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Jung YunJae Y Division of Allergy and Immunology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229; and Department of Microbiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon 406-799, Republic of - - 2014
Eosinophils have historically been considered to be destructive end-stage effector cells that have a role in parasitic infections and allergic reactions by the release of their granule-derived cytotoxic proteins. However, an increasing number of experimental observations indicate that eosinophils also are multifunctional leukocytes involved in diverse inflammatory and physiologic immune ...
Loi M M Experimental Therapies Unit, Laboratory of Oncology, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, 16147 Genoa, - - 2014
Neuroblastoma (NB), the most common and deadly extracranial solid tumour of childhood, represents a challenging in paediatric oncology. Soluble tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL) is a cancer cell-specific molecule exerting remarkable anti-tumour activities against paediatric malignancies both in vitro and in preclinical settings. However, due to its too ...
Colegio Oscar R OR 1] Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06519-1612, USA [2] Department of Dermatology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8059, USA [3] Yale-New Haven Transplantation Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06519-1369, USA [4] Yale Cancer Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8028, - - 2014
Macrophages have an important role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. To perform this function, macrophages must have the capacity to monitor the functional states of their 'client cells': namely, the parenchymal cells in the various tissues in which macrophages reside. Tumours exhibit many features of abnormally developed organs, including ...
Eltboli Osama - - 2014
Eosinophilic airway inflammation is observed in 10-30 % of COPD subjects. Whether increased eosinophils or impairment in their clearance by macrophages is associated with the severity and frequency of exacerbations is unknown. We categorised 103 COPD subjects into 4 groups determined by the upper limit of normal for their cytoplasmic ...
Lichty Brian D BD Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster Immunology Research Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S4K1, - - 2014
Recent clinical data have emphatically shown the capacity of our immune systems to eradicate even advanced cancers. Although oncolytic viruses (OVs) were originally designed to function as tumour-lysing therapeutics, they have now been clinically shown to initiate systemic antitumour immune responses. Cell signalling pathways that are activated and promote the ...
Jacobsen Elizabeth A EA Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, - - 2014
The role of eosinophils in the progression and resolution of allergic respiratory inflammation is poorly defined despite the commonality of their presence and in some cases their use as a biomarker for disease severity and/or symptom control. However, this ambiguity belies the wealth of insights that have recently been gained ...
Brulois Kevin K Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Harlyne J. Norris Cancer Research Tower, 1450 Biggy Street, Los Angeles, CA 90033, - - 2014
Understanding of the innate immune response to viral infections is rapidly progressing, especially with regards to the detection of DNA viruses. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a large dsDNA virus that is responsible for three human diseases: Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. The major target cells ...
Xie Shangyun S Department of R&D, Shanghai Claison Bio-tech Co., Ltd, Shanghai 201201, - - 2014
Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver (UESL) is a rare malignant tumor that occurs predominantly in children and has a poor prognosis. Here, we report a novel case in which the UESL presented in the left lobe of the liver and metastasized into both lungs after surgical resection. The patient ...
Ali Khaled K 1] UCL Cancer Institute, Paul O'Gorman Building, University College London, 72 Huntley Street London WC1E 6DD, UK - - 2014
Inhibitors against the p110δ isoform of phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) have shown remarkable therapeutic efficacy in some human leukaemias. As p110δ is primarily expressed in leukocytes, drugs against p110δ have not been considered for the treatment of solid tumours. Here we report that p110δ inactivation in mice protects against a broad ...
Sullivan Amy Renee AR School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, - - 2014
Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1), also known as macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), is the primary growth factor regulating survival, proliferation and differentiation of macrophages. It is also a potent chemokine for macrophages and monocytes. Signaling via the CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) is necessary for the production of almost all tissue resident macrophage populations ...
Patnode Michael L ML Department of Anatomy, Program in Biomedical Sciences, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, and Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143Department of Anatomy, Program in Biomedical Sciences, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, and Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA - - 2014
Eosinophil accumulation is a defining feature of the immune response to parasitic worm infection. Tissue-resident cells, such as epithelial cells, are thought to initiate eosinophil recruitment. However, direct recognition of worms by eosinophils has not been explored as a mechanism for amplifying eosinophil accumulation. Here, we report that eosinophils rapidly ...
Pyfferoen Lotte L Tumor Immunology Laboratory, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; VIB Inflammation Research Center, Ghent, Belgium; Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ghent University, Ghent, - - 2014
Lung cancer arises in a context of tumour-induced immune suppression. Dendritic cells (DCs) are central players in the induction of anti-tumoural immunity, providing critical signals that drive the induction of cytotoxic T-cell responses. Meanwhile, microRNAs are associated with tumour development as well as immune regulation. We postulated that lung tumours ...
Chu Van Trung VT Deutsches Rheuma Forschungszentrum Berlin, a Leibniz Institute, 10117 Berlin, - - 2014
Although in normal lamina propria (LP) large numbers of eosinophils are present, little is known about their role in mucosal immunity at steady state. Here we show that eosinophils are needed to maintain immune homeostasis in gut-associated tissues. By using eosinophil-deficient ΔdblGATA-1 and PHIL mice or an eosinophil-specific depletion model, ...
Bieging Kathryn T KT Division of Radiation and Cancer Biology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, CCSR-South, Room 1255, 269 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305, - - 2014
p53 is a crucial tumour suppressor that responds to diverse stress signals by orchestrating specific cellular responses, including transient cell cycle arrest, cellular senescence and apoptosis, which are all processes associated with tumour suppression. However, recent studies have challenged the relative importance of these canonical cellular responses for p53-mediated tumour ...
Pawar Vinay V Department of Molecular Immunology, TWINCORE GmbH, Centre for Clinical and Experimental Infection Research, a joint venture of the Hannover Medical School and the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Hannover, - - 2014
Bacteria of many species are able to invade and colonize solid tumours in mice. We have focused on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Detailed analysis revealed that such tumour-invading Salmonella form biofilms, thus providing a versatile in vivo test system for studying bacterial phenotypes and host-pathogen interactions. It appears that biofilm ...
Siliņa Karīna K Latvian Biomedical Research and Study Centre, Ratsupites 1, Riga, 1067, Latvia, - - 2014
Combining different standard therapies with immunotherapy for the treatment of solid tumours has proven to yield a greater clinical benefit than when each is applied separately; however, the percentage of complete responses is still far from optimal, and there is an urgent need for improved treatment modalities. The latest literature ...
Vader Pieter P Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3QX, - - 2014
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies, are released by almost all cell types, including tumour cells. Through transfer of their molecular contents, EVs are capable of altering the function of recipient cells. Increasing evidence suggests a key role for EV mediated intercellular communication in a variety of ...
Wilky Breelyn A BA Department of Medicine Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine / Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, FL 33136, - - 2014
Sarcomas are rare cancers of soft tissue and bone, and remain incurable when refractory to standard multimodality treatments. With the recent advances in immunotherapy for other solid tumors, there is heightened interest in the potential link of the immune system with sarcoma physiology. This review aims to summarize the ongoing ...
Cigrovski Berkovic Maja M Department for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism 'Mladen Sekso', University Hospital Centre 'Sestre milosrdnice', Zagreb, - - 2014
Although previously considered rare, recent epidemiological studies have revealed that the incidence (3.6/100,000) and prevalence (35/100,000) of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NETs) has increased over the past few decades. Despite the progress in the understanding of GEP-NETs molecular biology, there is still little advance in the early diagnosis due to lack ...
Karnevi Emelie E Department of Surgery, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, - - 2014
At the time of diagnosis, almost 80% of pancreatic cancer patients present with new-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) or impaired glucose tolerance. T2D and pancreatic cancer are both associated with low-grade inflammation. Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) have a key role in cancer-related inflammation, immune escape, matrix remodelling and metastasis. In this ...
Li Yulin Y Division of Oncology, Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Stanford University School of - - 2014
The MYC proto-oncogene is an essential regulator of many normal biological programmes. MYC, when activated as an oncogene, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of most types of human cancers. MYC overexpression in normal cells is restrained from causing cancer through multiple genetically and epigenetically controlled checkpoint mechanisms, including proliferative ...
Cadman Emma T ET The Royal Veterinary College, Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, London, United - - 2014
Eosinophil responses typify both allergic and parasitic helminth disease. In helminthic disease, the role of eosinophils can be both protective in immune responses and destructive in pathological responses. To investigate whether eosinophils are involved in both protection and pathology during filarial nematode infection, we explored the role of eosinophils and ...
Li Zhen Z Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Genome Institute of Singapore, - - 2014
Using our previously established xmrk transgenic zebrafish, HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma) was generated by induced expression of xmrk, which encoded a hyperactive EGFR homolog, and regressed by suppression of xmrk expression. To investigate molecular changes in liver tumour progression and regression, RNA-Seq was performed for induced HCC and early and late ...
Wachowska Malgorzata M Department of Immunology, Center of Biostructure Research, Medical University of Warsaw, Banacha 1A, 02-097 Warsaw, - - 2014
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumours is based on administration of a photosensitiser followed by irradiation of the tumour with visible light leading to production of reactive oxygen species that cause direct tumour cell death and vascular damage. PDT also initiates acute local inflammation, which facilitates the development of adaptive antitumour ...
Giraldo Nicolas A NA INSERM UMRS872, Cordeliers Research Center, Immune Microenvironment and Tumours Laboratory, Paris, France; Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France; Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, - - 2014
A tumour grows in a complex microenvironment composed of stromal cells, lymphoid and myeloid cells, vascular and lymphatic vessels, and the resultant cytokine and chemokine milieu. In most primary tumours, a strong Th1/cytotoxic T cells infiltration correlates with a longer survival. This beneficial effect can be hampered by the presence ...
Zhou Penghui P 1] Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA - - 2014
Recent clinical trials showed that targeting of inhibitory receptors on T cells induces durable responses in a subset of cancer patients, despite advanced disease. However, the regulatory switches controlling T-cell function in immunosuppressive tumours are not well understood. Here we show that such inhibitory mechanisms can be systematically discovered in ...
Loutsios Chrystalla C Department of Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, - - 2014
Eosinophils are mediators of allergic inflammation and are implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous conditions including asthma, parasitic infections, neoplasms, hyper-eosinophilic syndromes, vasculitic disorders, and organ-specific conditions. Assessing eosinophilic inflammation is therefore important in establishing a diagnosis, in monitoring and assessing response to treatment, and in testing novel therapeutics. Clinical ...
Harper James J MedImmune Ltd, Granta Park, Cambridge CB21 6GH, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
The microenvironment of established tumours is often immunosuppressed, and this allows tumours to grow and disseminate without being eliminated by the patient's immune system. The recent FDA approval of immunotherapies such as ipilimumab and sipuleucel-T that directly activate the adaptive and innate immune responses has triggered interest in developing other ...
Azevedo M C MC Discipline of Immunology, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: - - 2014
Concomitant immunity is a phenomenon in which a tumour-bearing host is resistant to the growth of an implanted secondary tumour. Metastases are considered to be secondary tumours that develop spontaneously during primary tumour growth, suggesting the involvement of concomitant immunity in controlling the rise of metastases. It has been demonstrated ...
Huang Lei - - 2014
Loss of cell growth control is not sufficient to explain why tumours form as the immune system recognizes many malignant cells and keeps them in check. The local inflammatory microenvironment is a pivotal factor in tumour formation, as tumour-associated inflammation actively suppresses antitumour immunity. The purpose of this review is ...
Fröhlich Leopold F LF Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Medical University of Graz, Graz, - - 2014
The lack of knowledge about molecular pathology of uterine sarcomas with a representation of 3-7% of all malignant uterine tumors prevents the establishment of effective therapy protocols. Here, we explored advanced therapeutic options to the previously discovered antitumorigenic effects of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) by ...
Witney Timothy H TH Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, United - - 2014
Tumour response to therapy is assessed primarily in the clinic by monitoring reductions in tumour size. However, this approach lacks sensitivity since in many cases several weeks may elapse before there is evidence of tumour shrinkage. There is therefore a need to develop non-invasive imaging techniques for monitoring tumour treatment ...
Sreedhar Gadiputi G Department of Oral Pathology, Babu Banarasi Das College of Dental Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, - - 2014
The effect of inflammation on pathogenesis and biological behavior of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) and dentigerous cyst (DC) is not completely understood. Hence, we aimed to analyze the effect of inflammation on biological behavior of OKC and DC using a proliferative and anti-apoptotic marker, i.e., proliferative cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) and ...
Ilmarinen Pinja P The Immunopharmacology Research Group, University of Tampere School of Medicine and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere FI-33014, Finland. - - 2014
Eosinophils are abundantly present in most phenotypes of asthma and they contribute to the maintenance and exacerbations of the disease. Regulators of eosinophil longevity play critical roles in determining whether eosinophils accumulate into the airways of asthmatics. Several cytokines enhance eosinophil survival promoting eosinophilic airway inflammation while for example glucocorticoids, ...
Li Hongxin H College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, P R China; Key Laboratory of Chicken Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Ministry of Agriculture, Guangzhou, P R - - 2014
Avian leukosis is a neoplastic disease caused in part by subgroup J avian leukosis virus J (ALV-J). Micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) play pivotal oncogenic and tumour-suppressor roles in tumour development and progression. However, little is known about the potential role of miRNAs in avian leukosis tumours. We have found a ...
Farina Antonietta Rosella AR Department of Applied Clinical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of L'Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito 2, L'Aquila 67100, Italy. - - 2014
Since its original identification as a leukocyte gelatinase/type V collagenase and tumour type IV collagenase, gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is now recognised as playing a central role in many aspects of tumour progression. In this review, we relate current concepts concerning the many ways in which gelatinase B/MMP-9 influences tumour ...
Quinn Susan R SR Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Dublin 2, Ireland, - - 2014
Recent studies have shown an important interplay between Interleukin 10 (IL-10) and microRNAs. IL-10 can be directly post-transcriptionally regulated by several microRNA, including miR-106a, miR-4661, miR-98, miR-27, let7 and miR-1423p/5p. miRNA targeting of IL-10 has been suggested to play a role in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases such as SLE, reperfusion ...
Xu Haidong - - 2013
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy to arise from bone. The pathogenesis of osteosarcoma is unclear, and new therapy molecular target is needed. The miRNAs researched suggested that miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. MiR-141, which belong to miR-200 family, take a part in tumorigenesis. However, the ...
Kubala S A - - 2013
Pathogen induced migration of neutrophils across mucosal epithelial barriers requires epithelial production of the chemotactic lipid mediator, hepoxilin A3 (HXA3). HXA3 is an eicosanoid derived from arachidonic acid. Although eosinophils are also capable of penetrating mucosal surfaces, eosinophilic infiltration occurs mainly during allergic processes whereas neutrophils dominate mucosal infection. Both ...
Jacobsen E A - - 2013
The importance and specific role(s) of eosinophils in modulating the immune/inflammatory phenotype of allergic pulmonary disease remain to be defined. Established animal models assessing the role(s) of eosinophils as contributors and/or causative agents of disease have relied on congenitally deficient mice where the developmental consequences of eosinophil depletion are unknown. ...
Khairuddin Norliana - - 2013
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to inhibit oncogene expression and also to activate innate immune responses via Toll-like receptor (TLR) recognition have been shown to be beneficial as anti-cancer therapy in certain cancer models. In this study, we investigated the effects of local versus systemic delivery of such immune-stimulating Dicer-substrate siRNAs ...
Bai Jun J Department of Medical Oncology, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital, The Third Affiliated Hospital of the Medical College of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710068, P.R. - - 2013
Efforts to get a strong and sustained anti-tumour immune response induced by a tumour specific antigen have failed, but sipuleucel-T has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We noticed that exosomes secreted by tumour cells or immune cells may be crucially involved in the tumour immune ...
Zeestraten E C M - - 2013
Background:Evasion of immune surveillance and suppression of the immune system are important hallmarks of tumour development in colon cancer. The goal of this study was to establish a tumour profile based on biomarkers that reflect a tumour's immune susceptibility status and to determine their relation to patient outcome.Methods:The study population ...
Vandewynckel Yves-Paul - - 2013
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an elaborate organelle that is essential for cellular function and survival. Conditions that interfere with ER functioning can lead to the accumulation of unfolded proteins, which are detected by transmembrane sensors that then initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore ER proteostasis. If the ...
Roomi M W - - 2013
The highly aggressive pediatric sarcomas are characterized by high levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, which play crucial roles in tumor invasion and metastasis by degradation of the extracellular membrane leading to cancer cell spread to distal organs. We examined the effects of cytokines, mitogens, inducers and inhibitors on ...
Singh Aloukick K - - 2013
Neurocysticercosis (NCC), caused by the larvae of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common helminth infection of the CNS in humans worldwide. There is no existing animal model of NCC that resembles human infection. To overcome this limitation, swine (the natural intermediate host of the parasite) may be ...
Raymond E - - 2013
Tasquinimod is a small molecule with pleiotropic effects on the tumour microenvironment. Tasquinimod inhibits the growth and metastasis of tumour cells in vitro and in vivo. It targets the tumour microenvironment, enhancing the host immune response and inhibiting the angiogenic response. Tasquinimod influences infiltrating myeloid cells in the tumour milieu ...
Ilmarinen Pinja - - 2013
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways manifesting in many different phenotypes. Allergic asthma, comprising approximately half of patients with asthma, is characterized by accumulation of eosinophils into the lungs. Eosinophils release factors that damage the surrounding cells and participate in the maintenance and exacerbation of inflammation. In ...
Goeppert B - - 2013
Background:Biliary tract cancers (BTC) are relatively rare malignant tumours with poor prognosis. It is known from other solid neoplasms that antitumour inflammatory response has an impact on tumour behaviour and patient outcome. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive characterisation of antitumour inflammatory response in human BTC.Methods:Tumour-infiltrating ...
Bazhin Alexandr V - - 2013
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive human neoplasms, having extremely poor prognosis with a 5-year survival rate of <1 % and a median survival of 6 months. In contrast to other malignancies, pancreatic cancer is highly resistant to chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Therefore, new treatment options are urgently ...
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