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Pawar Vinay V Department of Molecular Immunology, TWINCORE GmbH, Centre for Clinical and Experimental Infection Research, a joint venture of the Hannover Medical School and the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Hannover, - - 2014
Bacteria of many species are able to invade and colonize solid tumours in mice. We have focused on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Detailed analysis revealed that such tumour-invading Salmonella form biofilms, thus providing a versatile in vivo test system for studying bacterial phenotypes and host-pathogen interactions. It appears that biofilm ...
Siliņa Karīna K Latvian Biomedical Research and Study Centre, Ratsupites 1, Riga, 1067, Latvia, - - 2014
Combining different standard therapies with immunotherapy for the treatment of solid tumours has proven to yield a greater clinical benefit than when each is applied separately; however, the percentage of complete responses is still far from optimal, and there is an urgent need for improved treatment modalities. The latest literature ...
Vader Pieter P Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3QX, - - 2014
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies, are released by almost all cell types, including tumour cells. Through transfer of their molecular contents, EVs are capable of altering the function of recipient cells. Increasing evidence suggests a key role for EV mediated intercellular communication in a variety of ...
Cigrovski Berkovic Maja M Department for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism 'Mladen Sekso', University Hospital Centre 'Sestre milosrdnice', Zagreb, - - 2014
Although previously considered rare, recent epidemiological studies have revealed that the incidence (3.6/100,000) and prevalence (35/100,000) of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NETs) has increased over the past few decades. Despite the progress in the understanding of GEP-NETs molecular biology, there is still little advance in the early diagnosis due to lack ...
Karnevi Emelie E Department of Surgery, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, - - 2014
At the time of diagnosis, almost 80% of pancreatic cancer patients present with new-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) or impaired glucose tolerance. T2D and pancreatic cancer are both associated with low-grade inflammation. Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) have a key role in cancer-related inflammation, immune escape, matrix remodelling and metastasis. In this ...
Li Yulin Y Division of Oncology, Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Stanford University School of - - 2014
The MYC proto-oncogene is an essential regulator of many normal biological programmes. MYC, when activated as an oncogene, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of most types of human cancers. MYC overexpression in normal cells is restrained from causing cancer through multiple genetically and epigenetically controlled checkpoint mechanisms, including proliferative ...
Cadman Emma T ET The Royal Veterinary College, Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, London, United - - 2014
Eosinophil responses typify both allergic and parasitic helminth disease. In helminthic disease, the role of eosinophils can be both protective in immune responses and destructive in pathological responses. To investigate whether eosinophils are involved in both protection and pathology during filarial nematode infection, we explored the role of eosinophils and ...
Li Zhen Z Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Genome Institute of Singapore, - - 2014
Using our previously established xmrk transgenic zebrafish, HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma) was generated by induced expression of xmrk, which encoded a hyperactive EGFR homolog, and regressed by suppression of xmrk expression. To investigate molecular changes in liver tumour progression and regression, RNA-Seq was performed for induced HCC and early and late ...
Wachowska Malgorzata M Department of Immunology, Center of Biostructure Research, Medical University of Warsaw, Banacha 1A, 02-097 Warsaw, - - 2014
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumours is based on administration of a photosensitiser followed by irradiation of the tumour with visible light leading to production of reactive oxygen species that cause direct tumour cell death and vascular damage. PDT also initiates acute local inflammation, which facilitates the development of adaptive antitumour ...
Giraldo Nicolas A NA INSERM UMRS872, Cordeliers Research Center, Immune Microenvironment and Tumours Laboratory, Paris, France; Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France; Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, - - 2014
A tumour grows in a complex microenvironment composed of stromal cells, lymphoid and myeloid cells, vascular and lymphatic vessels, and the resultant cytokine and chemokine milieu. In most primary tumours, a strong Th1/cytotoxic T cells infiltration correlates with a longer survival. This beneficial effect can be hampered by the presence ...
Zhou Penghui P 1] Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA - - 2014
Recent clinical trials showed that targeting of inhibitory receptors on T cells induces durable responses in a subset of cancer patients, despite advanced disease. However, the regulatory switches controlling T-cell function in immunosuppressive tumours are not well understood. Here we show that such inhibitory mechanisms can be systematically discovered in ...
Loutsios Chrystalla C Department of Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, - - 2014
Eosinophils are mediators of allergic inflammation and are implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous conditions including asthma, parasitic infections, neoplasms, hyper-eosinophilic syndromes, vasculitic disorders, and organ-specific conditions. Assessing eosinophilic inflammation is therefore important in establishing a diagnosis, in monitoring and assessing response to treatment, and in testing novel therapeutics. Clinical ...
Harper James J MedImmune Ltd, Granta Park, Cambridge CB21 6GH, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
The microenvironment of established tumours is often immunosuppressed, and this allows tumours to grow and disseminate without being eliminated by the patient's immune system. The recent FDA approval of immunotherapies such as ipilimumab and sipuleucel-T that directly activate the adaptive and innate immune responses has triggered interest in developing other ...
Azevedo M C MC Discipline of Immunology, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: - - 2014
Concomitant immunity is a phenomenon in which a tumour-bearing host is resistant to the growth of an implanted secondary tumour. Metastases are considered to be secondary tumours that develop spontaneously during primary tumour growth, suggesting the involvement of concomitant immunity in controlling the rise of metastases. It has been demonstrated ...
Huang Lei - - 2014
Loss of cell growth control is not sufficient to explain why tumours form as the immune system recognizes many malignant cells and keeps them in check. The local inflammatory microenvironment is a pivotal factor in tumour formation, as tumour-associated inflammation actively suppresses antitumour immunity. The purpose of this review is ...
Fröhlich Leopold F LF Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Medical University of Graz, Graz, - - 2014
The lack of knowledge about molecular pathology of uterine sarcomas with a representation of 3-7% of all malignant uterine tumors prevents the establishment of effective therapy protocols. Here, we explored advanced therapeutic options to the previously discovered antitumorigenic effects of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) by ...
Witney Timothy H TH Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, United - - 2014
Tumour response to therapy is assessed primarily in the clinic by monitoring reductions in tumour size. However, this approach lacks sensitivity since in many cases several weeks may elapse before there is evidence of tumour shrinkage. There is therefore a need to develop non-invasive imaging techniques for monitoring tumour treatment ...
Sreedhar Gadiputi G Department of Oral Pathology, Babu Banarasi Das College of Dental Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, - - 2014
The effect of inflammation on pathogenesis and biological behavior of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) and dentigerous cyst (DC) is not completely understood. Hence, we aimed to analyze the effect of inflammation on biological behavior of OKC and DC using a proliferative and anti-apoptotic marker, i.e., proliferative cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) and ...
Ilmarinen Pinja P The Immunopharmacology Research Group, University of Tampere School of Medicine and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere FI-33014, Finland. - - 2014
Eosinophils are abundantly present in most phenotypes of asthma and they contribute to the maintenance and exacerbations of the disease. Regulators of eosinophil longevity play critical roles in determining whether eosinophils accumulate into the airways of asthmatics. Several cytokines enhance eosinophil survival promoting eosinophilic airway inflammation while for example glucocorticoids, ...
Li Hongxin H College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, P R China; Key Laboratory of Chicken Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Ministry of Agriculture, Guangzhou, P R - - 2014
Avian leukosis is a neoplastic disease caused in part by subgroup J avian leukosis virus J (ALV-J). Micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) play pivotal oncogenic and tumour-suppressor roles in tumour development and progression. However, little is known about the potential role of miRNAs in avian leukosis tumours. We have found a ...
Farina Antonietta Rosella AR Department of Applied Clinical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of L'Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito 2, L'Aquila 67100, Italy. - - 2014
Since its original identification as a leukocyte gelatinase/type V collagenase and tumour type IV collagenase, gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is now recognised as playing a central role in many aspects of tumour progression. In this review, we relate current concepts concerning the many ways in which gelatinase B/MMP-9 influences tumour ...
Xu Haidong - - 2013
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy to arise from bone. The pathogenesis of osteosarcoma is unclear, and new therapy molecular target is needed. The miRNAs researched suggested that miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. MiR-141, which belong to miR-200 family, take a part in tumorigenesis. However, the ...
Kubala S A - - 2013
Pathogen induced migration of neutrophils across mucosal epithelial barriers requires epithelial production of the chemotactic lipid mediator, hepoxilin A3 (HXA3). HXA3 is an eicosanoid derived from arachidonic acid. Although eosinophils are also capable of penetrating mucosal surfaces, eosinophilic infiltration occurs mainly during allergic processes whereas neutrophils dominate mucosal infection. Both ...
Jacobsen E A - - 2013
The importance and specific role(s) of eosinophils in modulating the immune/inflammatory phenotype of allergic pulmonary disease remain to be defined. Established animal models assessing the role(s) of eosinophils as contributors and/or causative agents of disease have relied on congenitally deficient mice where the developmental consequences of eosinophil depletion are unknown. ...
Khairuddin Norliana - - 2013
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to inhibit oncogene expression and also to activate innate immune responses via Toll-like receptor (TLR) recognition have been shown to be beneficial as anti-cancer therapy in certain cancer models. In this study, we investigated the effects of local versus systemic delivery of such immune-stimulating Dicer-substrate siRNAs ...
Bai Jun J Department of Medical Oncology, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital, The Third Affiliated Hospital of the Medical College of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710068, P.R. - - 2013
Efforts to get a strong and sustained anti-tumour immune response induced by a tumour specific antigen have failed, but sipuleucel-T has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We noticed that exosomes secreted by tumour cells or immune cells may be crucially involved in the tumour immune ...
Zeestraten E C M - - 2013
Background:Evasion of immune surveillance and suppression of the immune system are important hallmarks of tumour development in colon cancer. The goal of this study was to establish a tumour profile based on biomarkers that reflect a tumour's immune susceptibility status and to determine their relation to patient outcome.Methods:The study population ...
Vandewynckel Yves-Paul - - 2013
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an elaborate organelle that is essential for cellular function and survival. Conditions that interfere with ER functioning can lead to the accumulation of unfolded proteins, which are detected by transmembrane sensors that then initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore ER proteostasis. If the ...
Roomi M W - - 2013
The highly aggressive pediatric sarcomas are characterized by high levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, which play crucial roles in tumor invasion and metastasis by degradation of the extracellular membrane leading to cancer cell spread to distal organs. We examined the effects of cytokines, mitogens, inducers and inhibitors on ...
Singh Aloukick K - - 2013
Neurocysticercosis (NCC), caused by the larvae of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common helminth infection of the CNS in humans worldwide. There is no existing animal model of NCC that resembles human infection. To overcome this limitation, swine (the natural intermediate host of the parasite) may be ...
Raymond E - - 2013
Tasquinimod is a small molecule with pleiotropic effects on the tumour microenvironment. Tasquinimod inhibits the growth and metastasis of tumour cells in vitro and in vivo. It targets the tumour microenvironment, enhancing the host immune response and inhibiting the angiogenic response. Tasquinimod influences infiltrating myeloid cells in the tumour milieu ...
Ilmarinen Pinja - - 2013
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways manifesting in many different phenotypes. Allergic asthma, comprising approximately half of patients with asthma, is characterized by accumulation of eosinophils into the lungs. Eosinophils release factors that damage the surrounding cells and participate in the maintenance and exacerbation of inflammation. In ...
Goeppert B - - 2013
Background:Biliary tract cancers (BTC) are relatively rare malignant tumours with poor prognosis. It is known from other solid neoplasms that antitumour inflammatory response has an impact on tumour behaviour and patient outcome. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive characterisation of antitumour inflammatory response in human BTC.Methods:Tumour-infiltrating ...
Bazhin Alexandr V - - 2013
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive human neoplasms, having extremely poor prognosis with a 5-year survival rate of <1 % and a median survival of 6 months. In contrast to other malignancies, pancreatic cancer is highly resistant to chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Therefore, new treatment options are urgently ...
Marchesi Maddalena - - 2013
HLA abnormalities on tumour cells for immune escape have been widely described. In addition, cellular components of the tumour microenvironment, in particular myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and alternatively activated M2 tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs), are involved in tumour promotion, progression, angiogenesis and suppression of anti-tumour immunity. However, the role of ...
Singh Hp H Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Microbiology, Dasmesh Institute of Research and Dental Sciences, Faridkot, Punjab, - - 2013
Although, odontogenickeratocyst (OKC) and dentigerous cyst (DC) are considered asdevelopmental cysts inflammation has been seen in its connective tissue wall. Inflammation is seen to alter the epithelial lining of both OKC and DC butwhether it plays in altering the behavior of these cysts is not fully understood. The present study ...
Roomi M W - - 2013
The highly aggressive adult sarcomas are characterized by high levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9, which play crucial roles in tumor invasion and metastasis by degradation of the extracellular membrane leading to cancer cell spread to distal organs. We examined the effect of cytokines, mitogens, inducers and inhibitors on ...
Ko A - - 2013
Clinical oncology heavily relies on the use of radiotherapy, which often leads to merely transient responses that are followed by local or distant relapse. The molecular mechanisms explaining radioresistance are largely elusive. Here, we identified a dual role of autophagy in the response of cancer cells to ionizing radiation. On ...
Liang Qiming Q Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, - - 2013
Autophagy is an important innate safeguard mechanism for protecting an organism against invasion by pathogens. We have previously discovered that Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) evades this host defense through tight suppression of autophagy by targeting multiple steps of autophagy signal transduction. Here, we report that KSHV K7 protein interacts with ...
Di Caro Giuseppe - - 2013
Inflammatory cells are involved in tumour initiation and progression. In parallel, the adaptive immune response plays a key role in fighting tumour growth and dissemination. The double-edged role of the immune system in solid tumours is well represented in colorectal cancer (CRC). The development and progression of CRC are affected ...
Nikolic Nielsen Lise - - 2013
The interaction between cancer and the immune system, and the production of cytokines by the tumour itself have been associated with altered levels of cytokines in human cancer patients. Bernese Mountain dogs with disseminated histiocytic sarcoma (DHS) show vague and non-specific clinical signs. Although histiocytes can secrete cytokines in response ...
Stoll Gautier - - 2013
Ewing sarcoma is the second most frequent pediatric bone tumor. In most of the patients, a chromosomal translocation leads to the expression of the EWS-FLI1 chimeric transcription factor that is the major oncogene in this pathology. Relative genetic simplicity of Ewing sarcoma makes it particularly attractive for studying cancer in ...
Arkhipov S A - - 2013
Structural and immunophenotypical characteristics of macrophages, associated with their polarization in the M1 and M2 directions of differentiation and activation, were studied in different morphological types of BCG granulomas by the expression of GM-CSF, IFN-γ, and FGFb cytokines and CD36 and CD16/32 differentiation clusters. The proportion of IFN-γ and FGFb ...
Mikucki Maryann E - - 2013
Abstract Cancer immunotherapy aims to generate long-lived, tumour-specific adaptive immunity to limit dysregulated tumour progression and metastasis. Tumour vasculature has emerged as a critical checkpoint controlling the efficacy of immunotherapy since it is the main access point for cytotoxic T cells to reach tumour cell targets. Therapeutic success has been ...
Sharma Anu - - 2013
The tumor immune microenvironment plays a crucial role in the development and progression of cancer. Sarcomas are a group of heterogeneous soft tissue malignancies that are often treated with radiotherapy as a part of the treatment concept. There is increasing evidence that radiotherapy leads to alterations in the tumor microenvironment, ...
Murch Simon H - - 2013
This review considers the potential for therapeutic advance in management of eosinophilic oesophagitis based on recently increased understanding of the pathophysiology of the disorder. Review of publications characterising mucosal changes and leukocyte recruitment patterns in human and experimental eosinophilic oesophagitis. Eosinophilic oesophagitis, though diagnosed by epithelial infiltration of eosinophils, is ...
Partecke L I - - 2013
More effective therapies are required to improve survival of pancreatic cancer. Possible immunologic targets include tumour associated macrophages (TAMs), generally consisting of M1- and M2-macrophages. We have analysed the impact of TAMS on pancreatic cancer in a syngeneic orthotopic murine model. 6606PDA murine pancreatic cancer cells were orthotopically injected into ...
Moshkovits I - - 2013
Eosinophil accumulation in health and disease is a hallmark characteristic of mucosal immunity and type 2 helper T cell (Th2) inflammation. Eotaxin-induced CCR3 (chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 3) signaling has a critical role in eosinophil chemotactic responses. Nevertheless, the expressions of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif-bearing receptors such as CMRF35-like molecule-1 ...
Ruocco Eleonora - - 2013
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), an angioproliferative disorder, has a viral etiology and a multifactorial pathogenesis hinged on an immune dysfunction. The disease is multifocal, with a course ranging from indolent, with only skin manifestations to fulminant, with extensive visceral involvement. In the current view, all forms of KS have a common ...
Puccini J - - 2013
Ever since its discovery 20 years ago, caspase-2 has been enigmatic and its function somewhat controversial. Although many in vitro studies suggested that caspase-2 was important for apoptosis, demonstrating an in vivo cell death role for this caspase has been more problematic, with caspase-2-deficient mice showing limited, tissue-specific cell death ...
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