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Results 351 - 400 of 1727
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Marshall Nikki B NB Department of Microbiology, Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, - - 2010
The immune toxicity of the ubiquitous environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), commonly referred to as dioxin, has been studied for over 35 years but only recently has the profound immune suppression induced by TCDD exposure been linked to induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs). The effects of TCDD are mediated through ...
Chatzidakis Ioannis - - 2010
TNF is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by many cell types upon different stimuli and in various physiological and pathological conditions. In this review, we focus on the role of TNF in T cell responses as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo observations in mice and humans. TNF has an ...
Liang Shuang - - 2010
Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae produce structurally related AB(5)-type heat-labile enterotoxins, which are classified into two major types. The Type I subfamily includes cholera toxin and E. coli LT-I, whereas the Type II subfamily comprises LT-IIa and LT-IIb. In addition to their roles in microbial pathogenesis, the enterotoxins are widely ...
Hayashi Toshiharu - - 2010
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE: lupus) is a chronic complicated autoimmune disease and pathogenesis is still unclear. However, key cytokines have been recognized. Interferon (IFN)-γ and also IFNalpha/beta are of particular importance. Depending on the concept that lupus is a helper T(Th)1 disease and that dendritic cells (DCs) determine the direction ...
Kalliolias George D GD Arthritis and Tissue Degeneration Program and Department of Medicine, Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021, - - 2010
Type I interferons are pleiotropic cytokines with antiviral, antitumor and immunoregulatory functions. An aspect of their complex biology is the paradox that, depending on context, type I interferons can be anti-inflammatory and tissue protective or can be proinflammatory and promote autoimmunity. Along these lines, the activation of type I interferon ...
Lee Hooi-Ming - - 2010
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease more prominent in women and characterized by multiple organ damage. Imbalance in cytokine production and cytokine levels correlates with SLE progression, making the understanding of SLE cytokine networks very important for SLE treatment strategy and drug development. In this article, we review ...
Lampropoulou Vicky V Laboratory of immune regulation, Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum, Berlin, - - 2010
B lymphocytes contribute to immunity through production of antibodies, antigen presentation to T cells, and secretion of cytokines. B cells are generally considered in autoimmune diseases as drivers of pathogenesis. This view is certainly justified, given the successful utilization of the B cell-depleting reagent rituximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis ...
Quintana Francisco J FJ Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. - - 2010
Jawed vertebrates generate their immune-receptor repertoire by a recombinatorial mechanism that has the potential to produce harmful autoreactive lymphocytes. In mammals, peripheral tolerance to self-antigens is enforced by Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. Recombinatorial mechanisms also operate in teleosts, but active immunoregulation is thought to be a late incorporation to the ...
Delgado-Vega Angélica M - - 2010
Type I interferons play an outstanding role in innate and adaptive immunity by enhancing functions of dendritic cells, inducing differentiation of monocytes, promoting immunoglobulin class switching in B cells and stimulating effector functions of T cells. The increased production of IFNα/β by plasmacytoid dendritic cells could be responsible for not ...
López-Pedrera Chary - - 2010
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease with a broad range of clinical manifestations, is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis (AT) and increased risk of cardiovascular complications. Relevant factors directly influencing the development of AT comprise immune complex generation, complement activation, and changes in the production and activity of ...
Szodoray Peter - - 2010
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a complex autoimmune disorder. The cornerstones of the pathogenesis are vascular damage, fibrogenesis and various cellular and humoral autoimmune processes. The aim of the present review is to describe pathogenic steps, leading to the hallmark clinical picture of SSc. Indeed, numerous therapeutical approaches have been tested/are ...
Gonzalez-Rey Elena - - 2010
Because there are no particular molecular signatures of self, autoimmunity is the inevitable evolutionary price of being able to make effective responses against a wide variety of pathogens by the immune system. Without the various phenomena referred to as immune tolerance, the organism would surely self-destruct. Considerable evidence suggests that ...
Voss Ching Y - - 2010
Most of the current cell-based immunotherapy protocols concentrate on immune stimulatory effects against certain pathogenic insults, such as cancer. In this article, a potential cell-based immunotherapeutic strategy to induce immune tolerance by infusion of apoptotic leukocytes is presented in conjunction with a review of newly understood mechanisms of action of ...
Pan Hai-Feng - - 2010
T-cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (TIM-3) was the first surface molecule that specifically identifies Th1 cells in both mice and human. Recently, identification of Galectin-9 as a ligand for TIM-3 has established the TIM-3-Galectin-9 pathway as an important regulator of Th1 immunity and tolerance induction. Many previous studies have demonstrated ...
Kiss Emese - - 2010
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a prototypical systemic autoimmune disease, affecting multiple organs and organ-systems, leading to a wide variety of symptoms, serological and clinical features. The pathogenesis of the disease encompasses a complex interplay among various immune-competent cells and inflammatory mediators, which gives ground to target numerous potentially harmful players ...
Mailloux Adam W - - 2010
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have become a priority for many investigators in immunology due to their potent immunosuppressive and tolerogenic effects. While Treg activity is required for normal immune homeostasis, dysregulation of their numbers can induce autoimmunity or aid in the pathogenesis of disease. Therefore, great effort has been made ...
Avr─âmescu Carmen C Department of Bacteriology-Virusology-Parasitology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Romania. - - 2010
The systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a systemic autoimmune disorder with a multifactorial etiology, is characterized by the presence of autoantigens in some organs and tissues that induce the development of some antibodies with extended binding and with various specificities. The presence of antibodies is accompanied by disbalances in the immune ...
Kong Yi-chi M YC Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA. - - 2010
Rapid advances in our understanding of the immune network have led to treatment modalities for malignancies and autoimmune diseases based on modulation of the immune response. Yet therapeutic modulation has resulted in immune dysregulation and opportunistic autoimmune sequelae, despite prescreening efforts in clinical trials. This review focuses on recent clinical ...
Gregoriou Stamatis - - 2010
Alopecia areata, a disease of the hair follicles with multifactorial etiology and a strong component of autoimmune origin, has been extensively studied as far as the role of several cytokines is concerned. So far, IFN-gamma, interleukins, TNF-alpha, are cytokines that are well known to play a major role in the ...
Yoon Kam Hon - - 2010
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex systemic autoimmune disease with involvement of both B cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes and several cytokines aberrations. Standard therapy for SLE has its limitations. Tacrolimus, a novel calcineurin inhibitor with potent immunosuppressive effects, has been shown in the recent years to be effective ...
Humphries William W Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2010
The role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in mediating immune suppression of anti-tumor immune responses is increasingly appreciated in patients with malignancies-especially within the malignant glioma patient population. This article discuss the role and prognostic significance of Tregs within glioma patients and delineates potential approaches for their inhibition that can ...
Vecchiarelli Anna - - 2010
The immunosuppressive properties of Glucuronoxylomannnan (GXM), a purified capsular polysaccharide of the opportunistic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, have been extensively elucidated. GXM can inhibit the function of cells belonging to both the innate and adaptive immune systems, leading to inhibition of proinflammatory responses as well as of autoimmune inflammation.This review focuses ...
Yap Desmond Yat Hin - - 2010
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex auto-immune disorder which involves various facets of the immune system. In addition to autoantibody production and immune complex deposition, emerging evidences suggest that cytokines may act as key players in the immunopathogenesis of SLE. These cytokines assume a critical role in the differentiation, ...
Stohl William - - 2010
BLyS and APRIL are closely related members of the TNF ligand superfamily. These cytokines individually may contribute importantly to the development and maintenance of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Dillon and colleagues demonstrate that in contrast to most members of the TNF ligand superfamily, which form only homotrimers, BLyS and APRIL ...
Liang Shuang S University of Louisville School of Dentistry, Oral Health and Systemic Disease, Louisville, KY 40202, - - 2010
Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae produce structurally related AB5-type heat-labile enterotoxins, which are classified into two major types. The Type I subfamily includes cholera toxin and E. coli LT-I, whereas the Type II subfamily comprises LT-IIa and LT-IIb. In addition to their roles in microbial pathogenesis, the enterotoxins are widely ...
Wang Yugang - - 2010
CD4(+) regulatory T cell (Treg) populations are believed to play very important roles in the suppression of immune responses. Overriding Treg inhibition is necessary for initiating primary immune reaction upon inflammatory Ag stimulation. LIGHT, TNF superfamily member 14, has been shown to be a costimulatory molecule for effector T cells. ...
Arnson Yoav - - 2010
Smoking is a central factor in many pathological conditions. Its role in neoplasm, lung and cardiovascular diseases has been well established for years. However it is less acknowledged the cigarette smoking affects both the innate and adoptive immune arms. Cigarette smoke was shown to augment the production of numerous pro-inflammatory ...
Lee Susan J - - 2010
The immune system consists of a diverse array of immunocompetent cells and inflammatory mediators that exist in complex networks. These components interact through cascades and feedback circuits, maintaining physiologic inflammation (eg, tissue repair) and immunosurveillance. In various autoimmune and allergic diseases, a foreign antigen or autoantigen might upset this fine ...
Naumann-Bartsch Nora - - 2010
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is an uncommon disorder of Fas-mediated apoptosis that results in impaired lymphocyte death and, therefore, disturbed immune homeostasis. Besides presentation with lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly, patients with ALPS have a high incidence of autoimmune phenomena. To our knowledge, this is the first description of polyarteritis nodosa that ...
Mathis Diane - - 2010
Immunological tolerance guards against spurious immune responses to body constituents. Tolerance encompasses a network of mechanisms: central and peripheral, cell-autonomous and cell-interactive. Our understanding of these mechanisms has improved greatly over recent years, often reflecting new insights into the processes underlying particular autoimmune diseases. Yet it is possible that important ...
Jørgensen Trine N TN Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, - - 2010
Autoantibodies are of central importance in the pathogenesis of Ab-mediated autoimmune disorders. The murine lupus susceptibility locus Nba2 on chromosome 1 and the syntenic human locus are associated with a loss of immune tolerance that leads to antinuclear Ab production. To identify gene intervals within Nba2 that control the development ...
Aschermann S - - 2010
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules can have two completely opposite functions. On one hand, they induce proinflammatory responses and recruit innate immune effector cells during infection with pathogenic microorganisms or autoimmune disease. On the other hand, intravenous infusion of high doses of pooled IgG molecules from thousands of donors [intravenous IG ...
Yan Ling-Chen LC Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Yue-Yang Road, Shanghai 200031, - - 2010
Sinomenine (SIN) is an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum. It is widely used as an immunosuppressive drug for treating autoimmune diseases. Due to its poor efficiency, the large-dose treatment presents some side effects and limits its further applications. In this study, we used chemical modification to ...
del Rio M L - - 2010
Immunosuppression is currently the treatment of choice to attenuate the chronic deterioration of tissue function as a result of the effector mechanisms of the immunological response in transplant rejection and autoimmune diseases. However, global immunosuppression greatly increases the risk of acquiring life-threatening infections and is associated with organ toxicity when ...
Selmi Carlo - - 2010
As well represented by the impaired immune function of malnourished individuals encountered in developing countries and the incidence of specific diseases following local nutrient deficiencies, nutrition and immunity have been linked to each other for centuries while the specific connection between dietary factors and autoimmunity onset or modulation is a ...
Cantarini Luca - - 2010
The pathogenesis of recurrent pericarditis is still poorly understood and may be related either to viral infections or autoimmune and autoinflammatory disorders. The immune system plays a major role in the pathogenesis of the disease, modulating individual responses to different noxa and explaining the variable reported recurrence rate (ranging from ...
Semple John W - - 2009
In the last 20 years, many publications have shed new light on the complex immunopathogenesis of immune thrombocytopenic purpura. They are associated with 3 interrelated areas of environmental autoimmunity, for example, infectious influences, antigen-presenting cell (APC) function, and T-cell abnormalities, particularly tolerance induction. This article highlights the recent literature and ...
Davidson Anne A Center for Autoimmune and Musculoskeletal Diseases, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA. - - 2010
Lupus nephritis is a challenging clinical condition for which current therapies are unsatisfactory with respect to both remission induction and unwanted toxic effects. Despite intervention, the rates of end-stage renal disease seem to be increasing in the USA. Discoveries over the past decade have greatly improved our understanding of immune ...
Mduluza Takafira - - 2009
The effect of treatment with either oxamniquine or praziquantel on S.mansoni specific IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 was compared on PBMC which were collected pretreatment, 6 and 18 weeks post treatment. Using sandwich ELISA on the supernatants harvested from the PBMC stimulation by crude S. mansoni SEA and SWAP antigens ...
Jovanovic Vojislav - - 2009
The maintenance of immune homeostasis and the regulation of pro-inflammatory responses that underlie autoimmune pathology require a coordinated interplay between cytokines, cellular receptors and downstream signaling pathways. The family of fragment crystallizable receptors for immunoglobulin G (IgG) (Fc gammaR) represents a good example of how controlling the simultaneous triggering of ...
Syed Shahzad N - - 2009
FcgammaRIV is a relatively new IgG Fc receptor (FcgammaR) that is reported to contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, although its specific role in relation to FcgammaRIII, complement and IgG2 subclasses remains uncertain. Here we define FcgammaRIV on macrophages as a receptor for soluble IgG2a/b complexes but not for ...
Carrillo Andres E - - 2009
Growing evidence suggests that the effects of second hand smoke (SHS) exposure contribute to disruptions in thyroid function. Toxic elements contained in cigarette smoke, such as thiocyanate, may be partially responsible for impaired thyroid hormonogenesis. SHS-induced inflammatory stress, namely interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), impairs thyroid hormonogenesis and iodine uptake; initiates interleukin ...
Godoy Laura - - 2009
Immune regulation is one of the most important topics in basic and clinical research, and IL-17-producing T helper cells (Th17) cells and regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are at the forefront of immunological research. The annual World Immune Regulation Meeting gathers some of the best experts in this field, and this year's ...
Sonawane Samsher B SB Department of Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, - - 2009
Many models of transplant tolerance have been found to depend on the induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Innate immune signals are known to suppress Tregs thereby augmenting immunity by abrogating Treg function. Such signals may also provide a barrier to transplantation tolerance mediated by Tregs. A number of cell ...
Erdmann Frank - - 2010
The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin is a key mediator in antigen-specific T cell activation. Thus, inhibitors of calcineurin, such as cyclosporin A or FK506, can block T cell activation and are used as immunosuppressive drugs to prevent graft-versus-host reactions and autoimmune diseases. In this study we describe the identification of ...
Wang Shu - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: Experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM), a rodent model of human dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), is mediated by an autoimmune mechanism. We investigated whether a CD28 superagonistic antibody selectively targeting CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (T(regs)) provides effective therapy for EAM. METHODS: Four groups of 5 rats were used. The normal control group ...
Anders Hans-Joachim - - 2009
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus) is a polygenic syndrome of immunity against nuclear autoantigens. Recent data from several fields now suggest 'pseudoviral' immunity as a novel disease concept. Known lupus risk factors commonly compromise those mechanisms that protect chromatin and ribonucleoprotein particles from activating viral nucleic acid sensors. This ...
Bratland Eirik - - 2009
CONTEXT: Autoimmune Addison's disease is thought to result from T cell mediated autoimmunity. Autoantibodies against the steroidogenic cytochrome P450 enzyme 21-hydroxylase (21OH) are found in most patients, and 21OH is therefore a likely target for antigen-specific T cells. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study cellular immunity to 21OH and its ...
Sebastiani G Domenico - - 2009
Genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors contribute to disease susceptibility in systemic lupus erythematosus. Among environmental factors, infectious agents play a major role. When considering the complex relationship between genetic predisposition and infections in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus, we have to consider that infectious agents can interact with the ...
Blank M - - 2009
Environmental factors are capable of triggering the expression of human endogenous retroviruses and induce an autoimmune response. Infection can promote the expression of human endogenous retroviruses by molecular mimicry or by functional mimicry. There are additional mechanisms which may control the expression of human endogenous retroviruses, such as epigenetic status ...
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