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Forsythe Paul P Department of Medicine, The Brain-Body Institute, St. Joseph's Healthcare, McMaster University, 50 Charlton Avenue East, T3302, Hamilton, ON, Canada, L8N 4A6, - - 2015
Often considered as the archetype of neuroimmune communication, much of our understanding of the bidirectional relationship between the nervous and immune systems has come from the study of mast cell-nerve interaction. Mast cells play a role in resistance to infection and are extensively involved in inflammation and subsequent tissue repair. ...
Izadifar Mohammad M Division of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, 57 Campus Drive, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N5A9, - - 2014
Development of smart bioactive scaffolds is of importance in tissue engineering, where cell proliferation, differentiation and migration within scaffolds can be regulated by the interactions between cells and scaffold through the use of growth factors (GFs) and extra cellular matrix peptides. One challenge in this area is to spatiotemporally control ...
Skaper S D - - 2014
Cells of the immune system and the central nervous system are capable of interacting with each other. The former cell populations respond to infection, tissue injury and trauma by releasing substances capable of provoking an inflammatory reaction. Inflammation is a key element in the pathobiology of chronic pain, neurodegenerative diseases, ...
Steinberg Benjamin E - - 2014
The nervous and immune systems are generally thought to operate independently of one another. A couple of studies, using mouse models, demonstrate sensing of and a molecular response to bacterial infection and inflammation by the nervous system.
Churchward Matthew A - - 2014
BackgroundAs the primary immune cells of the central nervous system, microglia contribute to development, homeostasis, and plasticity of the central nervous system, in addition to their well characterized roles in the foreign body and inflammatory responses. Increasingly, inappropriate activation of microglia is being reported as a component of inflammation in ...
Lin Kai K Clinical Laboratory Center, General Hospital of Air Force, Beijing, - - 2014
Nerve growth factor (NGF) was first found in the central nervous system and is now well known for its multiple pivotal roles in the nervous system and immune system. However, more and more evidences showed that NGF and its receptors TrkA and p75 were also found in the head and ...
Gill Randall R Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit - - 2014
In the United States the principal environmental exposure to mercury is through dietary consumption of sea food. Although the mechanism by which low levels of mercury affect the nervous system is not well established, epidemiological studies suggest that low level exposure of pregnant women to dietary mercury can adversely impact ...
Lees Justin G JG School of Medical Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, - - 2014
Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition caused by damage to the somatosensory nervous system, such as peripheral nerve injury. The immune system, and in particular the adaptive T cell response, plays a key role in mediating such pain. Regulatory T (Treg) cells are a small subpopulation of inhibitory T cells ...
Galland Leo L Foundation for Integrated Medicine , New York, New York, USA - - 2014
Abstract The human gut microbiome impacts human brain health in numerous ways: (1) Structural bacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides provide low-grade tonic stimulation of the innate immune system. Excessive stimulation due to bacterial dysbiosis, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, or increased intestinal permeability may produce systemic and/or central nervous system inflammation. ...
Sotelo Julio J Neuroimmunology Unit, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery of Mexico, Insurgentes Sur 3877, 14269, Mexico, Mexico, - - 2014
From all biological constituents of complex organisms, two are highly sophisticated: the nervous and the immune systems. Interestingly, their goals and processes appear to be distant from each other; however, their physiological mechanisms keep notorious similarities. Both construct intelligence, learn from experience, and keep memory. Their precise responses to innumerable ...
Kolev Martin M 1] Division of Transplant Immunology and Mucosal Biology, MRC Centre for Transplantation, King's College London, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, Guy's Hospital, London SE1 9RT, UK. - - 2014
Complement is traditionally known to be a system of serum proteins that provide protection against pathogens through direct cell lysis and the mobilization of innate and adaptive immunity. However, recent work indicates that the complement system has additional physiological roles beyond those in host defence. In this Opinion article, we ...
Yang Yanjie Y School of Medicine, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004, - - 2014
Apelin is the endogenous ligand for the APJ, a member of the G protein coupled receptors family. Apelin/APJ system is widely distributed in central nervous system and peripheral tissues, especially in heart, lung and kidney. Apelin plays important physiological and pathological roles in cardiovascular system, immune system, neuroprotection, etc. This ...
Bachstetter Adam D - - 2014
BackgroundThe p38¿ mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a well-characterized intracellular kinase involved in the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines from glia. As such, p38¿ appears to be a promising therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases associated with neuroinflammation. However, the in vivo role of p38¿ in cytokine production in the CNS is ...
Rossi Silvia S Clinica Neurologica, Dipartimento di Medicina dei Sistemi, Università Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy; Fondazione Santa Lucia/Centro Europeo per la Ricerca sul Cervello (CERC), 00143 Rome, - - 2014
Excessive glutamate-mediated synaptic transmission and secondary excitotoxicity have been proposed as key determinants of neurodegeneration in many neurological diseases. Soluble mediators of inflammation have recently gained attention owing to their ability to enhance glutamate transmission and affect synaptic sensitivity to neurotransmitters. In the complex crosstalk between soluble immunoactive molecules and ...
Wu Hai-Jian HJ Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou, 310009, Zhejiang, - - 2014
Autophagy involves degradation of dysfunctional cellular components through the actions of lysosomes. Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death involving a series of characteristic cell changes. Autophagy and apoptosis, as self-destructive processes, play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases; and a crosstalk between "self-eating" (autophagy) and ...
Druml Wilfred W Department of Medicine III, Division of Nephrology, Vienna General Hospital, Vienna, - - 2014
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and serious event associated with a high rate of complications, with an increased risk of progression to multiple organ dysfunction and excessive 'attributable' mortality. AKI affects all physiologic functions and organ systems with interrelated mechanisms, including the 'classical' consequences of the uremic state, ...
DeFrancesco-Lisowitz A A Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland OH - - 2014
Peripheral nerves regenerate following injury due to the effective activation of the intrinsic growth capacity of the neurons and the formation of a permissive pathway for outgrowth due to Wallerian degeneration. Wallerian degeneration and subsequent regeneration are significantly influenced by various immune cells and the cytokines they secrete. Although macrophages ...
Palmblad Karin K Unit of Pediatric Rheumatology, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, - - 2014
Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a potentially fatal complication of systemic inflammation. HMGB1 is a nuclear protein extensively leaked extracellularly during necrotic cell death or actively secreted by NK cells, macrophages and additional cells during infection or sterile injury. Extracellular HMGB1 orchestrates key events in inflammation as a prototypic alarmin. ...
Nicolaides Nicolas C NC Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, First Department of Pediatrics, University of Athens Medical School, 'Aghia Sophia' Children's Hospital, Athens, - - 2014
All living organisms have developed a highly conserved and regulatory system, the stress system, to cope with a broad spectrum of stressful stimuli that threaten, or are perceived as threatening, their dynamic equilibrium or homeostasis. This neuroendocrine system consists of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the locus caeruleus/norepinephrine-autonomic nervous system. ...
Ekasari Julie J Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia; Laboratory of Aquaculture and Artemia Reference Center, Ghent University, - - 2014
The objective of this study was to document the immunological effects of growing shrimp in biofloc systems. The experiment consisted of four types of biofloc systems in which bioflocs were produced by daily supplementation of four different carbon sources, i.e. molasses, tapioca, tapioca-by-product, and rice bran, at an estimated C/N ...
Brackman Gilles G Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Microbiology (LPM) Universiteit Gent Harelbekestraat 72 B-9000 Gent Belgium. - - 2014
Biofilms are microbial sessile communities characterized by cells that are attached to a substratum or interface or to each other, are embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances and exhibit an altered phenotype compared to planktonic cells. Biofilms are estimated to be associated with 80% of microbial infections ...
Björkqvist J - - 2014
Combinations of proinflammatory and procoagulant reactions are the unifying principle for a variety of disorders affecting the cardiovascular system. Factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) is a plasma protease that initiates the contact system. The biochemistry of the contact system in vitro is well understood; however, its in vivo functions are ...
Mardones Pablo P Biomedical Neuroscience Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Program of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Center for Molecular Studies of the Cell, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, - - 2014
Maintenance of organismal homeostasis depends on the integration of intracellular and external signals, involving the ability to detect molecular perturbations. An explosion of studies in model organisms indicates the occurrence of dynamic communication between alarm pathways engaged by protein-folding stress in neurons that activate adaptive programs in peripheral organs to ...
Bueno David D David Bueno, Departament de Genética, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain), - - 2014
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has attracted interest as an active signaling milieu that regulates brain development, homeostasis, and course disease. CSF is a nutrient-rich fluid, which also contains growth factors and signaling molecules that regulate multiple cell functions in the central nervous system (CNS). CSF constitution is controlled tightly and constituent ...
Janßen Stefanie S Clinical Neuroimmunology and Neurochemistry, Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany; Center for Systems Neuroscience (ZSN), Hannover, - - 2014
Microglia are resident macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) and the primary cells that contribute to CNS inflammation in many pathological conditions. Upon any signs of brain damage, microglia become activated and undergo tremendous cellular reorganization to adopt appropriate phenotypes. They migrate to lesion areas, accumulate, phagocytose cells or ...
Marin M S MS Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, Buenos Aires, - - 2014
In this study, the expression levels of viral Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the nervous system of bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5)-infected calves were investigated. A significant increase in the expression of TLRs 3 and 7-9 was found in the anterior cerebral cortex during acute infection and viral reactivation. In the ...
Pergola C C Chair of Pharmaceutical/Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Pharmacy, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Philosophenweg 14, D-07743 Jena, - - 2014
Leukotrienes (LTs) are inflammatory mediators produced via the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway and are linked to diverse disorders including asthma, allergic rhinitis and cardiovascular diseases. We recently identified the benzimidazole derivative BRP-7 as chemotype for anti-LT agents by virtual screening targeting 5-LO-activating protein (FLAP). Here we aimed to reveal the in ...
Lelios Iva I Institute of Experimental Immunology, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057, Zürich, - - 2014
During neuroinflammatory or neurodegenerative diseases, it is often critical to characterize the composition of infiltrating immune cells. This protocol describes a reliable, fast, and simple method for the isolation of leukocytes from murine central nervous system (CNS) during steady state or inflammation for analysis by flow cytometry or other techniques.
D'Ambrosi Nadia N Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore Rome, - - 2014
Rac1 is a major player of the Rho family of small GTPases that controls multiple cell signaling pathways, such as the organization of cytoskeleton (including adhesion and motility), cell proliferation, apoptosis and activation of immune cells. In the nervous system, in particular, Rac1 GTPase plays a key regulatory function of ...
Martini Alessandra Cadete AC Departmento de Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Campus Universitário, Trindade, 88049-900 Florianópolis, SC, - - 2014
Many diseases of the central nervous system are characterized and sometimes worsened by an intense inflammatory response in the affected tissue. It is now accepted that resolution of inflammation is an active process mediated by a group of mediators that can act in synchrony to switch the phenotype of cells, ...
Loof Torsten G TG Infection Immunology Research Group, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research Braunschweig, - - 2014
The hemostatic system comprises platelet aggregation, coagulation and fibrinolysis and is a host defense mechanism that protects the integrity of the vascular system after tissue injury. During bacterial infections, the coagulation system cooperates with the inflammatory system to eliminate the invading pathogens. However, pathogenic bacteria have frequently evolved mechanisms to ...
Shi Peng P Department of Physiology and Functional Genomics, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America; Department of Neurology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, United States of - - 2014
Neuroinflammation has been implicated in hypertension, and microglia have been proposed to play an important role in the progression of this disease. Here, we have studied whether microglia are activated within cardiovascular regulatory area(s) of the brain during hypertension, especially in high blood pressure that is associated with chronic activation ...
Gigliotti Joseph C JC Division of Nephrology, Center for Immunity, Inflammation and Regenerative Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Va., - - 2014
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an increasing medical burden and is independently associated with mortality. AKI is a common comorbidity in the intensive care unit (ICU), with sepsis-associated AKI seen in almost a quarter of all ICU patients. Due to the high mortality seen in these patients, improved therapeutic options ...
Mecollari Vasil V Laboratory for Regeneration of Sensorimotor Systems, Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience Amsterdam, - - 2014
Traumatic injury of the central nervous system (CNS) has severe impact on the patients' quality of life and initiates many molecular and cellular changes at the site of insult. Traumatic CNS injury results in direct damage of the axons of CNS neurons, loss of myelin sheaths, destruction of the surrounding ...
Hung Hui-Chen HC Institute of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Research, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, - - 2014
Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a neurotropic virus that can cause severe complications involving the central nervous system. No effective antiviral therapeutics are available for treating EV-A71 infection and drug discovery efforts are rarely focused to target this disease. Thus, the main goal of this study was to discover existing drugs ...
García-Mateo Nadia N Lazarillo Lab, Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular y Fisiología, Instituto de Biología y Genética Molecular, Universidad de Valladolid-CSIC Valladolid, - - 2014
Management of lipids, particularly signaling lipids that control neuroinflammation, is crucial for the regeneration capability of a damaged nervous system. Knowledge of pro- and anti-inflammatory signals after nervous system injury is extensive, most of them being proteins acting through well-known receptors and intracellular cascades. However, the role of lipid binding ...
Yan Fu-Ling FL Department of Neurology, Zhong-Da Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing, China - - 2014
Background The mechanism of stroke-induced immunodepression syndrome (SIDS) remains uncertain. Some studies suggest that hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) may be the key factor underlying SIDS. Catecholamines impair early lymphocyte response, which can increase the risk of stroke-associated infection (SAI). Material and Methods Our study focused on dynamic ...
Koulnis Miroslav M Department of Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, Lazare Research Building (LRB) Room 440A, 01605, Worcester, MA, USA, - - 2014
Erythropoiesis is regulated through a long-range negative feedback loop, whereby tissue hypoxia stimulates erythropoietin (Epo) secretion, which promotes an increase in erythropoietic rate. However, this long-range feedback loop, by itself, cannot account for the observed system properties of erythropoiesis, namely, a wide dynamic range, stability in the face of random ...
Tam Wing Yip WY Department of Biomedical Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Hong - - 2014
Microglia are generally considered the resident immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS) that regulate the primary events of neuroinflammatory responses. Microglia also play key roles in repair and neurodegeneration of the CNS after injury. Recent studies showed that trains of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia align end-to-end along the CNS injury ...
Mayer Wolfgang J - - 2013
PURPOSE: To compare the inflammatory cell response within the corneal flap interface created by a mechanical microkeratome and a femtosecond laser. SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany. DESIGN: Experimental in vitro study. METHODS: Corneoscleral buttons of 12 enucleated human eyes not suitable for transplantation were put into organ culture. Corneal ...
Bruschi Fabrizio F Department of Translational Research, N.T.M.S., University of Pisa, School of Medicine, Via Roma, 55, 56126, Italy. - - 2013
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) represent a large family of over twenty different secreted or membrane-bound endopeptidases, involved in many physiological (embryogenesis, precursor or stem cell mobilization, tissue remodeling during wound healing, etc.), as well as pathological (inflammation, tumor progression and metastasis in cancer, vascular pathology, etc.) conditions. For a long time, ...
Hasegawa-Moriyama Maiko - - 2012
Acute inflammation triggered by macrophage infiltration to injured tissue promotes wound repair and may induce pain hypersensitivity. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR)γ signaling is known to regulate heterogeneity of macrophages, which are often referred to as classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. M1 macrophages have considerable antimicrobial activity ...
Calvo Margarita M Department of Neurorestoration, Wolfson CARD, King's College London, London, - - 2012
Persistent pain is a sequela of several neurological conditions with a primary immune basis, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and multiple sclerosis. Additionally, diverse forms of injury to the peripheral or the central nervous systems--whether traumatic, metabolic, or toxic--result in substantial recruitment and activation of immune cells. This response involves the ...
Srinivasa Bharat T - - 2012
BACKGROUND: More than 200 primary immune deficiencies have been described. In adults, their identification can be difficult. The lack of timely referrals, diagnostic facilities, and available expertise often delay appropriate treatment. Because an increasing number of adults are now diagnosed with immune deficiencies, there is a need to better understand ...
Cohn Melvin - - 2012
Let me begin by thanking Kristofor Ellestad (KE) for his open reviewing, for his perceptive, blunt critique and for agreeing to have his analysis published[1].This, in my mind, is how scientific discourse should be conducted. Further the associate editor, Zlatko Dembic, should be complimented for proposing this format.
Perl Mario - - 2012
ABSTRACT: Over 50% of severely injured patients suffer from chest trauma. Second insults freqently result in acute lung injury (ALI), with sepsis being the main underlying condition. We aimed to develop a standardized, reproducible and clinically relevant double-hit mouse model of ALI induced by chest trauma and polymicrobial sepsis, and ...
Buenestado A - - 2012
Lung macrophages are critically involved in respiratory diseases. This study assessed the effects of the PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast and its active metabolite, roflumilast N-oxide on the release of a range of chemokines (CCL2, 3, 4, CXCL1, 8, 10) and of TNF-α, from human lung macrophages, stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide LPS. ...
Cronin James G JG Institute of Life Science, School of Medicine, Swansea University, United Kingdom. - - 2012
Infection of the bovine endometrium with Gram-negative bacteria commonly causes uterine disease. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on cells of the immune system bind Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stimulating the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1B (IL1B) and IL6, and the chemokine IL8. Because the endometrium is the first barrier ...
Li Huiping - - 2012
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is characterized by alveolar simplification with decreased alveolar number and increased airspace size. Formation of alveoli involves a process known as secondary septation triggered by myofibroblasts. This study investigated the underlying mechanisms of altered lung morphogenesis in a rat model of BPD induced by intra-amniotic injection of ...
Huang Nan N The Center for Research on Botanical Dietary Supplements, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, United States. - - 2012
Our previous studies found that 4 compounds, namely pseudohypericin, amentoflavone, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid, in Hypericum perforatum ethanol extract synergistically inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Microarray studies led us to hypothesize that these compounds inhibited PGE2 production by activating suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). In ...
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