Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1483
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Campanati Anna - - 2010
Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory dermatosis whose aetiopathogenesis remains unclear, although tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) appears to play a crucial role. The biological potential of TNFalpha inhibitors, such as etanercept, which reduce the inflammatory cascade, has radically changed the therapeutic management of patients with psoriasis and other immunomediated ...
Di Meglio Paola P St John's Institute of Dermatology, King's College London School of Medicine; NIHR Biomedical Research Centre; and FOCIS Centre of Excellence at King's College London London SE1 9RT - - 2010
In just 10 years from its discovery in 2000, interleukin-23 has quickly moved from being recognized as a pro-inflammatory cytokine to a key player and potential therapeutic target in psoriasis.
Dessinioti Clio - - 2010
We have come a long way since 1896, when it was first suggested that Propionibacterium acnes, found in acne lesions, was the cause of acne. Although several lines of evidence suggest the direct role of P acnes in acne, the mechanism by which P acnes contributes to the pathogenesis of ...
Cornelissen Lisette H - - 2010
Prolonged mechanical loading of soft tissues may result in degeneration of these tissues, resulting in formation of pressure ulcers. The risk assessment of individuals might be improved by including measurements of the tissue response to mechanical loading. Cytokines, which are released by the top layer of the skin upon chemical ...
Paquet Philippe - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) probably results from a complex and specific immune cell reaction involving lymphocytes and macrophages. OBJECTIVE: To assess the functional role of macrophages in TEN. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed on biopsies from early blisters developed in 9 TEN patients. The amount of extracellular myeloperoxidase (MPO) ...
Tada Yayoi - - 2010
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which is characterized by red, scaly, raised plaques. Its symptoms may range in severity and there are severe clinical subtypes of psoriasis including pustular psoriasis. Pre-biological systemic therapies were targeting mainly keratinocyte proliferation and T cell activation. However, there were cases, in which ...
Miracco Clelia - - 2010
Cell-mediated immunity is considered to be normal in Darier's Disease (DD), an inherited skin disorder complicated by skin infections. To date, there are no investigations on the local inflammatory infiltrate in DD skin lesions. In this immunohistochemical study we characterized and quantified it, making comparisons with two other inflammatory skin ...
Youn Sang Woong - - 2010
Increased sebum secretion has been known as one of the major pathogenic factors in the development of acne; however, objective sebum measurement methods have been developed only recently. We have limited information about the association of sebum secretion, and the development of acne. There continues to be controversy about the ...
Burgess Stewart T G - - 2010
Infestation of ovine skin with the ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis results in a rapid cutaneous immune response, leading to the crusted skin lesions characteristic of sheep scab. Little is known regarding the mechanisms by which such a profound inflammatory response is instigated and to identify novel vaccine and drug targets ...
Bak Rasmus O - - 2010
Intercellular signaling by cytokines is a vital feature of the innate immune system. In skin, an inflammatory response is mediated by cytokines and an entwined network of cellular communication between T-cells and epidermal keratinocytes. Dysregulated cytokine production, orchestrated by activated T-cells homing to the skin, is believed to be the ...
Kim Wanyeon - - 2010
Deregulation of cell survival pathways and resistance to apoptosis are generally accepted as crucial aspects of tumorigenesis. As in many tumors, increasing occurrence of human skin cancer and other conflicting effects of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation enhance the demand for novel chemoprevention agents. Myricetin, a naturally occurring phytochemical, is potent ...
Mattarollo Stephen R - - 2010
NKT cells can promote or inhibit adaptive immune responses. Cutaneous immunity is tightly regulated by cooperation between innate and adaptive immune processes, but the role of NKT cells in regulating cutaneous immunity is largely unknown. In this study, we show, in a mouse model, that skin-infiltrating CD1d-restricted NKT cells in ...
Cole Nerida - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Propolis is a honeybee product that has been used in traditional medicine for antioxidant, immune-stimulating, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. Here, the potential of the topical application of a crude ethanolic extract of Sydney propolis to protect against UV-radiation-induced impairments associated with an increased risk of photocarcinogenesis has been tested ...
Maverakis Emanual E Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, CA 95816, USA. - - 2010
Ultraviolet (UV) light is intricately linked to the functional status of the cutaneous immune system. In susceptible individuals, UV radiation can ignite pathogenic inflammatory pathways leading to allergy or autoimmunity. In others, this same UV radiation can be used as a phototherapy to suppress pathogenic cutaneous immune responses. These vastly ...
Schonthaler Helia B - - 2009
Although(,) vascular remodeling is a hallmark of many chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, anti-vascular strategies to treat these conditions have received little attention to date. We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of systemic blockade of VEGF-A by the inhibitory monoclonal antibody G6-31, employing a ...
Tamas R - - 2009
Sun protecting clothing is clothing designed for sun protection and is producted from the fabric rated for its level ultraviolet (UV) protection. Some textiles and fabrics emloyed in the use of sun protective clothing may be pre-treated with UV inhibiting ingredients during manufacture to enhance their UV blocking capacitiy.
Ferrer-Montiel A - - 2009
Cutaneous neurogenic inflammation is emerging as an underlying mechanism for several skin conditions. The intimate cross-talk between the cutaneous immune system and the peripheral nervous system is fundamental for skin biology. However, an imbalance or dysfunction results in the onset of an inflammatory state that is reinforced by the synergic ...
Edmondson David A - - 2009
Macrocyclic trichothecenes, mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, have been implicated in adverse reactions in individuals exposed to mold-contaminated environments. Cellular and humoral immune responses and the presence of trichothecenes were evaluated in patients with mold-related health complaints. Patients underwent history, physical examination, skin prick/puncture tests with mold extracts, immunological evaluations ...
Lyte Peter - - 2009
The etiology of acne is a complex process, and acne is one of the most common skin disorders affecting millions of people. The pathogenesis of acne is closely associated with the bacterium, Propionibacterium acnes which was previously known as Corynebacterium parvum. Both viable and non-viable P. acnes/C. parvum have been ...
Fonacier Luz S - - 2010
The skin is one of the largest immunologic organs and is affected by both external and internal factors, as well as innate and adaptive immune responses. Many skin disorders, such as atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, urticaria, angioedema, psoriasis, and autoimmune blistering disorders, are immune mediated. Most of these diseases are ...
Lai Yuping Y [Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California-San Diego, San Diego, California, - - 2009
The normal microflora of the skin includes staphylococcal species that will induce inflammation when present below the dermis but are tolerated on the epidermal surface without initiating inflammation. Here we reveal a previously unknown mechanism by which a product of staphylococci inhibits skin inflammation. This inhibition is mediated by staphylococcal ...
Shibata Sayaka - - 2010
The immunological significance of IL-27 has been reported and discussed in various Th1/Th17-mediated inflammatory diseases. However, its importance in psoriasis is unknown. We investigated pathophysiological roles of IL-27 in psoriasis in this study. Serum IL-27 levels in psoriatic patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls, and correlated with ...
Farkas A - - 2010
Many exogenous factors including excessive alcohol consumption have been associated with psoriasis, but the underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. Drinking worsens therapeutic compliance, and decreases the efficacy and increases the toxicity of systemic antipsoriatic treatments. Excess alcohol intake results in compromised immunity and increased risk of infections, but alcohol can ...
Salem Samar Abdallah M - - 2010
Our aim was to assess the relationship of keratinocyte and lymphocyte apoptosis and macrophage function to disease outcome in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with and without cutaneous manifestations. 50 systemic lupus erythematosus patients [25 with cutaneous manifestations (group I), 25 without cutaneous manifestations (group II)] and 20 normal controls (group ...
Eyerich Stefanie - - 2009
Th subsets are defined according to their production of lineage-indicating cytokines and functions. In this study, we have identified a subset of human Th cells that infiltrates the epidermis in individuals with inflammatory skin disorders and is characterized by the secretion of IL-22 and TNF-alpha, but not IFN-gamma, IL-4, or ...
Guinea-Viniegra Juan - - 2009
Inducible epidermal deletion of JunB and c-Jun in adult mice causes a psoriasis-like inflammatory skin disease. Increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNFalpha play a major role in this phenotype. Here we define the underlying molecular mechanism using genetic mouse models. We show that Jun proteins control TNFalpha shedding in ...
Cowden Jeffery M - - 2010
The role of histamine H(4) receptor (H(4)R) was investigated in a T-helper type 2 (Th2)-cell-mediated mouse skin inflammation model that mimics several of the features of atopic dermatitis. Treatment with two specific H(4)R antagonists before challenge with FITC led to a significant reduction in ear edema, inflammation, mast cell, and ...
Zhang Kaiming - - 2010
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder associated with a host of immune abnormalities. We have recently proposed that psoriasis is related to aberrant hematopoiesis and hypothesized that aberrant hematopoiesis in psoriasis is due to the differential hematopoietic microenvironment. To investigate whether the hematopoietic microenvironment is altered in patients with ...
Pickard Chris C Dermatopharmacology Unit, School of Medicine, Level F South Block (825), Southampton General Hospital, Tremona Road, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK. - - 2009
Contact allergy to environmental xenobiotics is a common and important problem, but it is unclear why some chemicals are potent sensitizers and others weak/nonsensitizers. We explored this by investigating why similar chemicals, 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and 2,4-dinitrothiocyanobenzene (DNTB), differ in their ability to induce contact hypersensitivity (CHS). DNCB induced CHS in ...
Rodust P M - - 2009
The incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has dramatically increased in the last decades, and chronic sun exposure was identified as a main etiologic agent. UV radiation may produce DNA damage either directly or through reactive oxygen species (ROS). As mutations ...
Mishra Neerad C - - 2010
Sulfur mustard (SM, bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide) is a well known chemical warfare agent that may cause long-term debilitating injury. Because of the ease of production and storage, it has a strong potential for chemical terrorism; however, the mechanism by which SM causes chronic tissue damage is essentially unknown. SM is a ...
Chua Ramon Alvin - - 2009
Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disorder with known systemic consequences. While most recent studies point to a predominantly Th17-driven process, psoriasis also lies at the crossroads linking the pathways of angiogenesis and inflammation. Mediators such as VEGF and angiopoietin-2 play significant roles in the pathophysiology and may even account for ...
Nazarian Rachel - - 2009
Cytokines are signaling molecules that are believed to be key factors in perpetuating the inflammatory process in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. AN-2728, being developed by Anacor Pharmaceuticals Inc, is a topically administered, boron-containing, anti-inflammatory compound that inhibits PDE4 activity and thereby suppresses the release of TNFalpha, IL-12, IL-23 and other ...
Vost?lov? Jitka - - 2010
Solar radiation is a very important exogenous factor in skin pathogenesis and can lead to the development of a number of skin disorders. UVB irradiation is known to induce oxidative stress, inflammation and especially DNA lesions in exposed cells. It is important, therefore, to identify agents that can offer protection ...
Parodi Alessandro - - 2010
According to European laws animal testing in cosmetic industry will be prohibited in a few years and it will be replaced by alternative methods based on cell and tissue culture. Many ingredients of cosmetic formulations are potentially causes of skin inflammation and sensibilization. Since cytotoxicity is known, among other factors, ...
Zutterman N - - 2010
Deregulation of cell-death pathways plays a key role in the pathogenesis of various skin diseases. The different types of cell death are mainly defined by morphological criteria, and include apoptosis, autophagic cell death, and necrosis. The process of apoptosis is well characterized at the molecular level and involves the activation ...
Liebmann Joerg - - 2010
In human skin tissue nitrite is found at relatively high concentrations and represents the main source for cutaneous non-enzymatic nitric oxide (NO) formation during UVA exposure due to photolytical decomposition. Since NO has been repeatedly shown to act pro- as well as anti-apoptotic we here studied the effects of UVA ...
Teige Ingrid - - 2010
alpha2beta1 integrins are normally confined to the proliferating basal layers of the epidermis. However, during wound healing and in psoriasis, these integrins are expressed on keratinocytes in suprabasal layers correlating with a less differentiated phenotype. Transgenic mice expressing alpha2beta1 integrins under the involucrine promoter have previously been demonstrated, to various ...
Shakarjian Michael P - - 2010
Sulfur mustard (SM), a chemical weapon first employed during World War I, targets the skin, eyes, and lung. It remains a significant military and civilian threat. The characteristic response of human skin to SM involves erythema of delayed onset, followed by edema with inflammatory cell infiltration, the appearance of large ...
Mukaigasa Katsuki - - 2009
Tail resorption during amphibian metamorphosis has been thought to be controlled mainly by a cell-autonomous mechanism of programmed cell death triggered by thyroid hormone. However, we have proposed a role for the immune response in metamorphosis, based on the finding that syngeneic grafts of tadpole tail skin into adult Xenopus ...
Metz Martin - - 2009
The skin as an organ has many functions of which the protection against environmental threats may be the most important. Recent investigations have broadened our understanding of the cellular mechanisms of host defense responses of the skin. Interestingly, the three key effector cells of cutaneous innate immunity, that is keratinocytes, ...
Lamore Sarah D - - 2010
The differentiated epidermis of human skin serves as an essential barrier against environmental insults from physical, chemical, and biological sources. Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) is an FDA-approved microbicidal agent used worldwide in clinical antiseptic products, over-the-counter topical antimicrobials, and cosmetic consumer products including antidandruff shampoos. Here we demonstrate for the first ...
Marcinkiewicz Janusz - - 2009
Acne vulgaris is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease. One of the pathogenic factors in acne is Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). Traditional treatment of acne lesions involves topical application of antibiotics with anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. However, a failure of this therapy is widely associated with emergence of resistant bacteria. Therefore, ...
Monteleone Giovanni - - 2009
Interleukin-21 (IL-21), a cytokine produced by activated CD4+ T cells, activated natural killer T cells, and T follicular cells, has been reported to play a crucial role in the tissue-damaging T cell response in various organs, such as gut, skin, pancreas, and joints. This pathogenic effect is strictly linked to ...
Suter Maja M - - 2009
Traditionally, keratinocytes have been considered inert constituents of the multilayered epidermis. Today's understanding has fundamentally changed. The keratinocyte is now recognized as an active player in epidermal renewal with key functions in the skin's immune defence. Under homeostatic conditions, keratinocyte progenitor cells are believed to divide symmetrically or asymmetrically, that ...
Zampetti A - - 2009
Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin dermatosis characterized in its classical form by erythematous and hyperkeratotic plaques on extensor surfaces of the body, that in most cases can be managed therapeutically by topical agents. Hyperproliferation and a marked inflammation in both epidermis and dermis are thought to be driven by interaction ...
Potapovich A I - - 2009
The immunomodulatory effects of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) on lymphocytes and macrophages have been described in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant forms of human AFP have been proposed as potential therapeutic entities for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. We examined the effects of embryonic and recombinant human AFP on the spontaneous, UVA- ...
Nestle Frank O - - 2009
Human skin and its immune cells provide essential protection of the human body from injury and infection. Recent studies reinforce the importance of keratinocytes as sensors of danger through alert systems such as the inflammasome. In addition, newly identified CD103(+) dendritic cells are strategically positioned for cross-presentation of skin-tropic pathogens ...
Tiberio R - - 2009
In recent years, vitamin D3 analogues have become one of the most widely prescribed topical treatments for mild or moderate chronic plaque psoriasis. These molecules are effective and safe, but their exact mechanism of action is not completely understood. In vitro studies have shown that D3 analogues decrease proliferation and ...
Folgueras Alicia R - - 2009
Peripheral interactions between nociceptive fibers and mast cells contribute to inflammatory pain, but little is known about mechanisms mediating neuro-immune communication. Here we show that metalloproteinase MT5-MMP (MMP-24) is an essential mediator of peripheral thermal nociception and inflammatory hyperalgesia. We report that MT5-MMP is expressed by CGRP-containing peptidergic nociceptors in ...
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