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Roxburgh Campbell S CS University Department of Surgery; Glasgow Royal Infirmary; Glasgow, United - - 2013
Within the tumor microenvironment, non-specific innate immune responses can suppress adaptive cytotoxic immunity and hence promote tumor progression. Surgery and trauma provokes high-grade, non-specific inflammatory responses that suppress cell-mediated immunity. Here, the surgical resection of neoplastic lesions is considered in the context of antitumor immunity, providing the rationale for development ...
Mineharu Yohei - - 2013
High grade glioma is a highly invasive brain tumor and recurrence is almost inevitable, even after radical resection of the tumor mass. Cytotoxic immune responses and immunological memory induced by immunotherapy might prevent tumor recurrence. Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells of the innate immune system with the potential ...
Keating Gillian M - - 2012
Intravenous crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (CroFab®) is effective in patients with minimal, moderate or severe crotaline envenomation, halting the progression of local venom effects and ameliorating haematological and other systemic abnormalities of envenomation. Despite treatment, patients may experience delayed-onset or recurrent venom effects (e.g. coagulopathy). Intravenous crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab ...
Pamminger Tobias - - 2012
Reciprocal selection pressures in host-parasite systems drive coevolutionary arms races that lead to advanced adaptations in both opponents. In the interactions between social parasites and their hosts, aggression is one of the major behavioural traits under selection. In a field manipulation, we aimed to disentangle the impact of slavemaking ants ...
Murta Veronica - - 2012
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by demyelination, remyelination and loss of functions. Even though its etiology is unknown viral, genetic and environmental factors are considered triggers of the disease. MS shows a heterogeneous clinical course, but most patients exhibit exacerbations and remissions from the onset, eventually ...
Atran Scott - - 2012
Religion, in promoting outlandish beliefs and costly rituals, increases ingroup trust but also may increase mistrust and conflict with outgroups. Moralizing gods emerged over the last few millennia, enabling large-scale cooperation, and sociopolitical conquest even without war. Whether for cooperation or conflict, sacred values, like devotion to God or a ...
Sagaert Xavier - - 2012
The resident macrophages of the gastrointestinal tract represent the largest population of macrophages in the human body and are usually located in the subepithelial lamina propria. This strategic location guarantees a first-line defense to the huge numbers of potentially harmful bacteria and antigenic stimuli that are present in the intestinal ...
Fan Hongkuan - - 2012
The chemokine CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4) is activated by stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1α). CXCR4 may be part of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) sensing co-clustering complex that modulates TLR4 activation and evidence suggest that SDF-1α can activate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways and suppress inflammation. In the present study we examined the hypothesis that ...
Weng Te I - - 2012
ABSTRACT: Severe acute pancreatitis remains a life threatening disease with a high mortality rate among a defined proportion of those affected. Apoptosis has been hypothesized to be a beneficial form of cell death in acute pancreatitis. Honokiol, a small molecular weight natural product, possesses the ability of anti-inflammation and apoptosis ...
Hoerger Michael - - 2012
Affective forecasting skills have important implications for decision making. However, recent research suggests that immune neglect - the tendency to overlook coping strategies that reduce future distress - may lead to affective forecasting problems. Prior evidence for immune neglect has been indirect. More direct evidence and a deeper understanding of ...
Dong H - - 2012
Epidural anaesthesia appears to promote antitumourigenic activity in patients with malignant disease who are undergoing surgery. This study investigated immune function in women with epithelial ovarian cancer undergoing radical resection with either general anaesthesia alone or in combination with epidural anaesthesia. Patients (n = 61) were randomized to receive either ...
Bangsgaard Nannie - - 2012
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of cancer. EGFR-targeted treatment is known to be associated with a high incidence of dermatological adverse reactions, including papulopustular rash, which can be dose-limiting and may affect compliance to treatment. Currently, the pathways involved in EGFR inhibitor-induced rash ...
Fiocchi Claudio - - 2011
Immune mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are life long conditions that cause substantial morbidity and disability. Though increasingly common and intensely studied, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying their pathogenesis are still unclear. Despite this incomplete knowledge, it is becoming increasingly evident that IMIDs evolve over time, not only from a ...
Cossart Pascale P Unité des Interactions Bactéries-Cellules, Département de Biologie Cellulaire et Infection, Institut Pasteur, F-75015 Paris, France. - - 2011
Listeria monocytogenes has, in 25 y, become a model in infection biology. Through the analysis of both its saprophytic life and infectious process, new concepts in microbiology, cell biology, and pathogenesis have been discovered. This review will update our knowledge on this intracellular pathogen and highlight the most recent breakthroughs. ...
Haines Christopher J - - 2011
The biology of interleukin-17C (IL-17C) has remained largely a mystery for more than a decade. Chang et al. (2011), in this issue of Immunity, and two other reports (Song et al., 2011; Ramirez-Carrozzi et al., 2011) demonstrate that IL-17C has broad functions in a variety of tissues.
Bagnaresi Piero - - 2011
Regarded as the circadian hormone in mammals, melatonin is a highly conserved molecule, present in nearly all species. In this review, we discuss the role of this indolamine and its precursors in the cell biology of parasites and the role of the molecule in the physiology of the host. In ...
Eshar Shiri - - 2011
Apicomplexan parasites exhibit a great variety of complex life cycles that require adaptation to different niches of parasitism. They invade different host cells and highjack their biological functions. Plasmodium falciparum, responsible for the deadliest form of human malaria, causes disease while completely remodeling the erythrocytes of its human host through ...
Sah Raghuwansh P - - 2011
Despite being a subject of much scientific scrutiny, the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis is still not well understood. This article reviews recent advances in our understanding of acute pancreatitis. Zymogen activation, observed within acini early during acute pancreatitis for a long time, was shown to be sufficient to induce acute ...
Rizzetto Lisa - - 2011
Modelling the networks sustaining the fruitful coexistence between fungi and their mammalian hosts is becoming increasingly important to control emerging fungal pathogens. In a 'systems biology' perspective, the microbiota and host should be seen as an ecosystem, and disease considered as an alteration of the equilibrium. This review addresses host-fungus ...
Apte Minoti - - 2011
Prominent fibrosis is a major histological feature of chronic pancreatitis, a progressive necroinflammatory condition of the pancreas, most commonly associated with alcohol abuse. Patients with this disease often develop exocrine and endocrine insufficiency characterized by maldigestion and diabetes. Up until just over a decade ago, there was little understanding of ...
Gukovsky Ilya - - 2011
Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of exocrine pancreas that carries considerable morbidity and mortality; its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. During the past decade, new insights have been gained into signaling pathways and molecules that mediate the inflammatory response of pancreatitis and death of acinar cells (the main exocrine pancreas ...
Levine Alana B - - 2011
Anemia, leukopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia can occur as a result of non-immune- and immune-mediated mechanisms in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Although the differential diagnosis of these cytopenias is broad and warrants a thorough evaluation, lupus disease activity and medications are common etiologic factors. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of initial treatment ...
Pandya Rachna S - - 2011
Stroke is the third leading cause of mortality and disability in the United States. Ischemic stroke constitutes 85% of all stroke cases. However, no effective treatment has been found to prevent damage to the brain in such cases except tissue plasminogen activator with narrow therapeutic window, and there is an ...
Mikkelsen Helga - - 2011
Biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa is a highly regulated process that proceeds through a number of distinct stages. This development is controlled by a wide range of factors, of which two-component systems (TCSs) play a key role. In this review, we focus on some of the TCSs that regulate the ...
Banerjee Ruma - - 2011
The recognition of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) as an endogenously produced gas with signaling potential has stimulated research on a multitude of physiological effects mediated in the cardiovascular, immune, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, endocrine, and central nervous systems. The heightened activity in the area of H(2)S biology led to convening of the first ...
Veerhuis Robert - - 2011
The brain is considered to be an immune privileged site, because the blood-brain barrier limits entry of blood borne cells and proteins into the central nervous system (CNS). As a result, the detection and clearance of invading microorganisms and senescent cells as well as surplus neurotransmitters, aged and glycated proteins, ...
Suzuki Yukihiko - - 2011
PURPOSE: The involvement of cytokines and chemokines in vitreous fluid is important in the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). In this study, the concentrations of cytokines and chemokines in the vitreous fluid of eyes with DR and CRVO were measured and compared. ...
Glittenberg Marcus T - - 2011
Candida albicans systemic dissemination in immunocompromised patients is thought to develop from initial gastrointestinal (GI) colonisation. It is unclear what components of the innate immune system are necessary for preventing C. albicans dissemination from the GI tract, but studies in mice have indicated that both neutropenia and GI mucosal damage ...
Paulo Joao A - - 2011
Cytokines are secreted immunomodulating proteins involved in pancreatic stellate cell activation and propagation of fibrosis in chronic pancreatitis. We aim to show that cytokines can be identified from pancreatic fluid by (1) collecting pancreatic fluid with the ePFT method, (2) processing the fluid for cytokine-targeted microarray analysis, and (3) comparing ...
Terns Michael P MP Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. - - 2011
CRISPR-Cas systems are recently discovered, RNA-based immune systems that control invasions of viruses and plasmids in archaea and bacteria. Prokaryotes with CRISPR-Cas immune systems capture short invader sequences within the CRISPR loci in their genomes, and small RNAs produced from the CRISPR loci (CRISPR (cr)RNAs) guide Cas proteins to recognize ...
Puyal Julien - - 2011
Autophagy is a cellular mechanism for degrading proteins and organelles. It was first described as a physiological process essential for cellular health and survival, and this is its role in most cells. However, it can also be a mediator of cell death, either by the triggering of apoptosis or by ...
Shapira Michal - - 2011
GP63 is an abundant GPI-anchored surface metalloprotease of Leishmania. Jaramillo et al. (2011) show that GP63 manipulates the translation system of host macrophages by cleaving mTOR, which leads to 4E-BP1 dephosphorylation. This study pioneers the observation that Leishmania parasites metabolically paralyze their host cells using an elegant translation shutoff mechanism.
Basso Veronica - - 2011
The nervous system influences organ development by direct innervation and the action of hormones. We recently showed that the specific absence of Rac1 in neurons (Rac1(N) ) in a Rac3-deficient (Rac3(KO) ) background causes motor behavioural defects, epilepsy, and premature mouse death around postnatal day 13. We report here that ...
Suggs M Jeanann L - - 2011
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, relapsing, and remitting disease affecting primarily African American females of child bearing age. Familial aggregation of this disease suggests that at least part of the susceptibility for this disease is genetic, although environmental and hormonal influences are also likely to play a role. ...
Kahn Robin - - 2011
Vasculitis is a systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease, characterized by inflammation in and around vessel walls leading to perturbed vessel patency and tissue damage. Many different organs may be involved. In this review, pathogenetic mechanisms of vasculitis are discussed, with special reference to activation of the kinin system. Mechanisms of kinin ...
Mirakaj Valbona - - 2011
Directed cell migration is a prerequisite not only for the development of the central nervous system, but also for topically restricted, appropriate immune responses. This is crucial for host defense and immune surveillance. Attracting environmental cues guiding leukocyte cell traffic are likely to be complemented by repulsive cues, which actively ...
Dhindsa Manjeet - - 2011
An electrowetting system with protection against dielectric breakdown is presented. It comprises an electrolyte and a Parylene-C film deposited on an aluminum electrode. The system demonstrates virtually instantaneous self-healing (within 100 ms) after dielectric breakdown under both DC and certain AC electrowetting conditions. DC current response during electrowetting on intentionally ...
Wirenfeldt M - - 2011
Microglia are essential cellular components of a well-functioning central nervous system (CNS). The development and establishment of the microglial population differs from the other major cell populations in the CNS i.e. neurons and macroglia (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes). This different ontogeny gives microglia unique properties. In recent years detailed studies of ...
Minami Masabumi - - 2011
The brain contains glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes) and endothelial cells in addition to neurons. Under various pathologic conditions, the invasion of leukocytes such as neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages, and lymphocytes is observed. Interactions among these cell types play crucial roles both in brain function and dysfunction. However, the molecular basis ...
Sekine Hideharu - - 2011
Complement has both protective and pathogenic functions in lupus due to a balance between its role in the clearance of immune complexes (ICs) and apoptotic cells and its role in inflammation. The classical pathway contributes to IC and apoptotic cell clearance, whereas the alternative pathway is a key mediator of ...
Sokolowski Jennifer D - - 2011
The cellular and molecular mechanisms of phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells and debris have been intensely studied in invertebrate model organisms and in the mammalian immune system. This evolutionarily conserved process serves multiple purposes. Uncleared debris from dying cells or aggregated proteins can be toxic and may trigger exaggerated inflammatory ...
Chayakulkeeree Methee - - 2011
Secreted phospholipase B1 (CnPlb1) is essential for dissemination of Cryptococcus neoformans to the central nervous system (CNS) yet essential components of its secretion machinery remain to be elucidated. Using gene deletion analysis we demonstrate that CnPlb1 secretion is dependent on the CnSEC14 product, CnSec14-1p. CnSec14-1p is a homologue of the ...
Kox Matthijs - - 2011
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the inflammatory response are intimately linked. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a widely employed method to assess cardiac ANS activity, and changes in HRV indices may correlate with inflammatory markers. Here, we investigated whether baseline HRV predicts the acute inflammatory response to endotoxin. ...
Lerman M A - - 2011
In this study we examined whether treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitaminD(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) affects human APC maturation in vitro under multiple cytokine milieus. Human monocytes were elutriated from whole blood, incubated with human sera in the presence or absence of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), and stimulated with IFNα, GM-CSF/IL-4, or were cultured without stimulatory cytokines. Incubation ...
Aktunc Erol - - 2011
Inflammatory bowel diseases are characterized by disabilities in gastrointestinal system and defects in mucosal immune system. Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor and are used to treat hypercholesterolemia in patients with coronary artery and atherosclerotic diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that statins have immunomodulatory role by effecting different ...
Nazmi Arshed - - 2011
Inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) in Japanese encephalitis (JE) is shown to be the result of microglial activation that leads to the release of various proinflammatory mediators. Peripheral macrophages have been reported to infiltrate into the CNS in JE, though their contribution to the inflammatory process is yet ...
Chao Jie - - 2011
Alveolar hypoxia occurs as a result of a decrease in the environmental [Formula: see text] , as in altitude, or in clinical conditions associated with a global or regional decrease in alveolar ventilation. Systemic effects, in most of which an inflammatory component has been identified, frequently accompany both acute and ...
Tsuchiya Yuichi - - 2011
Xenopus egg extracts execute spontaneous apoptosis without the requirement of transcription and translation, and this intrinsic mechanism is supposed to be involved in the physiological elimination of aged eggs. Although apoptosis in this system is carried out by maternally stockpiled materials, the endogenous apoptosis regulators present in egg extracts are ...
Sarkey J P - - 2011
Programmed cell death of cardiomyocytes following myocardial ischemia increases biomechanical stress on the remaining myocardium, leading to myocardial dysfunction that may result in congestive heart failure or sudden death. Nogo-A is well characterized as a potent inhibitor of axonal regeneration and plasticity in the central nervous system, however, the role ...
Muchnik Eugene - - 2011
The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) system mediates the body's response to hypoxia, locally, inducing angiogenesis and a shift to anaerobic metabolism, and systemically, increasing red cell mass in anemia. HIF prolyl hydroxylases (HIF-PH) modify HIF, decreasing its activity. Increasing HIF activity through inhibition of HIF-PH may provide an alternative treatment for ...
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