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Joop G G Department of Experimental Ecology, Institute of Integrative Biology (IBZ), Zürich, Switzerland; Department of Evolutionary Ecology and Genetics, Zoological Institute, University of Kiel, Kiel, - - 2014
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, secretes quinones that control the microbial flora in the surrounding environment. These secretions act as an external immune defence that provides protection against pathogens. At high concentrations, however, these secretions are harmful to the host itself, and selection may thus have optimized the level ...
Finger Eduardo - - 2012
Over the last 120 years, few things contributed more to our understanding of immune system than the study of its behavior in the host/parasite relationship. Despite the advances though, a few questions remain, such as what drives the immune system? What are its guiding principles? If we ask these questions ...
Ripoll Elia - - 2012
BACKGROUND: In renal transplantation, cold ischaemia (CI) determines acute rejection through innate immunity among others. Acute rejection episodes are a risk factor for late allograft dysfunction and proteinuria. This implies some alteration of the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB). Besides its effects on acute rejection, we hypothesized that CI might somehow ...
Ruiz R J - - 2012
To examine the interaction of the cytokines interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL)-1Ra, IL-6 and IL-10 to predict preterm birth (PTB) in pregnant Hispanic women (n=470). In this prospective study, demographic data were obtained prenatally and birth outcome data were obtained from the medical chart. Cytokines were measured from plasma obtained at ...
Rono Josea J Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. - - 2012
Plasmodium falciparum's ability to invade erythrocytes is essential for its survival within the human host. Immune mechanisms that impair this ability are therefore expected to contribute to immunity against the parasite. Plasma of humans who are naturally exposed to malaria has been shown to have growth-inhibitory activity (GIA) in vitro. ...
Vidigal Dimas José Araújo - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact on the AgNORs expression and apoptosis in the prostate of the hamster-Mesocricetus auratus (HMA) submitted to the application of finasteride. METHODS: Twenty male rodents of the species HMA (n = 20) were randomly assigned to groups of ten animals: Finasteride group (n = 10) and ...
Rathod Dhanesh B - - 2011
Erythropoietin (EPO) is used at present in clinical practice to stimulate red cell production. However, a number of reports have emerged suggesting the presence of nonerythropoietic properties for EPO. Chief among them is its ability to confer protection against acute tissue injury. In this report, we briefly review the role ...
Kruth Howard S - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Because early findings indicated that native low-density lipoprotein (LDL) did not substantially increase macrophage cholesterol content during in-vitro incubations, investigators presumed that LDL must be modified in some way to trigger its uptake by the macrophage. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings showing ...
Miranda Hugo F - - 2011
Statins, belonging to a well-known drug class used for lowering cholesterol through competitive inhibition of HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A) reductase, also have other pleiotropic properties, such as anti-inflammatory action. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of simvastatin in five models of nociceptive behaviour. Oral ...
Moore E M - - 2011
Erythropoietin is a 30.4 kDa glycoprotein produced by the kidney, which is mostly known for its physiological function in regulating red blood cell production in the bone marrow Accumulating evidence, however suggests that erythropoietin has additional organ protective effects, which may specifically be useful in protecting the brain and kidneys ...
Höglund Johanna - - 2011
Clinical PET of apoptosis may have substantial value in advancing patient care. We report here the first-in-humans study with (18)F-labeled 2-(5-fluoropentyl)-2-methyl malonic acid ((18)F-ML-10), a small-molecule PET tracer for apoptosis. Presented are the dosimetry, biodistribution, stability, and safety profiles of this PET tracer in healthy human volunteers. Also reported is ...
Ghoniem Gamal - - 2011
We hypothesize that overactive bladder (OAB) can produce inflammatory cytokines due to afferent neural plasticity or urothelial dysfunction. This study aimed to detect abnormal cytokine levels in urine of patients with OAB compared to urinary tract infections (UTI) and controls. This was a prospective, single blind study including 20 premenopausal ...
Stewart Katherine - - 2011
Development of the mammalian urogenital system requires a balance between survival and programmed cell death. Pro-survival molecules are crucial in preserving metanephric mesenchyme viability, and thus allowing nephrogenesis to proceed. At the same time, localized areas of apoptosis mediated by effector caspases are required for the appropriate morphogenesis of the ...
Moore Elizabeth - - 2011
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a 30.4 kDa glycoprotein produced by the kidney, and is mostly well-known for its physiological function in regulating red blood cell production in the bone marrow. Accumulating evidence, however, suggests that EPO has additional organ protective effects, which may be useful in the prevention or treatment of ...
Wilson Elizabeth B - - 2011
The immune system has evolved multipronged responses that are critical to effectively defend the body from invading pathogens and to clear infection. However, the same weapons employed to eradicate infection can have caustic effects on normal bystander cells. Therefore, tight regulation is vital and the host must balance engendering correct ...
Huang RenFa R Department of Nephrology, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, PR - - 2011
This study aims to investigate the role of Notch pathway in the renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI)-associated inflammation and apoptosis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: normal saline (NS)-treated sham rats, NS-treated ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) rats, and N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl-l-alanyl)]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT) (a γ-secretase inhibitor) treated I/R rats. I/R rat model ...
Choudhary Shambhunath - - 2010
More than 35% of human urinary bladder cancers involve oncogenic H-Ras activation. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of the ERK pathway in mediating apoptotic signals induced by oncogenic H-Ras, FK228 treatment, and exogenous H(2)O(2) treatment to increase Nox-1 elevation, leading to production of intracellular reactive ...
Choudhary Shambhunath - - 2011
More than 35% of human urinary bladder cancers involve oncogenic H-Ras activation. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of the ERK pathway in mediating apoptotic signals induced by oncogenic H-Ras, FK228 treatment, and exogenous H(2) O(2) treatment to increase Nox-1 elevation, leading to production of intracellular ...
Boulware David R - - 2010
HIV pathogenesis is characterized by destructive imbalances between virus-mediated immune damage, antiviral immune responses, and immune activation. We characterized the effects of successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) to identify the breadth and patterns of HIV-associated gene expression. In a prospective observational, longitudinal cohort study of 10 ART-naive Ugandans with AIDS (median ...
Soghoian Damien Z - - 2010
It is generally believed that the role of CD4(+) T cells is to coordinate the different arms of the adaptive immune system to shape an effective response against a pathogen and regulate nonessential or deleterious activities. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that effector CD4(+) T cells can directly ...
Wood Michael W - - 2011
During early urinary tract infection (UTI) the interplay between invading bacteria and the urothelium elicits a mucosal response aimed at clearing infection. Unfortunately, the resultant inflammation and associated local tissue injury are responsible for patient symptoms. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine released during acute UTI, has both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects ...
Kinnier Christine V - - 2011
Respiratory viral infections cause significant morbidity and increase the risk for chronic pulmonary graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Our overall hypothesis is that local innate immune activation potentiates adaptive alloimmunity. In this study, we hypothesized that a viral pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) alone can potentiate pulmonary GVHD ...
Jackson Sarah E SE Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Level 5, Addenbrookes Hospital, Hills Rd, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, - - 2011
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection induces both innate immune responses including Natural Killer cells as well as adaptive humoral and cell mediated (CD4+ helper, CD8+ cytotoxic and γδ T cell) responses which lead to the resolution of acute primary infection. Despite such a robust primary immune response, HCMV is still able ...
Sathish Narayanan - - 2011
IRF-7 is the master regulator of type I interferon-dependent immune responses controlling both innate and adaptive immunity. Given the significance of IRF-7 in the induction of immune responses, many viruses have developed strategies to inhibit its activity to evade or antagonize host antiviral responses. We previously demonstrated that ORF45, a ...
Xu Shun - - 2011
Viruses cause about 15% of the cancers that are still the leading causes of human mortality. The discovery of viral oncogenes has enhanced our understanding of viral oncogenesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of virus-induced cancers are complex and require further investigation. The present study has attempted to investigate the ...
Wongthida Phonphimon - - 2011
We show here, for the first time to our knowledge, that the antitumor therapy of oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in the B16ova model depends upon signaling through myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) in host cells. VSV-mediated therapy of B16ova tumors was abolished in MyD88(-/-) mice despite generation ...
Skaug Brian - - 2010
Cells express a plethora of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in response to viral infection. Among these is ISG15, a ubiquitin-like protein (UBL) that can be covalently attached to both host and viral proteins. Here we review recent advances toward understanding the role and mechanism of ISG15 modification in antiviral defense.
Warzée Barbara - - 2010
Zinc finger protein regulator of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest (Zac1) is a transcription factor able to induce apoptosis or cell cycle arrest through independent pathways. In spite of the important potential functions attributed to Zac1, little is known of its physiological regulation and biological function. We discovered that variant ...
Antunes Inês I Division of Immunoregulation, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, United - - 2010
The viral infection of higher vertebrates elicits potent innate and adaptive host immunity. However, an excessive or inappropriate immune response also may lead to host pathology that often is more severe than the direct effects of viral replication. Therefore, several mechanisms exist that regulate the magnitude and class of the ...
David Michael - - 2010
Plants rely heavily on an adaptive RNA degradation system mediated by an RNA interference mechanism to combat viral infection, whereas mammals fight infection with specific antibodies and lymphocytes that are adapted to specific viral antigens, and also employ nonadaptive defenses, such as production of interferons (IFNs) that block viral replication ...
Wang Pin - - 2010
Effective recognition of viral infection and subsequent triggering of antiviral innate immune responses are essential for the host antiviral defense, which is tightly regulated by multiple regulators, including microRNAs. Our previous study showed that a panel of microRNAs, including miR-155, was markedly upregulated in macrophages upon vesicular stomatitis virus infection; ...
Lemmermann Niels A W - - 2011
Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) co-exist with their respective host species and have evolved to avoid their elimination by the hosts' immune effector mechanisms and to persist in a non-replicative state, known as viral latency. There is evidence to suggest that latency is nevertheless a highly dynamic condition during which episodes of viral ...
Barra Nicole G - - 2010
Evaluation of: Nakayama Y, Plisch EH, Sullivan JM et al. Role of PKR and type I IFNs in viral control during primary and secondary infection. PLoS Pathog. 6(6), e1000966 (2010). During acute viral infections, innate antiviral immunity has been extensively studied for its ability to inhibit and/or control viral replication ...
Yeo Nam-Kyung - - 2010
Asian sand dust (ASD) originating in the arid deserts of Mongolia and China causes annual severe air pollution events in the Asia-Pacific area, including Korea, Japan, and China. ASD is thought to impact public health by aggravating or inducing respiratory illness. Among the most common respiratory illnesses is the common ...
Krejbich-Trotot Pascale - - 2011
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) surprised medical workers by a massive outbreak in the Indian Ocean region, reaching Europe in 2007, with exceptional pathologies in infants and elderly patients. Although CHIKV was recently shown to persist in myoblasts, monocytes, and macrophages, we argued that robust antiviral mechanisms, including apoptosis, are essential to ...
Szretter Kristy J - - 2010
Type I interferons (IFN-α/β) control viral infection by triggering the expression of genes that restrict transcription, translation, replication, and assembly. Many viruses induce IFN responses after recognition by cytoplasmic or endosomal RNA sensors (RIG-I-like RNA helicases [RLR] and Toll-like receptors [TLR]), which signal through the cognate adaptor signaling molecules IPS-1, ...
Tidbury Hannah J - - 2011
Invertebrates mount a sophisticated immune response with the potential to exhibit a form of immune memory through 'priming'. Increased immune protection following early exposure to bacteria has been found both later in life (within generation priming) and in the next generation (transgeneration priming) in a number of invertebrates. However, it ...
Abend Johanna R - - 2010
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of KS, the second most common AIDS-associated malignancy. KSHV expresses at least 18 different mature microRNAs (miRNAs) during latency. To identify cellular targets of KSHV miRNAs, we have analyzed a previously reported series of microarrays examining changes in cellular gene expression ...
Steel Christina D - - 2010
Intranasal application of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) induces acute encephalitis characterized by a pronounced myeloid and T cell infiltrate. The role of distinct phagocytic populations on VSV encephalitis was therefore examined in this study. Ablation of peripheral macrophages did not impair VSV encephalitis or viral clearance from the brain, whereas, ...
Boccardo Enrique - - 2010
The role of inflammation in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and disease is complex since it involves responses capable of preventing initial infections, clearing those ongoing as well as promoting persistence and progression of associated lesions. Avoiding the immune response has been considered a key aspect of HPV persistence which is ...
Schmidt Andreas - - 2011
Recognition of pathogenic microbes by the innate immune system is based on the principle of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). These are conserved molecular structures that are present in the pathogen but not in the host. Cells of the innate immune system or, in some cases, virtually all cells of our ...
van de Berg Pablo J - - 2010
Mechanisms underlying the onset and perpetuation of chronic immune activation in individuals without overt infectious or autoimmune diseases are unclear. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a persistent virus that induces a permanent increase of highly differentiated, interferon-gamma-secreting effector T cells. We hypothesized that, because of this increase, CMV also induces a systemic ...
Agrati Chiara - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Pandemic A/H1N1v influenza is characterized by a mild clinical course. However, a small subset of patients develops a rapidly progressive course caused by primary viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial infections that, in many cases, lead to death due to respiratory failure. The aim of the present study was to ...
Castanier Céline - - 2011
Viruses have developed a battery of distinct strategies to overcome the very sophisticated defense mechanisms of the infected host. Throughout the process of pathogen-host co-evolution, viruses have therefore acquired the capability to prevent host cell apoptosis because elimination of infected cells via apoptosis is one of the most ancestral defense ...
Yuan Jing - - 2010
Acute viral myocarditis (AVMC) is characterized by virus-triggered myocardial inflammation, and Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is the primary pathogen. We previously proved that Th17 cells, besides having proinflammatory effects, were involved in AVMC by enhancing humoral response. However, the relationship between Th17 cells and CVB3 replication remains unknown. In this experiment, ...
Cerio Rebecca J - - 2010
The inhibitor-of-apoptosis (IAP) proteins encoded by baculoviruses bear a striking resemblance to the cellular IAP homologs of their invertebrate hosts. By virtue of the acquired selective advantage of blocking virus-induced apoptosis, baculoviruses may have captured cellular IAP genes that subsequently evolved for virus-specific objectives. To compare viral and host IAPs, ...
Ivashkiv Lionel B - - 2010
In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, O'Gorman et al. (2010) identify a key role for early TLR2-mediated IL-6 production and STAT3 activation in generating protective immunity against poxviruses. These findings highlight the importance of early inflammatory cytokine production in antiviral defense and have implications for enhancing vaccination efficacy.
Cai Qiliang - - 2010
Cytokine-mediated JAK/STAT signaling controls numerous important biologic responses like immune function, cellular growth, and differentiation. Inappropriate activation of this signaling pathway is associated with a range of malignancies. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the infectious viral agent associated with Kaposi's sarcoma and may also contribute to B-cell disorders, which include ...
Nachmani Daphna D The Lautenberg Center for General and Tumor Immunology, The BioMedical Research Institute Israel Canada of the Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, - - 2010
Although approximately 200 viral microRNAs are known, only very few share similar targets with their host's microRNAs. A notable example of this is the stress-induced ligand MICB, which is targeted by several distinct viral and cellular microRNAs. Through the investigation of the microRNA-mediated immune-evasion strategies of herpesviruses, we initially identified ...
van Lint Allison L - - 2010
The discovery of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their importance in the regulation of host responses to infection raised attention to the complex interplay between viral gene products and the host innate immune responses in determining the outcome of virus infection. Robust inflammatory cytokine responses are observed in herpes simplex ...
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