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Results 301 - 350 of 1747
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Rodriguez-Manzanet Roselynn - - 2010
TIM-4, a member of the TIM family expressed on antigen-presenting cells, binds to phosphatidylserine exposed on the surface of apoptotic bodies. However, the significance of this interaction in vivo remains unknown because other receptors have been implicated in the clearance of apoptotic bodies and could compensate for the TIM-4 deficiency ...
Meinhardt Andreas - - 2011
Protection of the spermatogenic cells from the host immune response is fundamental to male fertility. Significantly, this protection extends to the tolerance of foreign tissue grafts placed within the testicular environment, a phenomenon that is called 'immune privilege'. This privilege of the testis appears to involve several levels of immune ...
Bopp Tobias - - 2010
The maintenance of peripheral tolerance is largely based on thymus-derived CD4(+)CD25(+) naturally occurring regulatory T cells (Tregs). While on the one hand being indispensable for the perpetuation of tolerance to self-antigens, the immune suppressive properties of Tregs contribute to cancer pathogenesis and progression. Thus, modulation of Treg function represents a ...
Cacciapaglia F - - 2010
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of clodronate on apoptosis of human systemic lupus erythematosus circulating mononuclear cells and to analyze possible correlations with changes in autoantibody production in vitro. Lympho-monocytes from 20 SLE patients were isolated and incubated with or without addition of 1 microM ...
Leng Rui-Xue - - 2010
Cytokine-mediated immunity plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The recent identification of the dimeric interleukin (IL)-12-related cytokine IL-23 now contributes to our understanding of the fine-tuning of cellular immunity. The critical implication of IL-12 p40 in autoimmune inflammation has long ...
Sozzani Silvano - - 2010
Type I IFN (IFN-I) was firstly described in 1957 as a soluble factor responsible for viral resistance in vitro. Today, it is well known that the IFN-I family comprises a wide number of cytokines with different modulatory effects on angiogenesis, cell growth, fibrosis, and apoptosis. However, one of the most ...
Leng Rui-Xue - - 2011
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a recently identified proinflammatory cytokine of the TNF superfamily. Through activation of the fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) receptor, TWEAK regulates cell proliferation, cell death and inflammation. The available evidences have indicated that TWEAK might be a target for therapeutic ...
Thomas Ranjeny - - 2010
Genetic associations with autoimmune disease are enriched in immune response regulators. The immune system in individuals at genetic risk of autoimmunity must balance pressures on the innate and adaptive immune system, most notably infection control, with those of maintaining self-tolerance or controlling autoimmune inflammation. In spite of multiple tolerance mechanisms, ...
Mondini Michele - - 2010
The Ifi-200/HIN-200 gene family encodes highly homologous human (IFI16, myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen, absent in melanoma 2, and IFIX) and murine proteins (Ifi202a, Ifi202b, Ifi203, Ifi204, Ifi205, and Ifi206), which are induced by type I and II interferons (IFN). These proteins have been described as regulators of cell proliferation ...
Seitz Heather M HM Johnson County Community College, Science Division, Overland Park, Kansas, - - 2010
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) persists as a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease and is characterized by the production of autoantibodies and immune complexes that affect multiple organs. The underlying mechanism that triggers and sustains disease are complex and involve certain susceptibility genes and environmental factors. There have been several immune mediators ...
O'Connell Philip J - - 2010
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although much has been written about the biology of regulatory T cells (Tregs), their characterization and role in xenotransplantation has been limited. This review summarizes the recent literature supporting a role for Tregs in the cell-mediated xenoimmune response. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in in-vitro assays systems have focused ...
Lee Susan - - 2010
The immune system consists of a complex array of immunocompetent cells and inflammatory mediators that exist in complex networks. These components interact through cascades and feedback circuits, maintaining physiologic inflammation and immunosurveillance. In various autoimmune conditions, a foreign or auto-antigen may upset this fine balance, leading to dysregulated immunity, persistent ...
Kawamoto Koichi - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The major obstacle faced by patients with type 1 diabetes who undergo islet transplantation is a gradual decline in insulin independence. This decline may reflect alloimmune rejection, autoimmune recurrence and toxicity of drugs such as rapamycin to islet beta cells. Thus, there is a pressing need to refine immunosuppressive ...
DeVoss Jason J JJ Diabetes Center, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, - - 2010
Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) is a human autoimmune disease characterized by immune-mediated destruction of the lacrimal and salivary glands. In this study, we show that the Aire-deficient mouse represents a new tool to investigate autoimmune dacryoadenitis and keratoconjunctivitis sicca, features of SS. Previous work in the Aire-deficient mouse suggested a role ...
Wang Beinan - - 2010
Recurrent group A Streptococcus (GAS) tonsillitis and associated autoimmune diseases indicate that the immune response to this organism can be ineffective and pathological. TGF-beta1 is recognized as an essential signal for generation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T helper (Th) 17 cells. Here, the impact of TGF-beta1 induction on ...
Xu L - - 2010
Molecular mechanisms regulating transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) induction of Foxp3 (forkhead box P3) expression and thus induction of induced regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been the focus of a great deal of study in recent years. It has become clear that this process is influenced by a number of factors ...
Nagata Shigekazu - - 2010
To maintain organismal homeostasis, phagocytes engulf dead cells, which are recognized as dead by virtue of a characteristic "eat me" signal exposed on their surface. The dead cells are then transferred to lysosomes, where their cellular components are degraded for reuse. Inefficient engulfment of dead cells activates the immune system, ...
Hansen W - - 2010
Most recently, we have described the G-protein coupled receptor 83 (GPR83), which is highly expressed by CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) to be involved in the induction of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs in the course of an ongoing immune response. Four GPR83 isoforms have been described. Here, we have shown that GPR83 ...
Vega Luisa - - 2010
The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is far from having been elucidated at the molecular level. Using a multiplex system, we profiled 18 immune mediators in the plasma from 57 patients with SLE. Thirteen of them showed mild to moderate disease activity, and 29 showed severe activity, based upon ...
Fernandez David D Departments of Medicine, Microbiology and Immunology, and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, State University of New York Upstate Medical University College of Medicine, Syracuse, New York 13210, - - 2010
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a common autoimmune disease with unclear etiology. Treatments for it often provide inadequate control of disease activity or are limited by side effects. Recent studies have shown that rapamycin can be an effective treatment in both murine lupus models and human SLE. We demonstrated that ...
Becker Heidemarie - - 2010
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a common autoimmune disease which can lead to considerable complications and diminished quality of life. Recent insights into disease mechanisms and the advent of biological agents have provided new options for the treatment of pSS. In particular, B cell targeted intervention has shown promising results. ...
Kis-Toth Katalin - - 2010
Dendritic cells (DCs) represent an important component of the immune system connecting the innate and adaptive immune responses. They are able to trigger strong immunity as well as tolerance against certain antigens, and therefore it is obvious that they have a central role in the expression of immunological diseases. However, ...
Liphaus Bernadete L - - 2010
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a prototypical autoimmune disease characterized by the deregulation of T and B cells, tissue infiltration by mononuclear cells, tissue damage and the production of autoantibodies. There is a consensus that accelerated apoptosis of circulating lymphocytes and/or impaired clearance of apoptotic bodies may increase the amount of ...
Cugno Massimo - - 2010
Evidence exists that the immune and coagulation systems are simultaneously activated in some systemic autoimmune disorders. Although proinflammatory mediators induce tissue factor (TF) expression, the main initiator of blood coagulation, activated proteases of coagulation may act on protease-activated receptors (PAR) triggering inflammation. Such a cross-talk amplifies and maintains the activation ...
Jahns Roland - - 2010
Although autoimmunity represents a well-established pathogenetic principle in several endocrine (Graves' disease), rheumatic (systemic lupus erythematosus), and neurological disorders (myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis), this mechanism has only recently gained more attention in cardiac diseases. Depending on individual genetic predisposition, heart-directed autoimmune reactions are supposed to emerge as a consequence of ...
Alexandrenne Coralie - - 2010
Prion diseases (e.g., Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans) are always fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterized by conversion of the ubiquitous cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) into a pathological conformer. Immunological strategies are considered as promising prophylactic or therapeutic approaches but, unfortunately, vaccination attempts until now have been very disappointing in wild-type animals because ...
Thrasher Adrian J AJ Molecular Immunology Unit and Centre for Immunodeficiency, University College London Institute of Child Health, London, - - 2010
The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is an important regulator of the actin cytoskeleton that is required for many haematopoietic and immune cell functions, including effective migration, phagocytosis and immune synapse formation. Loss of WASP activity leads to Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, an X-linked disease that is associated with defects in a broad ...
Yun Jung-Mi - - 2010
Obesity predisposes to an increased incidence of diabetes and CVD. Also, obesity is a pro-inflammatory state. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential negative regulators of inflammation and are down-regulated in pro-inflammatory states. Animal models of obesity are associated with decreased Tregs. The dietary modulation of Tregs could be used as ...
Cooper Nichola - - 2010
Depletion of B lymphocytes using the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab has wide-spread use in the treatment of patients with autoimmune disorders. As haematopoietic progenitor cells and only a fraction of differentiated plasma express CD20, the effect of rituximab on immune function appears to be minimal. However, hypogammagobulinaemia can occur with ...
Schuetz Catharina - - 2010
A number of primary immunodeficiencies are associated with autoimmune phenomena, e.g. Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome, Common Variable Immunodeficiency and Hyper-IgM Syndrome. The common denominator is a dysregulation of immune responses affecting T and B cells with central and/or peripheral tolerance mechanisms being disturbed. Autoimmunity and autoinflammation may also occur in atypical phenotypes ...
Haffor Al-Said A - - 2010
Myrrh, Commiphora molmol has been used as anti-inflammatory and wound healing commercial product. Leukocyte count had been reliable indicator for clinicians to monitor progress of healing for their patients. We hypothesized that myrrh supplement participate in the activation of leukocyte proliferation pathway prior and post skin injury and gastric ulcer. ...
Poirier Nicolas N INSERM U643, ITERT-Uro-Nephro, Centaure Network, CHU Nantes, 30 Bl J. Monnet, 44093 Nantes, - - 2010
Transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage organ failure. Its success is limited by side effects of immunosuppressive drugs, such as inhibitors of the calcineurin pathway that prevent rejection by reducing synthesis of interleukin-2 by T cells. Moreover, none of the existing drugs efficiently prevent the eventual ...
Oates Jim C JC Medical Service, Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC 29425, USA. - - 2010
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune syndrome marked by autoantibody production. Innate immunity is essential to transform humoral autoimmunity into the clinical lupus phenotype. Nitric oxide (NO) is a membrane- permeable signaling molecule involved in a broad array of biologic processes through its ability to modify proteins, lipids, and ...
Crow Mary K - - 2010
Recent advances have identified immune complexes containing nucleic acids as stimuli for toll-like receptors and inducers of type I interferon (IFN). While a similar mechanism may serve to amplify immune system activation and production of inflammatory mediators in vivo in the context of systemic autoimmune diseases, the initial triggers of ...
Perl Andras - - 2010
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the dysfunction of T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells and by the production of antinuclear autoantibodies. This editorial provides a synopsis of newly discovered genetic factors and signaling pathways in lupus pathogenesis that are documented in 11 state-of-the-art ...
Di Pucchio Tiziana - - 2010
IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: The enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) regulates immune responses through the capacity to degrade the essential amino-acid tryptophan into kynurenine and other downstream metabolites that suppress effector T-cell function and favour the differentiation of regulatory T cells. The current experimental evidence indicates that IDO can be expressed ...
Reynolds Ashley D AD Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, Center for Neurodegenerative Disorders, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, - - 2010
Nitrated alpha-synuclein (N-alpha-syn) immunization elicits adaptive immune responses to novel antigenic epitopes that exacerbate neuroinflammation and nigrostriatal degeneration in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of Parkinson's disease. We show that such neuroimmune degenerative activities, in significant measure, are Th17 cell-mediated, with CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cell (Treg) dysfunction seen among populations of ...
Hirota Keiji - - 2010
T helper (Th) 17 cells have been classified as a new lineage, distinct from Th1, Th2 and Treg. Their development requires a unique combination of cytokines and depends on distinct intracellular events, resulting in the production of the signature cytokines interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-17F and IL-22. The differential cytokine expression patterns ...
Czaja Albert J - - 2010
Current corticosteroid-based treatments of autoimmune hepatitis frequently have incomplete or unsatisfactory outcomes, side effects, and excessive immune suppression. The goal of this review is to describe the advances in developing animal models of autoimmune hepatitis and in treating diverse immune-mediated diseases that make pursuit of site-specific molecular and cellular inventions ...
Adams Duncan D - - 2010
Autoimmune diseases have environmental and genetic components. These are the microbial trigger, the immunity system component and the genetic component. Here we describe these components and how they interact. Known microbial triggers are Streptococcus pyogenes for rheumatic carditis, Proteus mirabilis for rheumatoid arthritis and Klebsiella pneumoniae for ankylosing spondylitis. The ...
Soond Dalya R DR Laboratory of Lymphocyte Signalling and Development, Babraham Institute, Cambridge, United - - 2010
We have previously described critical and nonredundant roles for the phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110delta during the activation and differentiation of naive T cells, and p110delta inhibitors are currently being developed for clinical use. However, to effectively treat established inflammatory or autoimmune diseases, it is important to be able to inhibit previously ...
Kwon Ho-Keun - - 2010
The beneficial effects of probiotics have been described in many diseases, but the mechanism by which they modulate the immune system is poorly understood. In this study, we identified a mixture of probiotics that up-regulates CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Administration of the probiotics mixture induced both T-cell and B-cell ...
Sarra Massimiliano - - 2010
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by excessive production of a variety of autoantibodies and a wide range of clinical manifestations. Pathogenesis of SLE is complex and not fully understood. There is however evidence that B and T cells are critical to the development of disease, and ...
Heath Jonathon - - 2010
Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is an inherited cerebellar degeneration syndrome often associated with immune deficiency, notably, lymphopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and cellular immune dysfunction. Although autoimmunity is a common feature of many congenital and acquired immune deficiencies, it has not generally been thought to be associated with AT. We report a 7-year-old boy ...
Tang Ting-Ting - - 2010
AIMS: Increasing evidences confirm the role of immune activation in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure (CHF). Regulatory T cells appear central to the control of immune homeostasis. We assessed the hypothesis that the circulating frequency and function of CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+CD127(low) T regulatory cells (Tregs) would be deranged in patients ...
Stromberg Sean P - - 2010
Exposure to infectious diseases has an unexpected benefit of inhibiting autoimmune diseases and allergies. This is one of many fundamental fitness tradeoffs associated with immune system architecture. The immune system attacks pathogens, but also may (inappropriately) attack the host. Exposure to pathogens can suppress the deleterious response, at the price ...
Kattah Nicole H NH Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. - - 2010
The U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP) is a target of autoreactive B cells and T cells in several rheumatic diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). We propose that inherent structural properties of this autoantigen complex, including common RNA-binding motifs, B and T-cell epitopes, ...
Tzang Bor-Show - - 2010
Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is known to induce apoptosis that has been associated with a variety of autoimmune disorders. Although we have previously reported that B19 non-structural protein (NS1) induces mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in COS-7 cells, the precise mechanism of B19-NS1 in developing autoimmunity is still obscure. To further examine the ...
Fransen Justin H - - 2010
The etiology of the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus is not known, but aberrant apoptosis and/or insufficient clearance of apoptotic material have been assigned a pivotal role. During apoptosis, nucleosomes and several endogenous danger-associated molecular patterns are incorporated in blebs. Recent data indicate that apoptotic blebs induce maturation of myeloid ...
Fang Yujiang - - 2010
Chemokines, a group of proinflammatory chemotactic cytokines, function to recruit leukocytes to inflammation sites, but they also play important roles in tumor growth, angiogenesis, organ sclerosis, and autoimmunity. In recent years, increasing evidence has accumulated to support the concept that thyroid epithelial cells (TEC) as well as the lymphocytes infiltrating ...
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