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Lleo Ana A Liver Unit and Center for Autoimmune Liver Diseases, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano (MI), - - 2014
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by selective destruction of intrahepatic cholangiocytes. Mechanisms underlying the development and progression of the disease are still controversial and largely undefined. Evidence suggests that PBC results from an articulated immunologic response against an immunodominant mitochondrial autoantigen, the E2 component of ...
Tsoutsou Pelagia G PG Radiation Oncologist, Médecin Adjointe, Hôpital du Valais (RSV) - Centre Hospitalier du Valais Romand (CHVR), Hôpital de Sion, Service de Radio-Oncologie , Av. du Grand-Champsec 80, Case postale 736, CH-1951 Sion , Switzerland +027 603 87 15 ; +027 603 45 06 ; - - 2014
A discussion on the importance and pathogenesis of radiation-induced pneumonitis and fibrosis is provided, with a special focus on the role of the immune system. The need to understand this interaction is highlighted in view of emerging therapeutic potential.
Almo Steven C SC a  Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York - - 2014
Recent advances indicate that new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of malignancies will be realized from combined radiation treatment and immune checkpoint modulation. Numerous biophysical properties must be considered for effective biologic development, including affinity, selectivity, oligomeric state and valency. High-resolution structural characterization contributes to our understanding of these properties ...
Yu Cheng-Rong CR Molecular Immunology Section, Laboratory of Immunology, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 10N109A, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD, 20892-1857, - - 2014
Immunological responses to pathogens are stringently regulated in the eye to prevent excessive inflammation that damage ocular tissues and compromise vision. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) regulate intensity/duration of inflammatory responses. We have used SOCS1-deficient mice and retina-specific SOCS1 transgenic rats to investigate roles of SOCS1 in ocular herpes simplex ...
Roses Robert E RE a  Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, - - 2014
The last decade has witnessed significant progress in the field of cancer immunotherapy. This has, in part, been driven by a growing recognition that elements of the innate immune response can be harnessed to induce robust immunity against tumor-associated targets. Nonetheless, as clinically effective immunotherapy for the majority of cancers ...
Baek Seung Jae SJ Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, - - 2014
Acute side effects of radiation such as oral mucositis are observed in most patients. Although several potential radioprotective agents have been proposed, no effective agent has yet been identified. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of synthetic compound 3-amino-3-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-1H-quinoline-2,4-dione (KR22332) as a radioprotective agent. Cell viability, apoptosis, the generation ...
Ghosh Debjani D School of Biotechnology and Biological Sciences, West Bengal University of Technology, BF-142, Sector I, Salt Lake, Kolkata, 700064, - - 2014
The potential of naturally occurring antioxidants to reduce the cellular oxidative damage induced by ionizing radiation has been studied for more than a decade for their pharmacological application during cancer treatment. It is already known that radioprotective efficacy of phytochemicals might influence various end points of radiation damage. Flavonoids are ...
Zhu Wei W School of Radiation Medicine and Protection and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions and School for Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences (RAD-X), Soochow University, No. 199 Ren'ai Road, Suzhou 215123, - - 2014
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenolic constituent of green tea, is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger that may have therapeutic applications for the treatment of many disorders. Radiation therapy is widely used for the treatment of various types of cancers; however, radiation-induced skin injury remains a serious concern. EGCG ...
Banerjee Sanjita S Institute of Genetics, University of Cologne, 50674 Cologne, Germany; and European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 69117 Heidelberg, - - 2014
Ultraviolet radiation is a pervasive stimulus with wide-ranging effects on all living forms. The effects of UV vary from physiological to pathological, depending on levels of exposure, but the immune response at the organismal level is not well understood. We use the zebrafish embryo and larva to study immune responses ...
Wattenberg Max M MM a  Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, - - 2014
There is increasing evidence of the potential for radiation therapy to generate antitumor immune responses. The mechanisms of this immune-activating potential include actions on tumor cells such as immunogenic cell death and phenotypic change. Radiation modulates tumor cell surface expression of cell death receptors, tumor-associated antigens and adhesion molecules. This ...
Ariyasu Shinya S Center for Technologies Against Cancer, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda 278-8510, - - 2014
In radiation therapy, adverse side effects are often induced due to the excessive cell death that occurs in radiosensitive normal cells. The radiation-induced cell death of normal cells is caused, at least in part, by apoptosis, which undergoes via activation of p53 and increase in the p53 protein, a zinc-containing ...
Li Jianguo J Department of Human Anatomy, The Medical School of Inner Mongolia University for the Nationalities, Neimenggu, Tongliao 028041, P.R. - - 2014
There is increasing evidence that neuronal cell death occurs via extrinsic (death receptors) and intrinsic (mitochondria) pathways. Radiation induces caspase activation fundamentally via the mitochondrial pathway. Caspases are the key regulators of apoptosis. Healthy male Sprague‑Dawley rats were used in the present study to examine the radioprotective effect of a ...
Kong E Y - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: The in vivo radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) and radiation-induced rescue effect (RIRE) induced between embryos of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) by alpha-particle irradiation were studied through the number of apoptotic signals revealed at 24 h post fertilization (hpf) through vital dye acridine orange staining. Materials and methods: RIBE ...
Legendre Claire C BIOMERIT Research Centre, School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork - - 2014
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) frequently occurs in patients with respiratory disease, and is particularly prevalent in patients with cystic fibrosis. GER is a condition in which the duodeno-gastric contents of the stomach leak into the esophagus, in many cases resulting in aspiration into the respiratory tract. As such, the presence of ...
Li Jun - - 2014
Injury to the biliary epithelium triggers inflammation and fibrosis, which can result in severe liver diseases and may progress to malignancy. Development of a type 1 immune response has been linked to biliary injury pathogenesis; however, a subset of patients with biliary atresia, the most common childhood cholangiopathy, exhibit increased ...
Gallo Richard L RL Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego and Veterans Affairs San Diego Health Care System, San Diego, California, - - 2014
Almost 40 years from when it was first reported that UVB radiation exposure would modulate immune signaling, the photoimmunology field is still trying to understand the mechanisms by which UVB initiates inflammatory responses and modulates immune recognition. This commentary focuses on the ability of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), specifically TLR4 (Ahmad ...
Applebaum Mark A - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: Although there are considerable data on mechanisms of radiation-induced apoptosis in vitro and in animal models, little is known about functional variation in these pathways in humans. We sought to develop a tractable system to evaluate this. Materials and methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 90 ...
Goswami S S Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, - - 2014
Skin gets exposed to various abiotic and biotic factors. Solar radiation of which UV rays is a principle component in fact increase the free radical load and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause lipid per-oxidation, DNA damage, apoptosis and are also associated with inflammatory responses recruiting molecules (NFκB, ...
Wang Junru J Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS), 4301 West Markham, Slot 522-10, Little Rock, AR, 72205, USA, - - 2014
Mast cells and neuroimmune interactions regulate the severity of intestinal radiation mucositis, a dose-limiting toxicity during radiation therapy of abdominal malignancies. Because endocannabinoids (eCB) regulate intestinal inflammation, we investigated the effect of the cannabimimetic, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), in a mast competent (+/+) and mast cell-deficient (Ws/Ws) rat model. Rats underwent localized, ...
Luo Zhonghua Z Department of Radiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical - - 2014
Gliomas are the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, and the incidence is increasing. Because gliomas often become resistant to radiation treatment, it is urgent to develop novel therapeutic methods that are more effective and less toxic than current therapies so as to enhance patient survival and quality of life. ...
Chen Ji-Kuai JK a  Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, - - 2014
Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome occurs when the body is exposed to a high dose of radiation. Currently, safe and effective radioprotectants are not available. Apoptosis was reported to play a primary role in radiation-induced injury. Recent evidence suggests that stimulation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) prevents cell death by inhibition ...
Li Chang-Feng CF Endoscopy Center, China‑Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130033, P.R. - - 2014
The aim of this study was to construct an expression vector carrying the hypoxia/radiation dual‑sensitive chimeric hypoxia response element (HRE)/early growth response 1 (Egr‑1) promoter in order to overexpress the therapeutic second mitochondria‑derived activator of caspases (Smac). Using this expression vector, the present study aimed to explore the molecular mechanism underlying ...
Liu Tingting - - 2014
Abstract Ionizing radiation produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), which cause damage to cells. We have synthesized a class of ROS scavengers and found that one of them, named GANRA-5, exhibits high radio-protective effects against both heavy ion irradiation and X-rays, while at the same time displaying low levels of toxicity. ...
Huang Yijuan Y Department of Radiation Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, - - 2014
Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a potentially fatal and dose-limiting complication of thoracic radiotherapy. This study was to investigate the protective effects of grape seed pro-anthocyanidins (GSPs), an efficient antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic agent, on RILI. In our study, it was demonstrated that acute and late RILI was ameliorated after GSPs ...
Okazaki Kazuichi K The Third Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
IgG4 related cholangiopathy, a distinctive type of cholangitis of unknown origin, is characterized by increased serum levels of IgG4, massive infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells with storiform fibrosis and/or obliterative phlebitis in the thickened bile duct wall, and good response to steroid. Patients with IgG4-cholangiopathy are frequently associated with autoimmune ...
Akhalaya M Ya MY M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Biology, Leninskie Gory, 1-12, 119991 Moscow, - - 2014
The generation of ROS underlies all solar infrared-affected therapeutic and pathological cutaneous effects. The signaling pathway NF-kB is responsible for the induced therapeutic effects, while the AP-1 for the pathological effects. The different signaling pathways of infrared-induced ROS and infrared-induced heat shock ROS were shown to act independently multiplying the ...
Wunderlich Roland R Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-91054 Erlangen, - - 2014
Benign painful and inflammatory diseases are treated for decades with low/moderate doses of ionizing radiation (LD-X-irradiation). Tissue macrophages regulate initiation and resolution of inflammation by the secretion of cytokines and by acting as professional phagocytes. Having these pivotal functions, we were interested in how activated macrophages are modulated by LD-X-irradiation, ...
Fenner Erika K EK 1] Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado [2] Department of Pediatrics,Section of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Colorado School of Medicine and the Digestive Health Institute, Children's Hospital Colorado (CHCO), Aurora, - - 2014
Background:A proposed etiology of biliary atresia (BA) entails a virus-induced, progressive immune-mediated injury of the biliary system. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has demonstrated clinical benefit in several inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the therapeutic effects of high dose immunoglobulin (IgG) treatment in the rhesus rotavirus (RRV)-induced ...
Cheng Po-Ching - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: The radioprotective effects of Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) were investigated for understanding the potential usefulness of AC as an adjunct treatment for reducing radiation side effects. Materials and methods: In this study, we determined the ability of AC extracts (AC539) to reduce radiation side effects by analyzing cellular viability ...
Georgakilas Alexandros G AG Department of Physics, School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, GR 15780, Athens, Greece. Electronic address: - - 2014
The phenomenon of 'bystander effects' originates from a social psychological phenomenon in which individuals (bystanders) do not offer any help to a victim close to them. This term when used in radiobiology, it refers to a similar phenomenon in which bystander non-irradiated cells exhibit a response similar to 'neighboring' irradiated ...
Jawaid Paras P Department of Radiological Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences University of Toyama, Toyama, - - 2014
Since polyacrylic acid capped platinum nano-particles (nano-Pts) are known to have a unique ability to quench superoxide (O2 (-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the anti-oxidant activity of nano-Pts against apoptosis induced by x-irradiation in human lymphoma U937 cells was investigated. DNA fragmentation assay, Annexin V-FITC/PI by flow cytometry and Giemsa ...
Hou Qingxia Q College of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Beijing University of Technology , Beijing , China - - 2014
Abstract To investigate the potential adverse effects of mobile phone radiation, we studied reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage and apoptosis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3T3) after intermittent exposure (5 min on/10 min off, for various durations from 0.5 to 8 h) to an 1800-MHz GSM-talk mode electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at an average ...
Sano Yasuyo Y Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, - - 2014
Ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) is a component of solar radiation primarily responsible for causing damage and cancer in irradiated skin, and disrupting immune homeostasis. The immediate harm and long-term health risks of excessive sunlight exposure are impacting the lives of nearly all people worldwide. Inflammation is a key mechanism underlying ...
Zhao Sanhu S Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhejiang, - - 2014
Recent studies showed that hydrogen can be used as an effective radioprotective agent through scavenging free radicals. This study was undertaken to evaluate the radioprotective effects of hydrogen on immune system in mice. H2 was dissolved in physiological saline using an apparatus produced by our department. Spleen index and histological ...
Chute John P - - 2014
Fractionated, high-dose total body irradiation (TBI) is used therapeutically to myeloablate and immune suppress patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation. Acute exposure to ionizing radiation can have fatal effects on the hematopoietic and immune systems. Currently, therapies aimed at ameliorating ionizing radiation-associated toxicities are limited. In the February 2014 ...
Wright G G Institute of Hepatology, University College London, Royal Free Hospital London, United - - 2014
Microglia and astrocyte related pro-inflammatory responses are thought to underpin cerebral sequelae of acute liver failure. Conversely, despite background pro-inflammatory responses in cirrhosis, overt brain swelling and coma associated with acute-on-chronic liver failure, is infrequent unless precipitated (e.g. sepsis). Moreover, in other chronic neurodegenerative disorders and sepsis the brain is ...
Lacave-Lapalun Jean-Victor JV Laboratory of Radiopathology and Experimental Therapies, Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay-aux-Roses, - - 2014
Radiation-induced gastrointestinal toxicity, including its shift of the immune balance, remains a major limitation to delivering tumoricidal doses of abdominal radiation therapy. This study evaluates the effect on the colon's innate and adaptive immune responses to moderate irradiation doses and the therapeutic possibilities of maintaining immune homeostasis. We investigated whether ...
Glaser Shannon S 1 Research, Central Texas Veterans Health Care System, 2 Scott & White Digestive Disease Research Center, Scott & White, 3 Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, 4 Division of Research and Education, Scott & White, Texas A&M Health Science Center, College of Medicine, Temple, TX 76504, - - 2014
The intrahepatic biliary epithelium is a three-dimensional tubular system lined by cholangiocytes, epithelial cells that in addition to modify ductal bile are also the targets of vanishing bile duct syndromes (i.e., cholangiopathies) such as primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) that are characterized by the damage/proliferation of ...
El-Saghire Houssein H Radiobiology Unit, Molecular and Cellular Biology, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK·CEN), Mol, - - 2014
Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is one of the modern conformal radiotherapies that is widely used within the context of cancer patient treatment. It uses multiple radiation beams targeted to the tumor, however, large volumes of the body receive low doses of irradiation. Using γ-H2AX and global genome expression analysis, we ...
Lant Benjamin B Developmental and Stem Cell Biology Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, - - 2014
RNA interference (RNAi) is an incredibly powerful tool for rapid and efficient knockdown of gene expression. This technology can be used to induce apoptosis in the germline of Caenorhabditis elegans. Genotoxic stressors such as ionizing radiation (IR), ultraviolet light, chemical mutagens (e.g., N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea [ENU]), and DNA cross-linking reagents can also ...
Li Bo B Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine Nashville, TN 37232, - - 2014
Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a significant dose limiting complication of thoracic radiation for lung, breast, and esophageal cancer. Strategies for increasing the therapeutic index of radiation involve the use of radiosensitizing agents. We investigated the potential of M867 to sensitize non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to radiation in vivo, ...
Yao Jian-Xin JX Department of Medical Imaging, Nanjing Health college of Jiangsu Union Technical Institute, Nanjing, China E-mail : - - 2014
Background: The current study investigated the effects of Piper longumine on radio-sensitization of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and underlying mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured in vitro and those in logarithmic growth phase were selected for experiments divided into four groups: control, X-ray exposed, ...
Ma Jin-Lu JL Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, No. 277 Yanta West Road, Xi'an 710061, - - 2014
Radiation therapy is one of the standard therapeutic modalities for esophageal cancer, achieving its main antitumor efficacy through DNA damage. However, accumulating evidence shows that radiotherapy can substantially alter the tumor microenvironment, particularly with respect to its effects on immune cells. We hypothesized that the immune response elicited by radiotherapy ...
Zhou Yu Y Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of - - 2014
The skin serves multiple functions that are critical for life. The protection from pathogens is achieved by a complicated interaction between aggressive effectors and controlling functions that limit damage. Inhomogeneous radiation with limited penetration is used in certain types of therapeutics and is experienced with exposure to solar particle events ...
Anuranjani Radiation Biology Department, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Brig SK Mazumdar Marg, Delhi -110054, - - 2014
Whole body exposure to low linear energy transfer (LET) ionizing radiations (IRs) damages vital intracellular bio-molecules leading to multiple cellular and tissue injuries as well as pathophysiologies such as inflammation, immunosuppression etc. Nearly 70% of damage is caused indirectly by radiolysis of intracellular water leading to formation of reactive oxygen ...
Griffiths Laura L Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University and Liver Unit, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, - - 2014
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune cholestatic liver disease characterised by a breakdown of immune tolerance to mitochondrial and nuclear antigens, causing injury to the biliary epithelial cells (BEC) lining the small intrahepatic bile ducts. This leads to bile duct injury and the retention of hydrophobic bile acids which ...
Saban Daniel R DR Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA; Department of Immunology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly potent stimulators of the immune system, and their contribution as such to the pathogenesis of corneal and ocular surface inflammatory disease has been well established. These vigorous antigen-presenting cells are reliant upon their effective migration from peripheral tissues (e.g., those of the ocular surface) to ...
Bing So Jin SJ Department of Veterinary Medicine, Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology, Jeju National University, Ara-dong 1, Jeju 690-756, South - - 2013
Owing to its susceptibility to radiation, the small intestine of mice is valuable for studying radioprotective effects. When exposed to radiation, intestinal crypt cells immediately go through apoptosis, which impairs swift differentiation necessary for the regeneration of intestinal villi. Our previous studies have elucidated that acidic polysaccharide of Panax ginseng ...
Shao Feng F Department of General Surgery, Liaocheng City Hospital, Liaocheng, 252000, Shandong, China, - - 2013
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of microbial immune enteral nutrition by microecopharmaceutics and deep sea fish oil and glutamine and Peptisorb on the patients with acute radiation enteritis in bowel function and immune status. From June 2010 to January 2013, 46 acute radiation enteritis patients ...
Yang Chen-Yen CY Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, CA, - - 2013
The interleukin (IL)-12/IL-23 mediated Th1/Th17 signaling pathway has been associated with the etiopathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). To address the cytokine microenvironment specifically in the liver, we examined the localized expression of cytokine subunits and their corresponding receptors using previously optimized immunohistochemistry with an extensive panel of antibodies directed ...
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