 and Th22 cytokines revealed their roles in generating molecular changes during AD; IL-17A's role, however, has yet to be ...
Travers Jeffrey B JB 1] Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA [2] Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, - - 2014
Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are commonly colonized/infected with Staphylococcus aureus, and this bacterium is known to worsen the dermatitis. In this issue, Brauweiler et al. demonstrate a newly discovered mechanism by which Th2 cytokines involved in AD augment the toxicity of the lytic staphylococcal protein alpha toxin. This review ...
Junkins Robert D RD Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, - - 2014
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in immune-compromised individuals. Maintaining the integrity of the respiratory epithelium is critical for an effective host response to P. aeruginosa. Given the close spatial relationship between mast cells and the respiratory epithelium, and the importance of tightly regulated ...
Sun Yongkun Y a Group of Environmental Adaptation Science, Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University , Sapporo , - - 2014
Despite extensive research on copper toxicity the mechanisms involved are not fully characterized. There have been many recent reports concerning the relationship between epigenetic factors and cell metabolism, but the effects of copper exposure on epigenetic factors have not been investigated. In this study, an in vitro culture system was ...
Klose Christoph S N CS Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Mainz Medical Centre, Obere Zahlbacher Strasse 67, 55131, Mainz, - - 2014
The mucosal epithelium is in direct contact with symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, the mucosal surface is the principal portal of entry for invading pathogens and immune cells accumulated in the intestine to prevent infections. In addition to these conventional immune system functions, it has become clear that immune cells ...
Boisramé-Helms Julie J Service de Réanimation Médicale, Nouvel Hôpital Civil, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, 1 place de l'Hôpital, 67091, Strasbourg, France, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to assess how lipid emulsions for parenteral nutrition affect lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute monocyte inflammation in vitro. An 18 h long LPS induced human monocyte leukemia cell stimulation was performed and the cell-growth medium was supplemented with three different industrial lipid emulsions: Intralipid(®), containing long-chain triglycerides (LCT-soybean ...
Czaja Albert J AJ Professor Emeritus of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street S.W., Rochester, MN, 55905, USA, - - 2014
Apoptosis is the predominant mechanism of liver cell death in autoimmune hepatitis, and interventions that can modulate this activity are emerging. The aim of this review was to describe the apoptotic mechanisms, possible aberrations, and opportunities for intervention in autoimmune hepatitis. Studies cited in PubMed from 1972 to 2014 for ...
Browne Niall N Department of Biology, National University of Ireland Maynooth, Co Kildare, - - 2014
The antimicrobial drug candidate 1,3-dibenzyl-4,5-diphenyl-imidazol-2-ylidene silver(I) acetate (SBC3) was evaluated for its ability to function in vivo using larvae of Galleria mellonella. A SBC3 concentration of 25 μg/ml inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus by 71.2 % and Candida albicans by 86.2 % in vitro. Larvae inoculated with 20 μl of SBC3 solution showed ...
Ramírez-Labrada A A Departamento de Bioquimica, Biologia Molecular y Celular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009, Zaragoza, - - 2014
Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor that targets the MAPK pathway and is currently used for the treatment of hepatocellular and renal carcinoma. Recently, it has been shown that sorafenib is also cytotoxic to multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Here, we have further analyzed the mechanism of sorafenib-induced death in MM cells. ...
Fayyaz Sundas S Laboratory for Translational Oncology and Personalized Medicine, Rashid Latif Medical College, Lahore, - - 2014
Apoptotic response in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells is impaired because of interconnectivity of proteins into complexes and signaling networks that are highly divergent in time and space. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has emerged as an attractive anticancer agent reported to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Although diametrically opposed roles ...
Uchiyama Ryosuke R Department of Microbiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1, Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, 663-8501, Japan, - - 2014
Caspase cysteine proteases are factors widely recognized for their role in the induction of apoptotic cell death. Caspases induce apoptosis during the inflammatory response to pathogen infection; in addition, caspases such as caspase-1 and caspase-11 are known to be involved in the production of inflammatory cytokines in response to bacterial ...
Du Ren-Wei RW Department of Neurology, Chaoyang Hospital, 15 Renmingnan Road, Huainan, Anhui, 232007, People's Republic of - - 2014
Recent evidence has suggested that microglial activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of depression. Activated microglia can secrete various pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may contribute to the development and maintenance of depression. Thus, inhibition of microglial activation may have a therapeutic benefit in the treatment of depression. In the ...
Murakami Y Y Receptor Cell Biology Section, Laboratory of Immunogenetics, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD, - - 2014
The CD300 receptor family members are a group of molecules that modulate a variety of immune cell processes. We show that mouse CD300b (CLM7/LMIR5), expressed on myeloid cells, recognizes outer membrane-exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) and does not, as previously reported, directly recognize TIM1 or TIM4. CD300b accumulates in phagocytic cups along ...
Guilliams Martin M 1] Laboratory of Immunoregulation, VIB Inflammation Research Center, 9052 Ghent, Belgium, and the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. - - 2014
The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) has historically been categorized into monocytes, dendritic cells and macrophages on the basis of functional and phenotypical characteristics. However, considering that these characteristics are often overlapping, the distinction between and classification of these cell types has been challenging. In this Opinion article, we propose a ...
Blank Christian U CU The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department of Medical Oncology and Division of Immunology, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands - - 2014
Targeting CTLA-4 represents a new type of immunotherapeutic approach, namely immune checkpoint inhibition. Blockade of CTLA-4 by ipilimumab was the first strategy to achieve a significant clinical benefit for late stage melanoma patients in two phase 3 trials. These results fueled the notion of immunotherapy being the breakthrough strategy for ...
Wei Xinghua X Department of Urology, Guangzhou First People's Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510180, - - 2014
Patients undergoing androgen blockade therapy develop castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), which is associated with Bcl-2 upregulation and results in disease progression and death. In recent years, promising therapeutic agents, such as the BH3-only mimetic ABT-263 and proteasome inhibitors, have been developed and widely evaluated against a broad spectrum of cancer ...
Timmer Mattie Simon Maria - - 2014
Bifidobacteria are dominant members of the microbial community in the intestinal tract of infants and studies have shown that glycolipids extracted from the cell surface of these bacteria elicit beneficial immune responses. Accordingly, the identification and structural characterization of glycolipids from the cell wall of bifidobacteria is the first step ...
Bellaye Pierre-Simon PS INSERM U866, Protéines de choc thermique : mort cellulaire, différenciation cellulaire et propriétés tumorigéniques, Dijon, France ; - - 2014
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease characterized by myofibroblasts proliferation and extracellular-matrix accumulation. IPF typically starts in subpleural lung regions and recent studies suggest that pleural mesothelial cells play a role in the onset of the disease. The transition of mesothelial cells into myofibroblasts [Mesothelio-Mesenchymal Transition (MMT)] is ...
Kakeda M M Department of Dermatology, Inselspital Bern University Hospital, 3010, Bern, - - 2014
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) are rare pustular skin disorders with systemic involvement. IL-17A/F is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in various neutrophilic inflammatory disorders. Here we show that IL-17A/F is highly expressed by innate immune cells such as neutrophils and mast cells in both AGEP ...
Sathe Priyanka P The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, Parkville, VIC 3050, Australia; Department of Medical Biology, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
The relationship between dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages is often debated. Here we ask whether steady-state, lymphoid-tissue-resident conventional DCs (cDCs), plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), and macrophages share a common macrophage-DC-restricted precursor (MDP). Using new clonal culture assays combined with adoptive transfer, we found that MDP fractions isolated by previous strategies are ...
McNelis Joanne C JC Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, - - 2014
Chronic, low-grade adipose tissue inflammation is a key etiological mechanism linking the increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. It is well recognized that the immune system and metabolism are highly integrated, and macrophages, in particular, have been identified as critical effector cells in the initiation of inflammation ...
Murray Peter J PJ Departments of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Description of macrophage activation is currently contentious and confusing. Like the biblical Tower of Babel, macrophage activation encompasses a panoply of descriptors used in different ways. The lack of consensus on how to define macrophage activation in experiments in vitro and in vivo impedes progress in multiple ways, including the fact that ...
Locati Massimo M Department of Medical Biotechnologies and Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Italy, and Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
We host a world inside, and every day, new evidence reveals how relevant our microbiota is for daily living. In the most recent issue of Cell, Muller and colleagues demonstrate that microbiota commensals also influence colon peristalsis via a direct effect of muscolaris externae macrophages (Muller et al., 2014).
Onai Nobuyuki N Department of Biodefense Research, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510, - - 2014
Macrophage and dendritic cell (DC) progenitors (MDPs) produce macrophages and DCs but not other hematopoietic lineages. In this issue of Immunity, Sathe et al. (2014) show that isolated MDP populations hardly contain such bipotent progenitors at clonal levels, arguing against the existence of MDPs.
Li Michelle W M MW Yale University, United States - - 2014
The toll and IMD pathways are known to be induced upon Plasmodium berghei and P. falciparum infection respectively. It is unclear how Plasmodium or other pathogens in the blood meal and their invasion of the midgut epithelium would trigger the innate immune responses in immune cells, in particular hemocytes. Gap ...
Qiu Xiao-Min XM Department of Geriatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People's Republic of - - 2014
Leukemia is currently one of the most deadly diseases. Ginseng has been used in Asian countries for the treatment and prevention of various diseases, including leukemia, but the molecular mechanism of its antileukemia activity has not been well defined. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of ...
Colonna Lucrezia L Division of Rheumatology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA *Lucrezia Colonna and Christian Lood contributed equally to the writing of this - - 2014
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by autoantibodies directed against nuclear autoantigens normally concealed from immune recognition in healthy individuals. Here, we summarize recently identified mechanisms of abnormal cell death leading to exposure and aberrant processing of nucleoprotein self antigens, and discuss their role in the SLE pathogenesis. During the ...
Palanivel Kandasamy K Department of Animal Science, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, 620 024, Tamil Nadu, - - 2014
Verrucarin A (VA), an active constituent of pathogenic fungus Myrothecium verrucaria, which has the ability to inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells. However, the mechanism by which VA exerts its inhibitory potential remains elusive. Here, we demonstrated that VA inhibited the growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, increased the ...
Batista Vanessa G VG Laboratory of Medical Investigation Unit 56, Division of Clinical Dermatology, Medical School, University of São Paulo, Av Dr. Eneas de Carvalho Aguiar 470, São Paulo, CEP 05403-000, - - 2014
Distinct glycolipid profiles are described in microorganisms, which have been shown to modulate the innate immune system. We tested the hypothesis that glycosphingolipids from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis have immunomodulatory properties on monocytes and dendritic cells of two groups of healthy individuals, one cured of paracoccidioidomycosis in the past (CUR-I) and the ...
Wang Zhuo - - 2014
Oxidative stress-induced retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is one of the important factors in ocular disease such as glaucoma. The aim of this study is to investigate whether protocatechuic acid (PCA), a monomeric phenolic acid with strong free radical scavenging effects, could protect RGC from oxidative stress induced by H2O2 ...
Pathak J L JL Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam, Move Research Institute Amsterdam, Gustav Mahlerlaan 3004, 1081 LA, Amsterdam, The - - 2014
The combination of cytokines present in the circulation of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis might contribute to the generalized bone loss that commonly occurs in these patients, by directly inhibiting osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, but especially by enhancing endogenous cytokine (i.e., receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) and ...
Long J J Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, - - 2014
Lipoapoptosis is the main form of pancreatic β-cell death in diabetes. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone, which has anti-apoptosis effect in numerous cells. The present study was designed to explore the role of the 'extrinsic' (death receptor-induced) and the 'intrinsic' (mitochondrial) pathways in pancreatic β-cell lipoapoptosis and the anti-apoptosis effect ...
Oropesa-Ávila Manuel M Centro Andaluz de Biología del Desarrollo (CABD), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Universidad Pablo de Olavide, and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red: Enfermedades Raras, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera de Utrera Km 1, 41013, Seville, - - 2014
Apoptotic microtubule network (AMN) is organized during apoptosis, forming a cortical structure beneath the plasma membrane which plays a critical role in preserving cell morphology and plasma membrane integrity. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cold/warming exposure on apoptotic microtubules and plasma membrane integrity during ...
Ryu Keun Ah - - 2014
The innate immune response is controlled, in part, by the synergistic interaction of multiple Toll-like receptors (TLRs). This multi-receptor cooperation is responsible for the potent activity of many vaccines, but few tools have been developed to understand the spatiotemporal elements of synergies. In this paper, we present photo-controlled agonists of ...
Insel P A PA Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, - - 2014
Increases in cyclic AMP (cAMP) are pro-apoptotic in numerous cell types, but the mechanisms of cAMP-promoted apoptosis are poorly defined. We have used murine S49 T-lymphoma cells as a model to provide insight into these mechanisms. Increases in cAMP in wild-type (WT) S49 cells were first noted to kill these ...
Ataie-Kachoie Parvin P Department of Surgery, St George Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, - - 2014
The Interleukin 6 (IL-6) gene encodes the classic proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. It is also known as interferon-β2 (IFN-β2), B cell stimulatory factor-2 and hybridoma/plasmacytoma growth factor. IL-6 is a multifunctional cytokine with a central role in many physiological inflammatory and immunological processes. Due to its major role in initiation as ...
Iqbal Asif J AJ Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK, United - - 2014
The recruitment of monocytes and their differentiation into macrophages at sites of inflammation are key events in determining the outcome of the inflammatory response and initiating the return to tissue homeostasis. To study monocyte trafficking and macrophage differentiation in vivo we have generated a novel transgenic reporter mouse expressing a ...
Ye Chengjin C Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of - - 2014
Chicken MDA5 (chMDA5), the sole known pattern recognition receptor for cytoplasmic viral RNA in chickens, initiates type I interferon (IFN) production. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) evades host innate immunity but the mechanism is unclear. We report here that IBDV inhibited antiviral innate immunity via the chMDA5-dependent signaling pathway. IBDV ...
Feng Ya Y Department of Neurology, Shanghai First People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200080, P.R. - - 2014
Orexin-A, a neuropeptide secreted by hypothalamic neurons, may be neuroprotective in many neurological conditions such as cerebral ischemia. One mechanism postulated to be involved in the neuroprotection by Orexin-A is the induction of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α). Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and mitochondrial dysfunction ...
Murakami Naoka N 1 Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY. 2 Transplantation Research Center, Renal Division, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. 3 Address correspondence to: Leonardo V. Riella, M.D., Ph.D., Transplantation Research Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 221 Longwood Ave, Boston MA - - 2014
Immune regulation is critical for the maintenance of peripheral self-tolerance and for down-regulation of immune responses. Understanding its mechanisms may permit the development of novel targets for the promotion of tolerance in transplantation. Co-inhibitory molecules play a major role in modulating T-cell receptor signaling upon antigen encounter. Their unique patterns ...
De Jager Sca S University Medical Center Utrecht, Experimental Cardiology, Utrecht, - - 2014
Toll-like-receptors (TLRs) provide a critical link between innate and adaptive immune responses. It has been shown that TLR5 ligand Flagellin can enhance the suppressive capacity of regulatory T-cells (Treg), but can also functions as an adjuvant. The immune response in atherosclerosis is characterized by an imbalance of pro- and anti-atherogenic ...
Van Der Vorst Epc E Maastricht University, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht, - - 2014
High-Density Lipoproteins (HDLs) have potent anti-inflammatory effects in various cell types. However, little is known about effects of HDLs on macrophages, key immune cells in atherosclerosis. In this study we aim to elucidate HDLs effects on macrophage inflammatory responses. Pre-incubation of human and murine macrophages with human reconstituted (apolipoproteinA-I/phosphatidylcholine) or ...
Liu Ming M Key Laboratory of Marine Drugs, Ministry of Education, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ocean University of China , Qingdao , China - - 2014
Abstract Context: The rizoma of Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel has been used as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb for thousands of years. Total saponins from P. chinensis can induce the apoptosis of solid cancer cells; however, their activity on chronic myeloid leukemia and the mechanisms remains unknown. Objective: To study ...
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