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Azizi Gholamreza G Imam Hassan Mojtaba Hospital, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran. - - 2014
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a mouse model for multiple sclerosis (MS), This autoimmune disease is mainly mediated by adaptive and innate immune responses that lead to an inflammatory demyelination and axonal damage. Imatinib mesylate is a selective protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor with immunomodulatory properties that abrogates multiple signal transduction ...
Striz Ilja - - 2014
Innate immune cells, particularly macrophages and epithelial cells, play a key role in multiple layers of immune responses. Alarmins and pro-inflammatory cytokines from the IL (interleukin)-1 and TNF (tumour necrosis factor) families initiate the cascade of events by inducing chemokine release from bystander cells and by the up-regulation of adhesion ...
Lee Jung-Youn JY Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Delaware Biotechnology Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19711, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Effective cell-to-cell communication is critical for the survival of both unicellular and multicellular organisms. In multicellular plants, direct cell coupling across the cell wall boundaries is mediated by long membrane-lined cytoplasmic bridges, the plasmodesmata. Exciting recent discoveries suggest that the occurrence of such membrane-lined intercellular channels is not unique to ...
Smigiel Kate S KS Benaroya Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA; Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, - - 2014
Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a vital role in the prevention of autoimmunity and the maintenance of self-tolerance, but these cells also have an active role in inhibiting immune responses during viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections. Although excessive Treg activity can lead to immunodeficiency, chronic infection, and cancer, too little ...
Ai Teresa L TL Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, - - 2014
Although intestinal bacteria live deep within the body, they are topographically on the exterior surface and thus outside the host. According to the classic notion that the immune system targets non-self rather than self, these intestinal bacteria should be considered foreign and therefore attacked and eliminated. While this appears to ...
Finlay Conor M CM Immune Regulation Research Group, School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, - - 2014
Helminth parasites are highly successful pathogens, chronically infecting a quarter of the world's population, causing significant morbidity but rarely causing death. Protective immunity and expulsion of helminths is mediated by T-helper 2 (Th2) cells, type 2 (M2) macrophages, type 2 innate lymphoid cells, and eosinophils. Failure to mount these type ...
Candando Kathleen M KM Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, - - 2014
While B cells are traditionally regarded as promoters of the immune response via antibody secretion and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, recent studies have also confirmed an important role for B-cell-mediated negative regulation of immunity. Tremendous advances in the characterization of the mechanisms by which regulatory B cells function has led to ...
Anvari Ebrahim E From the Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, - - 2014
It has been proposed that the histamine 1 (H1) receptor not only promotes allergic reactions but also modulates autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes. In line with this, it has recently been reported that the H1-receptor antagonist cetirizine can counteract the activation of signals/factors pertinent to the pathogenesis of ...
Gaffen S L SL Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Division of Rheumatology & Clinical Immunology, S702 BST, 3500 Terrace Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, - - 2014
The innate and adaptive immune systems are both crucial to oral disease mechanisms and their impact on systemic health status. Greater understanding of these interrelationships will yield opportunities to identify new therapeutic targets to modulate disease processes and/or increase host resistance to infectious or inflammatory insult. The topics addressed reflect ...
Baker O J OJ Department of Oral Biology, School of Dental Medicine, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214-3092, - - 2014
Adequate salivary secretion is crucial to both oral and general health, since it provides a complex milieu for support of the microbial populations of the mouth, while at the same time containing antimicrobial products that help control these microbial populations. This paper summarizes several aspects of salivary component function, gland ...
Pan Chun-Xiao CX School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, - - 2014
Hepatic fibrosis is a chronic inflammation-associated disease, which is involved in the infiltration of inflammatory cells and releasing of proinflammatory cytokines. In the pathological process, protons are released by damaged cells and acidosis is considered to play a critical role in cell injury. Although the underlying mechanism (s) remain ill-defined, ...
Chargui Abderrahman A Laboratory of Histology, Embryology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Tunis, Tunisia; Higher School of Agriculture, Kef, - - 2014
Neutrophils constitute the first line of cellular defense against pathogens and autophagy is a fundamental cellular homeostasis pathway that operates with the intracellular degradation/recycling system. Induction of the autophagic process in neutrophils, in response to invading pathogens, constitutes a crucial mechanism in innate immunity. Exploration of autophagy has greatly progressed ...
Saravanan S S Division of Ethnopharmacology, Entomology Research Institute, Loyola College, Chennai, 600 034, Tamil Nadu, - - 2014
Swertiamarin is a secoiridoid glycoside found in Enicostema axillare (Lam) A. Raynal, a medicinal plant used as a depurative in the Indian system of traditional medicine. The present study evaluated the immunomodulatory activity of isolated swertiamarin. In vivo immunomodulatory activity of swertiamarin (2, 5, and 10 mg/kg b.w.) was evaluated in ...
Ahn D S DS Departments of Pediatrics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, - - 2014
Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of severe pneumonia. Multiple mechanisms of proinflammatory signaling are activated to recruit immune cells into the airway in response to S. aureus. We found that interleukin-16 (IL-16), a T cell cytokine that binds CD4, is potently activated by S. aureus, specifically by protein A ...
Brown David M DM School of Life sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, - - 2014
The potential hazard to humans exposed to nanomaterials such as silica and iron oxide was investigated using an in vitro macrophage cell culture system. Amorphous silica and iron oxide particles and nanomaterials (NMs) were dispersed in cell culture medium supplemented with either bovine serum albumin (BSA), lung lining fluid (LLF) ...
Maseda Damian D Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, - - 2014
B cells mediate multiple functions that influence immune and inflammatory responses in rheumatoid arthritis. Production of a diverse array of autoantibodies can happen at different stages of the disease, and are important markers of disease outcome. In turn, the magnitude and quality of acquired humoral immune responses is strongly dependent ...
Venteclef Nicolas - - 2014
Cholesterol plays an indispensable role in regulating the properties of cell membranes in mammalian cells. Accumulation of cholesterol and its intermediates, such as oxysterols, lead to activation of the nuclear receptors LXRs (liver X receptors). LXR is an important regulator of cholesterol homoeostasis by controlling its transport and its neo-synthesis. ...
Li Xiaofeng X School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province, 230032, - - 2014
Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is involved in both normal physiological processes and pathology of various diseases. The purpose of this study was to explore the function and underlying mechanisms of TRPM7 channels in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) apoptosis induced by thapsigargin in vitro. In this study, ...
Regan Tim T 1] Department of Pathology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland [2] Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, - - 2014
The pathogenic gram-positive bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative infectious intracellular pathogen that causes listeriosis. Effective elimination of infection is dependent upon a functioning innate immune system and activation of inflammatory responses by pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs). In this review, we trace the route of L. monocytogenes invasion as it ...
Chung Yeon-Ho YH Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea; Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Cell Dysfunction Research Center and BMIT, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, - - 2014
Beclin-1 plays a critical role in autophagy; however, it also contributes to other biological processes in a non-autophagic manner. Although studies have examined the non-autophagic role of autophagy proteins in the secretory function of osteoclasts (OC), the role of Beclin-1 is unclear. Here, we examined the role of Beclin-1 in ...
Bruno Marcos E ME School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Department of Oral Pathology, Buenos Aires, Argentina; School of Science and Technology, National University of San Martín, San Martín, Buenos Aires, - - 2014
As a result of corrosion, microparticles (MP) and/or nanoparticles (NP) can be released from the metallic implants surface into the bioenvironment. The biological response to these particles depends not only on the physico-chemical properties of the particles but also on host factors, such as age. Macrophages, have attracted wide concern ...
Hu Zhuting Z Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH, - - 2014
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) are two γ-herpesviruses identified in humans and are strongly associated with the development of malignancies. Murine γ-herpesvirus (MHV-68) is a naturally occurring rodent pathogen, representing a unique experimental model for dissecting γ-herpesvirus infection and the immune response. These γ-herpesviruses actively antagonize the ...
Lowe Julie M JM Authors' Affiliations: Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Biostatistics Branch, Laboratory of Respiratory Biology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH, Research Triangle Park; and Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North - - 2014
Macrophages are sentinel immune cells that survey the tissue microenvironment, releasing cytokines in response to both exogenous insults and endogenous events such as tumorigenesis. Macrophages mediate tumor surveillance and therapy-induced tumor regression; however, tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and their products may also promote tumor progression. Whereas NF-κB is prominent in macrophage-initiated ...
Shik D D Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, - - 2014
IL-33 is a potent activator of various cells involved in allergic inflammation, including eosinophils and mast cells. Despite its critical role in Th2 disease settings, endogenous molecular mechanisms that may regulate IL-33-induced responses remain to be defined. We have recently shown that eosinophils express CMRF35-like molecule (CLM)-1. Yet, the role ...
Dalod Marc M Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy (CIML), Aix-Marseille University UM2, Marseille, - - 2014
Dendritic cells (DC) are key regulators of both protective immune responses and tolerance to self-antigens. Soon after their discovery in lymphoid tissues by Steinman and Cohn, as cells with the unique ability to prime naïve antigen-specific T cells, it was realized that DC can exist in at least two distinctive ...
Wang Yaming Y Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, - - 2014
IL-34 is a recently discovered cytokine that acts on tissue resident macrophages and Langerhans cells, upon binding the receptor for CSF-1, CSF-1R. The existence of two ligands for CSF-1R, IL-34 and CSF-1, raises several intriguing questions. Are IL-34 and CSF-1 redundant or does each perform temporally and spatially distinct functions? ...
Mearns Helen H Malaghan Institute of Medical Research, Wellington, New - - 2014
A keenly sought therapeutic approach for the treatment of allergic disease is the identification and neutralization of the cytokine that regulates the differentiation of T helper 2 (Th2) cells. Th2 cells are exciting targets for asthma therapies. Recently the cytokine IL-25 has been shown to enhance Th2-type immune activity and ...
Cary Tawnya L - - 2014
Pollutants and disease are factors implicated in amphibian population declines, and it is hypothesized that these factors exert a synergistic adverse effect, which is mediated by pollutant-induced immunosuppression. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous pollutants that can exert immunotoxicity, making them of interest to test effects on amphibian immune function. ...
Lin Xiao-Long XL 1 Key Laboratory for Arteriosclerology of Hunan Province, Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, University of South China , Hengyang, China - - 2014
FGF21, a member of the fibroblast growth factor superfamily, is an important endogenous regulator of systemic glucose and lipid metabolism. Elevated serum FGF21 levels have been reported in subjects with coronary heart disease and carotid artery plaques. However, whether FGF21 is associated with atherosclerotic diseases remains unclear. In this study, ...
Lin Yuli Y Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai, - - 2014
Chemerin is present in various inflammatory sites and is closely involved in tissue inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated that chemerin treatment can cause either anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory effects according to the disease model being investigated. Elevated circulating chemerin was recently found in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, the ...
Gunasekara Dulan B DB Ralph N. Adams Institute for Bioanalytical Chemistry, University of Kansas, 2030 Becker Drive, Lawrence, KS 66047, USA. - - 2014
The overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) in cells results in nitrosative stress due to the generation of highly reactive species such as peroxynitrite and N2O3. These species disrupt the cellular redox processes through the oxidation, nitration, and nitrosylation of important biomolecules. Microchip electrophoresis (ME) is a fast separation method that ...
He Liang L MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, P. R. China. cesmzw@mail.sysu.edu.cn - - 2014
Two cyclometalated Ir(iii)-β-carboline complexes were identified as potent inducers of autophagic cell death. Autophagy induced by these complexes is ROS-mediated and caspase-independent.
Mercanti G - - 2014
Microglia, the brain's resident macrophages, contribute to immune surveillance and the response to disease and injury. These immune cells play a dual role in the nervous system, having both neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects. Activation of microglia results in the production of inflammatory molecules and neurotoxic factors that often cause or ...
Tran L S LS The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, Woolloongabba, Brisbane, Queensland, - - 2014
We have shown that expression of Human Papillomavirus type 16 E7 (HPV16.E7) protein within epithelial cells, as occurs in HPV associated-premalignancy and cancers, results in local immune suppression, and a weak and ineffective immune response to E7 protein. However, a robust acute inflammatory stimulus can overcome this to enable immune ...
Kwakkel J J Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The - - 2014
Deiodinase type 2 (D2) is a thyroid hormone activating enzyme converting the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4) into the active hormone triiodothyronine (T3). In the present study we show for the first time that D2 is upregulated in the mouse liver during acute and chronic inflammation, in close correlation with the proinflammatory ...
Zhao Yanlin Y Center for Immunity and Inflammation, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ - - 2014
Unlike most intracellular pathogens that gain access into host cells through endocytic pathways, Toxoplasma gondii initiates infection at the cell surface by active penetration through a moving junction and subsequent formation of a parasitophorous vacuole. Here, we describe a noncanonical pathway for T. gondii infection of macrophages, in which parasites ...
Eckart Rita A RA Mikrobiologisches Institut - Klinische Mikrobiologie, Immunologie und Hygiene, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Wasserturmstraße 3/5, D-91054 Erlangen, - - 2014
Intracellular bacterial pathogens frequently inhibit host cell apoptosis to ensure survival of their host, thereby allowing bacterial propagation. The obligate intracellular pathogen Coxiella burnetii displays anti-apoptotic activity which depends on a functional type IV secretion system (T4SS). Accordingly, anti-apoptotic T4SS effector proteins, like AnkG, have been identified. AnkG inhibits pathogen-induced ...
Losa Davide D Laboratory of Clinical Investigation III, Geneva University Hospitals, 1211 Geneva, - - 2014
Chronic infection and inflammation of the airways is a hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF), a disease caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. The response of the CF airway epithelium to the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is characterized by altered inflammation and apoptosis. In this study, ...
Ye Z - - 2014
Interleukin 37 has been found to play a significant regulatory role in the innate immune response. It is not yet known whether IL-37 also involvement in the development of Behcet's disease (BD), a chronic systemic inflammatory disease. To examine the role of IL-37 in the pathogenesis of BD, a number ...
Faria Marilia S MS *Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; - - 2014
In cutaneous leishmaniasis, Leishmania amazonensis activates macrophage double-stranded, RNA-activated protein kinase R (PKR) to promote parasite growth. In our study, Leishmania major grew normally in RAW cells, RAW-expressing dominant-negative PKR (PKR-DN) cells, and macrophages of PKR-knockout mice, revealing that PKR is dispensable for L. major growth in macrophages. PKR activation ...
Long Tiha M TM Graduate Program in Molecular - - 2014
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) primarily infects children in developing countries and causes diarrhea that can be deadly. EPEC pathogenesis occurs through Type III secretion system (T3SS)-mediated injection of effectors into intestinal epithelial cells (IECs); these effectors alter actin dynamics, modulate the immune response and disrupt tight junction (TJ) integrity. The ...
Cotton James A JA Department of Biological - - 2014
Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia) infections are a leading cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that can also result in the development of post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders via mechanisms that remain unclear. Parasite numbers exceed 10(6) trophozoites per centimeter of gut at the height of an infection. Yet, the ...
Shey Muki S MS South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative and School of Child and Adolescent Health, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7925, South - - 2014
Newborns and young infants are particularly susceptible to infections, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Further, immunogenicity of vaccines against tuberculosis and other infectious diseases appears suboptimal early in life compared with later in life. We hypothesized that developmental changes in innate immunity would underlie these observations. To determine the evolution of innate ...
Abdi J - - 2014
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal neoplasm characterized by expansion of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow causing various complications including osteolytic lesions and impaired immune function. It has recently been reported that human myeloma cells express multiple Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and their activation-induced functional responses show heterogeneity among ...
Zhao X - - 2014
Objectives: Celastrol, a quinone methide triterpenoid, could induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is protective autophagy after celastrol treatment in pancreatic cancer cells and the synergistic effects of celastrol and 3-MA in vitro and in vivo. Methods: The cells viability ...
Santucci R - - 2014
Apoptosis is a highly programmed cell death strictly connected to the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including neoplastic, neurodegenerative or cardiovascular diseases. Mitochondria play a key role in the apoptotic process; their damage activates a series of events which provoke the release of cytochrome c and other pro-apoptotic factors from ...
Feist Mathilde M Division of Molecular Biology, Department of General, Visceral, Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, - - 2014
A frequently used chemotherapeutic agent in hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is mitomycin C (MMC) which induces DNA damage and apoptosis in tumor cells. In addition, MMC activates DNA damage response (DDR) leading to repair mechanisms counteracting the effect of chemotherapy. COP9 signalosome (CSN) positively influences the DDR pathway by its ...
O'Brien Alastair J AJ Centre for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, - - 2014
Liver disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Patients with cirrhosis display an increased predisposition to and mortality from infection due to multimodal defects in the innate immune system; however, the causative mechanism has remained elusive. We present evidence that the cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived eicosanoid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) ...
Ben Mkaddem Sanae S Inserm, U1149, Centre de Recherche sur l'Inflammation, Paris, - - 2014
The mechanism for anti-inflammatory action of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases involves IgG Fc receptors (FcγR). Although the inhibitory FcγRIIB plays an important role in IVIg action, FcγRIIIA has recently been identified as another major anti-inflammatory actor. Interaction of FcγRIIIA with uncomplexed IgG1 or ...
Krifa Mounira M Unité de Pharmacognosie/Biologie Moléculaire, Faculté de Pharmacie de Monastir, Université de Monastir, Monastir, Tunisia - - 2014
Abstract Evaluation of the immunomodulatory activity of plant extracts is an interesting and growing area of research. In this study, effects of a methanolic extract of Limoniastrum guyonianum stems (M extract) on mice immune cell function in vitro were investigated. These studies showed that mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation was dose-dependently inhibited ...
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