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Chen Huan-Yuan HY Department of Dermatology, University of California Davis, School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA, - - 2015
Galectins, a family of β-galactoside-binding proteins, are expressed in many different phagocytic leukocytes (granulocytes, monocytes, and macrophages). A number of family members have been shown to play an important role in ingestion of particles (phagocytosis), thus contributing to clearance of damaged cells and host defense against pathogens. Here we describe ...
Coker-Gurkan Ajda A Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Istanbul Kultur University, Istanbul 34156, - - 2014
The cell cycle is tightly regulated by the family of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). CDKs act as regulatory factors on serine and threonine residues by phosphorylating their substrates and cyclins. CDK‑targeting drugs have previously demonstrated promising effects as cancer therapeutics both in vitro and in vivo. Roscovitine, a purine‑derivative and specific CDK inhibitor, ...
Glory Audrey A Département des sciences biologiques (TOXEN), Université du Québec à Montréal , Montréal, Québec , - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: Despite clinical progress, mechanisms involved in cellular responses to low and high doses of hyperthermia are not entirely clear. This study investigates the role of Bcl-2 family proteins in control of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis during hyperthermia at 42-43 °C and the protective effect of a low dose ...
Baldo Brian A BA , 11 Bent Street, Lindfield, NSW, 2070, Australia, - - 2014
Cytokines, currently known to be more than 130 in number, are small MW (<30 kDa) key signaling proteins that modulate cellular activities in immunity, infection, inflammation and malignancy. Key to understanding their function is recognition of their pleiotropism and often overlapping and functional redundancies. Classified here into 9 main families, most ...
Gültekin Yetiş Y Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Apoptosis and Cancer Immunology Laboratory, AKiL, Center for Life Sciences and Technology Research, Bogazici University, Istanbul, - - 2014
The novel nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) with a caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) 3 (NLRC3) protein belongs to the NLR family of cytosolic pathogen recognition receptors. NLRC3 has the characteristic NOD and leucine-rich repeat configuration with a less well defined CARD. T lymphocytes are known to have ...
Apostolidou Eirini E Laboratory of Molecular Hematology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece First Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis, - - 2014
Inflammatory attacks of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) are characterised by circulation and influx of high number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in the affected sites and profound therapeutic effect of IL-1β inhibitors. We investigated the role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) in the pathogenesis of FMF, and their involvement in IL-1β ...
Zhao Xiao-Feng XF Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2014
Unlike mammals, zebrafish can regenerate a damaged retina. This remarkable regenerative response is mediated by Müller glia (MG) that undergo a reprogramming event that drives their proliferation and the generation of multipotent progenitors for retinal repair. The mechanisms that drive MG reprogramming are poorly understood. Here, we report that Leptin ...
Shi Junwei J State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, - - 2014
The activation of caspase-3 is a key surrogate marker for detecting apoptosis. To quantitate caspase-3 activity, we constructed a biosensor comprising a recombinant firefly luciferase containing a caspase-3 cleavage site. When apoptosis was induced, caspase-3 cleavage of the biosensor activated firefly luciferase by a factor greater than 25. The assay ...
Suzuki Jun J Kyoto University, - - 2014
Apoptotic cells expose phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) on their surface as an eat me signal. Mammalian Xk-related (Xkr) protein 8, which is predicted to contain 6 transmembrane regions, and its Caenorhabditis elegans homolog CED-8 promote apoptotic PtdSer exposure. The mouse and human Xkr families consist of 8 and 9 members, respectively. Here, ...
Romberg Neil N 1] Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. - - 2014
Upon detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, innate immune receptors initiate inflammatory responses. These receptors include cytoplasmic NOD-like receptors (NLRs) whose stimulation recruits and proteolytically activates caspase-1 within the inflammasome, a multiprotein complex. Caspase-1 mediates the production of interleukin-1 family cytokines (IL1FCs), leading to fever and inflammatory cell death (pyroptosis). Mutations ...
Primikyri Alexandra - - 2014
Bcl-2 family proteins are important regulators of apoptosis and its anti-apoptotic members, which are overexpressed in many types of cancer, are of high prognostic significance, establishing them as attractive therapeutic targets. Quercetin, a natural flavonoid, has drawn much attention because it exerts anticancer effects, while sparing normal cells. A multidiscipli-nary ...
Colin Jessie J Laboratoire de Génétique et Biologie Cellulaire, EA4589, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Bâtiment Simone Veil, 2 avenue de la Source de la Bièvre, 78180, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, - - 2014
The ubiquitin-proteasome system is one of the main proteolytic pathways. It inhibits apoptosis by degrading pro-apoptotic regulators, such as caspases or the tumor suppressor p53. However, it also stimulates cell death by degrading pro-survival regulators, including IAPs. In Drosophila, the control of apoptosis by Bcl-2 family members is poorly documented. ...
Mattoo Abid R AR Laboratory of Experimental Carcinogenesis, National Cancer - - 2014
Purpose: High levels of BCL-2 family members in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cause resistance to treatment. Inhibition of NANOG or its paralog NANOGP8 reduces the proliferation, stemness and tumorigenicity of CRC cells. Our hypothesis was that inhibition of NANOG/NANOGP8 enhances the cytotoxic effect of BH3 mimetics targeting BCL-2 family members in ...
Weng Leiyun L Baylor Institute for Immunology Research, Baylor Research Institute, Baylor Scott and White Health, - - 2014
NLRP3 is a key component of caspase-activating macromolecular protein complexes called inflammasomes. It has been found that DHX33 is a cytosolic dsRNA sensor for the NLRP3 inflammasome, which induces caspase-1-dependent production of IL-1β and IL-18 upon activation. However, how the cytosolic dsRNAs induce the interaction between DHX33 and the NLRP3 ...
Niss Omar O Cancer and Blood Disease Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, - - 2014
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a human disorder of T cell homeostasis caused by mutations that impair FAS-mediated apoptosis. A defining characteristic of ALPS is the expansion of double negative T cells (DNTC). Relatively little is known about how defective FAS-driven cell death and the Bcl-2 apoptotic pathway intersect in ALPS ...
Lemoine Roxane R INSERM, Unité U1163, Laboratoire Homéostasie normale et pathologique du système immunitaire, Hôpital Necker Enfants-Malades, Paris, France; Université Paris Descartes-Sorbonne Paris Cité, Institut Imagine, Paris, France; Unité d'Immunologie et Hématologie Pédiatrique, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Necker Enfants-Malades, Paris, - - 2014
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is one of the most common chronic gastrointestinal diseases, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Studies of monogenic diseases can provide insight into the pathogenesis of IBD. We thought to determine the underlying molecular causes of IBD occurring in 2 unrelated families in association ...
Keitel Verena V Clinic for Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Heinrich-Heine-University, Moorenstrasse 5, 40225, Düsseldorf, Germany, - - 2014
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary tree leading to bile duct strictures, progressive cholestasis, and development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. The pathogenesis of PSC is still elusive; however, both an immune-mediated injury of the bile ducts as well as increased ...
Osinalde Nerea N Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230, Odense M, - - 2014
Common γ-chain (γc ) family of cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15 and IL-21) are key regulators of the immune homeostasis that exhibit pleiotropic biological activities and even sometimes redundant roles as a result of the utilization of the same receptor subunit. However, they also exert distinct functions that make ...
Katiyar Santosh K SK Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA, 35294; Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA, 35294; Nutrition Obesity Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA, 35294; Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL, 35233, - - 2014
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced immunosuppression has been linked with the risk of skin carcinogenesis. Approximately, two million new cases of skin cancers, including melanoma and non-melanoma, diagnosed each year in the USA and therefore have a tremendous bad impact on public health. Dietary phytochemicals are promising options for the development of ...
Zuo Hongyan H Department of Experimental Pathology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27, Taiping Road,, Haidian District, Beijing, 100850, - - 2014
In the present study, we investigated whether Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) is important for neural cell apoptosis induced by microwave exposure and explored the role of MEK/ERK/CREB pathway regulated by RKIP in the apoptosis. Differentiated PC12 cells were exposed to continuous microwave radiation at 2.856 GHz for 5 min with average ...
Chen Yigang Y Department of General Surgery, Nanjing Medical University affiliated Wuxi No. 2 People's Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 214002, People's Republic of - - 2014
Biodegradable magnesium alloy implants have attracted much attention because of their excellent biocompatibility and good mechanical properties. However, effects of Mg alloy on cell apoptosis remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the Mg-6Zn alloy on the apoptosis and necrosis of common bile duct ...
Tran Vuvi G VG School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749, - - 2014
IL-33 is a member of the IL-1 cytokine family and plays a role in the host defense against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. In this study, we investigated the function of IL-33 and its receptor in in vitro macrophage responses to Candida albicans. Our results demonstrate that pre-sensitization of isolated peritoneal ...
Sim Geok Choo GC Department of Melanoma Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2014
The use of cytokines from the IL-2 family (also called the common γ chain cytokine family) such as interleukin (IL)-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 to activate the immune system of cancer patients is one of the most important areas of current cancer immunotherapy research. The infusion of IL-2 at low ...
Lleo Ana A Liver Unit and Center for Autoimmune Liver Diseases, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano (MI), - - 2014
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by selective destruction of intrahepatic cholangiocytes. Mechanisms underlying the development and progression of the disease are still controversial and largely undefined. Evidence suggests that PBC results from an articulated immunologic response against an immunodominant mitochondrial autoantigen, the E2 component of ...
Lin Shih-Yi SY Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan; School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, - - 2014
Bile duct obstruction and subsequent cholestasis are associated with hepatocellular injury, cholangiocyte proliferation, stellate cell activation, Kupffer cell activation, oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Flavonoids have been shown to confer beneficial health effects, including hepatoprotection. However, the molecular mechanism of flavonoid-mediated hepatoprotection is incompletely understood. In this study, we report ...
Tsoutsou Pelagia G PG Radiation Oncologist, Médecin Adjointe, Hôpital du Valais (RSV) - Centre Hospitalier du Valais Romand (CHVR), Hôpital de Sion, Service de Radio-Oncologie , Av. du Grand-Champsec 80, Case postale 736, CH-1951 Sion , Switzerland +027 603 87 15 ; +027 603 45 06 ; - - 2014
A discussion on the importance and pathogenesis of radiation-induced pneumonitis and fibrosis is provided, with a special focus on the role of the immune system. The need to understand this interaction is highlighted in view of emerging therapeutic potential.
Almo Steven C SC a  Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York - - 2014
Recent advances indicate that new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of malignancies will be realized from combined radiation treatment and immune checkpoint modulation. Numerous biophysical properties must be considered for effective biologic development, including affinity, selectivity, oligomeric state and valency. High-resolution structural characterization contributes to our understanding of these properties ...
Yu Cheng-Rong CR Molecular Immunology Section, Laboratory of Immunology, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 10N109A, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD, 20892-1857, - - 2014
Immunological responses to pathogens are stringently regulated in the eye to prevent excessive inflammation that damage ocular tissues and compromise vision. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) regulate intensity/duration of inflammatory responses. We have used SOCS1-deficient mice and retina-specific SOCS1 transgenic rats to investigate roles of SOCS1 in ocular herpes simplex ...
Roses Robert E RE a  Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, - - 2014
The last decade has witnessed significant progress in the field of cancer immunotherapy. This has, in part, been driven by a growing recognition that elements of the innate immune response can be harnessed to induce robust immunity against tumor-associated targets. Nonetheless, as clinically effective immunotherapy for the majority of cancers ...
Baek Seung Jae SJ Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, - - 2014
Acute side effects of radiation such as oral mucositis are observed in most patients. Although several potential radioprotective agents have been proposed, no effective agent has yet been identified. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of synthetic compound 3-amino-3-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-1H-quinoline-2,4-dione (KR22332) as a radioprotective agent. Cell viability, apoptosis, the generation ...
Ghosh Debjani D School of Biotechnology and Biological Sciences, West Bengal University of Technology, BF-142, Sector I, Salt Lake, Kolkata, 700064, - - 2014
The potential of naturally occurring antioxidants to reduce the cellular oxidative damage induced by ionizing radiation has been studied for more than a decade for their pharmacological application during cancer treatment. It is already known that radioprotective efficacy of phytochemicals might influence various end points of radiation damage. Flavonoids are ...
Kim Ki Cheon KC School of Medicine and Institute for Nuclear Science and - - 2014
Fucodiphlorethol G (6'-[2,4-dihydroxy-6-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenoxy)phenoxy]biphenyl-2,2',4,4',6-pentol) is a compound purified from Ecklonia cava, a brown alga that is widely distributed offshore of Jeju Island. This study investigated the protective effects of fucodiphlorethol G against oxidative damage-mediated apoptosis induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. Fucodiphlorethol G attenuated the generation of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals and ...
Zhu Wei W School of Radiation Medicine and Protection and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions and School for Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences (RAD-X), Soochow University, No. 199 Ren'ai Road, Suzhou 215123, - - 2014
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenolic constituent of green tea, is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger that may have therapeutic applications for the treatment of many disorders. Radiation therapy is widely used for the treatment of various types of cancers; however, radiation-induced skin injury remains a serious concern. EGCG ...
Banerjee Sanjita S Institute of Genetics, University of Cologne, 50674 Cologne, Germany; and European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 69117 Heidelberg, - - 2014
Ultraviolet radiation is a pervasive stimulus with wide-ranging effects on all living forms. The effects of UV vary from physiological to pathological, depending on levels of exposure, but the immune response at the organismal level is not well understood. We use the zebrafish embryo and larva to study immune responses ...
Wattenberg Max M MM a  Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, - - 2014
There is increasing evidence of the potential for radiation therapy to generate antitumor immune responses. The mechanisms of this immune-activating potential include actions on tumor cells such as immunogenic cell death and phenotypic change. Radiation modulates tumor cell surface expression of cell death receptors, tumor-associated antigens and adhesion molecules. This ...
Ariyasu Shinya S Center for Technologies Against Cancer, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda 278-8510, - - 2014
In radiation therapy, adverse side effects are often induced due to the excessive cell death that occurs in radiosensitive normal cells. The radiation-induced cell death of normal cells is caused, at least in part, by apoptosis, which undergoes via activation of p53 and increase in the p53 protein, a zinc-containing ...
Li Jianguo J Department of Human Anatomy, The Medical School of Inner Mongolia University for the Nationalities, Neimenggu, Tongliao 028041, P.R. - - 2014
There is increasing evidence that neuronal cell death occurs via extrinsic (death receptors) and intrinsic (mitochondria) pathways. Radiation induces caspase activation fundamentally via the mitochondrial pathway. Caspases are the key regulators of apoptosis. Healthy male Sprague‑Dawley rats were used in the present study to examine the radioprotective effect of a ...
Kong E Y - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: The in vivo radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) and radiation-induced rescue effect (RIRE) induced between embryos of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) by alpha-particle irradiation were studied through the number of apoptotic signals revealed at 24 h post fertilization (hpf) through vital dye acridine orange staining. Materials and methods: RIBE ...
Legendre Claire C BIOMERIT Research Centre, School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork - - 2014
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) frequently occurs in patients with respiratory disease, and is particularly prevalent in patients with cystic fibrosis. GER is a condition in which the duodeno-gastric contents of the stomach leak into the esophagus, in many cases resulting in aspiration into the respiratory tract. As such, the presence of ...
Li Jun - - 2014
Injury to the biliary epithelium triggers inflammation and fibrosis, which can result in severe liver diseases and may progress to malignancy. Development of a type 1 immune response has been linked to biliary injury pathogenesis; however, a subset of patients with biliary atresia, the most common childhood cholangiopathy, exhibit increased ...
Gallo Richard L RL Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego and Veterans Affairs San Diego Health Care System, San Diego, California, - - 2014
Almost 40 years from when it was first reported that UVB radiation exposure would modulate immune signaling, the photoimmunology field is still trying to understand the mechanisms by which UVB initiates inflammatory responses and modulates immune recognition. This commentary focuses on the ability of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), specifically TLR4 (Ahmad ...
Applebaum Mark A - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: Although there are considerable data on mechanisms of radiation-induced apoptosis in vitro and in animal models, little is known about functional variation in these pathways in humans. We sought to develop a tractable system to evaluate this. Materials and methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 90 ...
Goswami S S Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, - - 2014
Skin gets exposed to various abiotic and biotic factors. Solar radiation of which UV rays is a principle component in fact increase the free radical load and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause lipid per-oxidation, DNA damage, apoptosis and are also associated with inflammatory responses recruiting molecules (NFκB, ...
Wang Junru J Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS), 4301 West Markham, Slot 522-10, Little Rock, AR, 72205, USA, - - 2014
Mast cells and neuroimmune interactions regulate the severity of intestinal radiation mucositis, a dose-limiting toxicity during radiation therapy of abdominal malignancies. Because endocannabinoids (eCB) regulate intestinal inflammation, we investigated the effect of the cannabimimetic, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), in a mast competent (+/+) and mast cell-deficient (Ws/Ws) rat model. Rats underwent localized, ...
Luo Zhonghua Z Department of Radiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical - - 2014
Gliomas are the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, and the incidence is increasing. Because gliomas often become resistant to radiation treatment, it is urgent to develop novel therapeutic methods that are more effective and less toxic than current therapies so as to enhance patient survival and quality of life. ...
Chen Ji-Kuai JK a  Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, - - 2014
Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome occurs when the body is exposed to a high dose of radiation. Currently, safe and effective radioprotectants are not available. Apoptosis was reported to play a primary role in radiation-induced injury. Recent evidence suggests that stimulation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) prevents cell death by inhibition ...
Li Chang-Feng CF Endoscopy Center, China‑Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130033, P.R. - - 2014
The aim of this study was to construct an expression vector carrying the hypoxia/radiation dual‑sensitive chimeric hypoxia response element (HRE)/early growth response 1 (Egr‑1) promoter in order to overexpress the therapeutic second mitochondria‑derived activator of caspases (Smac). Using this expression vector, the present study aimed to explore the molecular mechanism underlying ...
Liu Tingting - - 2014
Abstract Ionizing radiation produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), which cause damage to cells. We have synthesized a class of ROS scavengers and found that one of them, named GANRA-5, exhibits high radio-protective effects against both heavy ion irradiation and X-rays, while at the same time displaying low levels of toxicity. ...
Huang Yijuan Y Department of Radiation Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, - - 2014
Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a potentially fatal and dose-limiting complication of thoracic radiotherapy. This study was to investigate the protective effects of grape seed pro-anthocyanidins (GSPs), an efficient antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic agent, on RILI. In our study, it was demonstrated that acute and late RILI was ameliorated after GSPs ...
Okazaki Kazuichi K The Third Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
IgG4 related cholangiopathy, a distinctive type of cholangitis of unknown origin, is characterized by increased serum levels of IgG4, massive infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells with storiform fibrosis and/or obliterative phlebitis in the thickened bile duct wall, and good response to steroid. Patients with IgG4-cholangiopathy are frequently associated with autoimmune ...
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