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Bachstetter Adam D - - 2014
BackgroundThe p38¿ mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a well-characterized intracellular kinase involved in the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines from glia. As such, p38¿ appears to be a promising therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases associated with neuroinflammation. However, the in vivo role of p38¿ in cytokine production in the CNS is ...
Rossi Silvia S Clinica Neurologica, Dipartimento di Medicina dei Sistemi, Università Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy; Fondazione Santa Lucia/Centro Europeo per la Ricerca sul Cervello (CERC), 00143 Rome, - - 2014
Excessive glutamate-mediated synaptic transmission and secondary excitotoxicity have been proposed as key determinants of neurodegeneration in many neurological diseases. Soluble mediators of inflammation have recently gained attention owing to their ability to enhance glutamate transmission and affect synaptic sensitivity to neurotransmitters. In the complex crosstalk between soluble immunoactive molecules and ...
Wu Hai-Jian HJ Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou, 310009, Zhejiang, - - 2014
Autophagy involves degradation of dysfunctional cellular components through the actions of lysosomes. Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death involving a series of characteristic cell changes. Autophagy and apoptosis, as self-destructive processes, play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases; and a crosstalk between "self-eating" (autophagy) and ...
Druml Wilfred W Department of Medicine III, Division of Nephrology, Vienna General Hospital, Vienna, - - 2014
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and serious event associated with a high rate of complications, with an increased risk of progression to multiple organ dysfunction and excessive 'attributable' mortality. AKI affects all physiologic functions and organ systems with interrelated mechanisms, including the 'classical' consequences of the uremic state, ...
DeFrancesco-Lisowitz A A Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland OH - - 2014
Peripheral nerves regenerate following injury due to the effective activation of the intrinsic growth capacity of the neurons and the formation of a permissive pathway for outgrowth due to Wallerian degeneration. Wallerian degeneration and subsequent regeneration are significantly influenced by various immune cells and the cytokines they secrete. Although macrophages ...
Palmblad Karin K Unit of Pediatric Rheumatology, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, - - 2014
Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a potentially fatal complication of systemic inflammation. HMGB1 is a nuclear protein extensively leaked extracellularly during necrotic cell death or actively secreted by NK cells, macrophages and additional cells during infection or sterile injury. Extracellular HMGB1 orchestrates key events in inflammation as a prototypic alarmin. ...
Nicolaides Nicolas C NC Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, First Department of Pediatrics, University of Athens Medical School, 'Aghia Sophia' Children's Hospital, Athens, - - 2014
All living organisms have developed a highly conserved and regulatory system, the stress system, to cope with a broad spectrum of stressful stimuli that threaten, or are perceived as threatening, their dynamic equilibrium or homeostasis. This neuroendocrine system consists of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the locus caeruleus/norepinephrine-autonomic nervous system. ...
Ekasari Julie J Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia; Laboratory of Aquaculture and Artemia Reference Center, Ghent University, - - 2014
The objective of this study was to document the immunological effects of growing shrimp in biofloc systems. The experiment consisted of four types of biofloc systems in which bioflocs were produced by daily supplementation of four different carbon sources, i.e. molasses, tapioca, tapioca-by-product, and rice bran, at an estimated C/N ...
Brackman Gilles G Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Microbiology (LPM) Universiteit Gent Harelbekestraat 72 B-9000 Gent Belgium. - - 2014
Biofilms are microbial sessile communities characterized by cells that are attached to a substratum or interface or to each other, are embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances and exhibit an altered phenotype compared to planktonic cells. Biofilms are estimated to be associated with 80% of microbial infections ...
Björkqvist J - - 2014
Combinations of proinflammatory and procoagulant reactions are the unifying principle for a variety of disorders affecting the cardiovascular system. Factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) is a plasma protease that initiates the contact system. The biochemistry of the contact system in vitro is well understood; however, its in vivo functions are ...
Mardones Pablo P Biomedical Neuroscience Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Program of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Center for Molecular Studies of the Cell, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, - - 2014
Maintenance of organismal homeostasis depends on the integration of intracellular and external signals, involving the ability to detect molecular perturbations. An explosion of studies in model organisms indicates the occurrence of dynamic communication between alarm pathways engaged by protein-folding stress in neurons that activate adaptive programs in peripheral organs to ...
Bueno David D David Bueno, Departament de Genética, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain), - - 2014
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has attracted interest as an active signaling milieu that regulates brain development, homeostasis, and course disease. CSF is a nutrient-rich fluid, which also contains growth factors and signaling molecules that regulate multiple cell functions in the central nervous system (CNS). CSF constitution is controlled tightly and constituent ...
Janßen Stefanie S Clinical Neuroimmunology and Neurochemistry, Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany; Center for Systems Neuroscience (ZSN), Hannover, - - 2014
Microglia are resident macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) and the primary cells that contribute to CNS inflammation in many pathological conditions. Upon any signs of brain damage, microglia become activated and undergo tremendous cellular reorganization to adopt appropriate phenotypes. They migrate to lesion areas, accumulate, phagocytose cells or ...
Marin M S MS Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, Buenos Aires, - - 2014
In this study, the expression levels of viral Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the nervous system of bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5)-infected calves were investigated. A significant increase in the expression of TLRs 3 and 7-9 was found in the anterior cerebral cortex during acute infection and viral reactivation. In the ...
Pergola C C Chair of Pharmaceutical/Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Pharmacy, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Philosophenweg 14, D-07743 Jena, - - 2014
Leukotrienes (LTs) are inflammatory mediators produced via the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway and are linked to diverse disorders including asthma, allergic rhinitis and cardiovascular diseases. We recently identified the benzimidazole derivative BRP-7 as chemotype for anti-LT agents by virtual screening targeting 5-LO-activating protein (FLAP). Here we aimed to reveal the in ...
Lelios Iva I Institute of Experimental Immunology, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057, Zürich, - - 2014
During neuroinflammatory or neurodegenerative diseases, it is often critical to characterize the composition of infiltrating immune cells. This protocol describes a reliable, fast, and simple method for the isolation of leukocytes from murine central nervous system (CNS) during steady state or inflammation for analysis by flow cytometry or other techniques.
D'Ambrosi Nadia N Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore Rome, - - 2014
Rac1 is a major player of the Rho family of small GTPases that controls multiple cell signaling pathways, such as the organization of cytoskeleton (including adhesion and motility), cell proliferation, apoptosis and activation of immune cells. In the nervous system, in particular, Rac1 GTPase plays a key regulatory function of ...
Martini Alessandra Cadete AC Departmento de Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Campus Universitário, Trindade, 88049-900 Florianópolis, SC, - - 2014
Many diseases of the central nervous system are characterized and sometimes worsened by an intense inflammatory response in the affected tissue. It is now accepted that resolution of inflammation is an active process mediated by a group of mediators that can act in synchrony to switch the phenotype of cells, ...
Shi Peng P Department of Physiology and Functional Genomics, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America; Department of Neurology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, United States of - - 2014
Neuroinflammation has been implicated in hypertension, and microglia have been proposed to play an important role in the progression of this disease. Here, we have studied whether microglia are activated within cardiovascular regulatory area(s) of the brain during hypertension, especially in high blood pressure that is associated with chronic activation ...
Loof Torsten G TG Infection Immunology Research Group, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research Braunschweig, - - 2014
The hemostatic system comprises platelet aggregation, coagulation and fibrinolysis and is a host defense mechanism that protects the integrity of the vascular system after tissue injury. During bacterial infections, the coagulation system cooperates with the inflammatory system to eliminate the invading pathogens. However, pathogenic bacteria have frequently evolved mechanisms to ...
Mayer Wolfgang J - - 2013
PURPOSE: To compare the inflammatory cell response within the corneal flap interface created by a mechanical microkeratome and a femtosecond laser. SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany. DESIGN: Experimental in vitro study. METHODS: Corneoscleral buttons of 12 enucleated human eyes not suitable for transplantation were put into organ culture. Corneal ...
Hasegawa-Moriyama Maiko - - 2012
Acute inflammation triggered by macrophage infiltration to injured tissue promotes wound repair and may induce pain hypersensitivity. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR)γ signaling is known to regulate heterogeneity of macrophages, which are often referred to as classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. M1 macrophages have considerable antimicrobial activity ...
Calvo Margarita M Department of Neurorestoration, Wolfson CARD, King's College London, London, - - 2012
Persistent pain is a sequela of several neurological conditions with a primary immune basis, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and multiple sclerosis. Additionally, diverse forms of injury to the peripheral or the central nervous systems--whether traumatic, metabolic, or toxic--result in substantial recruitment and activation of immune cells. This response involves the ...
Srinivasa Bharat T - - 2012
BACKGROUND: More than 200 primary immune deficiencies have been described. In adults, their identification can be difficult. The lack of timely referrals, diagnostic facilities, and available expertise often delay appropriate treatment. Because an increasing number of adults are now diagnosed with immune deficiencies, there is a need to better understand ...
Cohn Melvin - - 2012
Let me begin by thanking Kristofor Ellestad (KE) for his open reviewing, for his perceptive, blunt critique and for agreeing to have his analysis published[1].This, in my mind, is how scientific discourse should be conducted. Further the associate editor, Zlatko Dembic, should be complimented for proposing this format.
Perl Mario - - 2012
ABSTRACT: Over 50% of severely injured patients suffer from chest trauma. Second insults freqently result in acute lung injury (ALI), with sepsis being the main underlying condition. We aimed to develop a standardized, reproducible and clinically relevant double-hit mouse model of ALI induced by chest trauma and polymicrobial sepsis, and ...
Buenestado A - - 2012
Lung macrophages are critically involved in respiratory diseases. This study assessed the effects of the PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast and its active metabolite, roflumilast N-oxide on the release of a range of chemokines (CCL2, 3, 4, CXCL1, 8, 10) and of TNF-α, from human lung macrophages, stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide LPS. ...
Cronin James G JG Institute of Life Science, School of Medicine, Swansea University, United Kingdom. - - 2012
Infection of the bovine endometrium with Gram-negative bacteria commonly causes uterine disease. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on cells of the immune system bind Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stimulating the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1B (IL1B) and IL6, and the chemokine IL8. Because the endometrium is the first barrier ...
Li Huiping - - 2012
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is characterized by alveolar simplification with decreased alveolar number and increased airspace size. Formation of alveoli involves a process known as secondary septation triggered by myofibroblasts. This study investigated the underlying mechanisms of altered lung morphogenesis in a rat model of BPD induced by intra-amniotic injection of ...
Huang Nan N The Center for Research on Botanical Dietary Supplements, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, United States. - - 2012
Our previous studies found that 4 compounds, namely pseudohypericin, amentoflavone, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid, in Hypericum perforatum ethanol extract synergistically inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Microarray studies led us to hypothesize that these compounds inhibited PGE2 production by activating suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). In ...
Deng Chongyang - - 2012
Acute liver failure (ALF) is a relatively rare liver disorder that leads to the massive death of hepatocytes. Our previous study has reported that a novel small-molecule agent, (E)-5-(2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-((2,4-dioxothiazolidin-5-ylidene)methyl)phenyl)-5'-methyl-7,7'-dimethoxy-4,4'-biben-zo[d][1,3]dioxole-5,5'-dicarboxylate (7k), possessed potent anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, we further evaluated the therapeutic effects of 7k on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALF, ...
Essafi-Benkhadir Kahdija - - 2012
Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of several pathologies, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease, atherosclerosis and cancer. A wide range of anti-inflammatory chemicals have been used to treat such diseases while presenting high toxicity and numerous side effects. Here, we report the anti-inflammatory effect of a non-toxic, cost-effective ...
Fernández Gabriela C - - 2012
PURPOSE: The interaction of Shiga toxin (Stx) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with monocytes (Mo) may be central to the pathogenesis of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), providing the cytokines necessary to sensitize endothelial cells to Stx action. We have previously demonstrated phenotypical alterations in Mo from HUS patients, including increased number of ...
Li Meng - - 2012
Salvia miltiorrhiza, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat various inflammatory diseases. In the present study, the antiinflammatory effects of S. miltiorrhiza lipid-soluble extracts (SMLE) were demonstrated in vitro and in vivo, along with its underlying mechanism of action. SMLE significantly inhibited the production of NO, TNF-α, IL-1β ...
Font-Nieves Miriam - - 2012
Pathological conditions and pro-inflammatory stimuli in the brain induce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a key enzyme in arachidonic acid metabolism mediating the production of prostanoids that, among other actions, have strong vasoactive properties. Although low basal cerebral COX-2 expression has been reported, COX-2 is strongly induced by pro-inflammatory challenges, whereas COX-1 is ...
Gannabathula Swapna - - 2012
Context: Factors in honey that improve wound healing are poorly understood, but are thought to include lipopolysaccharide (LPS), apalbumin-1 and -2, and a 5.8 kDa component that stimulate cytokine release from macrophages. Objective: To characterize the ability of New Zealand honeys to elicit the release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) from ...
Christiansen D - - 2012
Background: Sepsis Sepsis is a major world-wide medical problem with high morbidity and mortality. Gram-negative bacteria are among the most important pathogens of sepsis and their LPS LPS content is regarded to be important for the systemic inflammatory reaction. The CD14 CD14 /myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD-2 MD-2 )/TLR4 complex ...
Ngkelo Anta - - 2012
COPD is a disease of innate immunity and bacterial infections are a dominant cause of exacerbations in the later stages resulting in poor health and high mortality. The pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is sensed by immune cells through activation of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). This leads to ...
Zhang Lemeng - - 2012
The pathogenesis of sepsis is complex and, unfortunately, poorly understood. The cellular process of autophagy is believed to play a protective role in sepsis; however, the mechanisms responsible for its regulation in this setting are ill defined. In the present study, interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) was found to regulate ...
Gao Chengjin - - 2012
Organ protection is a routine therapy in patients with severe trauma, infection, and even multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Appropriate inflammatory response benefits organ function with sepsis. Our aim was to verify the immunoregulatory effects of Ulinastatin (UTI) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administrated mice. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to an intraperitoneal injection ...
ThyagaRajan Srinivasan S Ph D Integrative Medicine Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, School of Bioengineering, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Tamil - - 2012
In the past century, physiological, molecular, and cellular-based studies have proved that the functions of the nervous system, endocrine system, and immune system are dependent upon each other and that this interaction among these systems determines the maintenance of health or susceptibility to infections. The release of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides ...
Ye Yanxia - - 2011
A rise in intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) is crucial for the activation of macrophages, however, the mechanisms and consequences of this [Ca(2+)](i) increase remain unclear. This study investigated the role of calcium in mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with LPS plus IFN-γ by using the store-operated Ca(2+) channel (SOCC) blocker SK&F 96365. ...
Baltch Aldona L - - 2011
Serious Candida glabrata infections, which can be difficult to treat, are often treated with echinocandins. We compared in vitro the effects of high and low concentrations of 3 echinocandins (micafungin [MCF], caspofungin [CAS], and anidulafungin [ANF]), voriconazole (VRC), and amphotericin B (AmB), singly and VRC in combination with MCF, CAS, ...
Kim Dong Im - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a devastating disorder of the lung by various causes and its cardinal features are tissue inflammation, pulmonary edema, low lung compliance, and widespread capillary leakage. Among phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks), PI3K-γ isoform has been shown to play an important role in a number of immune/inflammatory ...
Finney Simon J - - 2012
To investigate differences in cytokine/chemokine release in response to lipoteichoic acid (LTA) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and contributing cellular mechanisms, in order to improve understanding of the pathogenesis of sepsis. Levels of cytokines/chemokines were measured in plasma and peritoneal lavage fluid of 10-week-old male mice (C57/B16) following intraperitoneal injection of LTA ...
Zanoni Ivan - - 2011
The lipopolysaccharide is the major component of Gram-negative bacteria outer membrane. LPS comprises three covalently linked regions: the lipid A, the rough core oligosaccharide, and the O-antigenic side chain determining serotype specificity. Wild-type LPS (sLPS) contains the O-antigenic side chain and is referred to as smooth. Rough LPS (rLPS) does ...
Ovstebø Reidun - - 2011
Neisseria meningitidis causes sepsis with coagulopathy. The present study evaluated the tissue factor (TF)-inducing capacity of bacterial LPS in different presentation forms, i.e. membrane-bound LPS versus purified LPS, and of non-LPS components of N. meningitidis. By using a wild-type N. meningitidis, a mutant N. meningitidis lacking LPS (LPS-deficient N. meningitidis), ...
Pereira Lívia de Paulo - - 2011
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Caesalpinia ferrea (Caesalpinioideae), known as pau-ferro or juca, has been used in the traditional medicine in North and Northeast of Brazil in inflammatory disorder, among others. Thus, experimental evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of extracts and fraction polysaccharides of Caesalpinia ferrea pods, and correlation with its anti-inflammatory activity ...
Huo Meixia - - 2011
Alpinetin, one of the main constituents of the seeds of Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, belonging to flavonoids, has been known to exhibit antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and other important therapeutic activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protection of alpinetin on inflammation in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated Raw 264.7 cells and ...
Guzzo Christina - - 2011
IL-27, which is produced by activated APCs, bridges innate and adaptive immunity by regulating the development of Th cells. Recent evidence supports a role for IL-27 in the activation of monocytic cells in terms of inflammatory responses. Indeed, proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory activities are attributed to IL-27, and IL-27 production itself ...
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