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Campbell L - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Caveolin-1 is a key structural and functional protein for plasmalemmal invaginations termed caveolae. Caveolin-1 is known to modulate multiple signal-transducing pathways involved in cell differentiation and proliferation. Psoriasis is viewed as a multifactorial pathology characterized by keratinocyte hyperproliferation and abnormal cell maturation. We hypothesized that loss of caveolin-1 within ...
Mrowietz U - - 2002
Expression of a variety of surface epitopes is a characteristic feature of immune cells. Receptors and adhesion molecules are the most predominant ones. It is also characteristic that epitope expression is modulated during cellular activation. In inflammatory skin diseases these structures can be used to define not only the type ...
Williams J D L - - 2002
Cytokines are intercellular messengers that have an important role in the development and maintenance of cutaneous inflammation. The primacy of cytokines in eliciting cutaneous immune responses makes them a highly attractive target for new biological response modifiers. Targeting of cytokines is still in its infancy for therapy of skin disease. ...
Gröne A - - 2002
The skin has long been recognized as a major producer of cytokines, but the keratinocyte as principal epidermal cell has received less attention as potential source and target of cytokines. Nevertheless, keratinocytes produce a plethora of cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1, -6, -7, -8, -10, -12, -15, -18, and -20, and ...
Nghiem Dat X - - 2002
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation present in sunlight plays a critical role in the initiation and promotion of nonmelanoma skin carcinogenesis and immune suppression. The immune suppressive effects of UV have been identified as a risk factor for skin cancer induction. For these reasons, scientists have focused on elucidating the mechanisms of ...
Sleijffers Annemarie - - 2002
Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, as in sunlight, can modulate immune responses in animals and humans. This immunomodulation can lead to positive health effects especially with respect to certain autoimmune diseases and allergies. However, UV-induced immunomodulation has also been shown to be deleterious. Experimental animal studies have revealed that UV ...
Weller R - - 2002
Ultraviolet radiation (UV) induces apoptosis in keratinocytes by both p53- and death receptor-dependent pathways. It also generates free radicals in keratinocytes, including the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) by constitutive and inducible NO synthases (NOS). NO has both pro- and anti-apoptotic effects. We wished to determine which of these was ...
Seiffert Kristina - - 2002
Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can lead to deleterious effects such as sunburn, photoaging, and the development of skin cancer. UVR has also been shown to reduce local and systemic immune responses in humans and animals. In the recent past it has become clear that neuropeptides mediate ...
Walterscheid Jeffrey P - - 2002
Ultraviolet radiation exposure damages DNA and promotes the development of skin cancer. In addition, UV exposure suppresses the immune response. Although the mechanism by which epidermal exposure to UV induces systemic immune suppression is not fully understood, it is clear that cytokines are involved. Therefore, quantitative measurement of cytokines is ...
Kulms Dagmar - - 2002
Ultraviolet radiation (UV) induces a variety of biological effects which include the induction of programmed cell death. UV-induced apoptosis seems to represent a controlled scavenging mechanism which protects cells from malignant transformation in human skin. To exert these effects on a cellular base, UV uses a variety of signaling pathways, ...
Chung Jin Ho - - 2002
Human macrophage metalloelastase is a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family and is involved in degradation of elastin. We investigated the ultraviolet modulation of human macrophage metalloelastase in human skin in vivo. Ultraviolet induced human macrophage metalloelastase mRNA maximally (11.9-fold) within 16 h post-ultraviolet in human skin. This induction of ...
Han Yuan-Ping - - 2002
Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is essential for normal development and tissue repair. Although many roles for extracellular proteinases in the breakdown of ECM have been established, the regulations of these proteinases in human tissue are not fully understood. Inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the regulation of several matrix metalloproteinases. ...
Nomura Ichiro - - 2002
As a complication of atopic dermatitis (AD), the incidence of hypoproteinemia is increasing among infants with severe AD in Japan. It can be a life-threatening condition owing to hypovolemic shock as a result of hypoproteinemia and vascular infarction as a result of thrombocythemia. However, the pathophysiology of this condition remains ...
Schwarz Gerold - - 2002
Keratinocytes are an integral component of the skin immune system and function as nonprofessional antigen-presenting cells in pathophysiologic conditions when they express major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, e.g., in psoriasis. In order to analyze further this function we investigated the activity of cathepsin S in comparison with cathepsins B ...
Decraene David - - 2002
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) acts as a potent survival factor in numerous cell lines, primarily through activation of the AKT signaling pathway. Although some targets of this pathway have known anti-apoptotic functions, its relationship with the improved survival of cells after exposure to environmental stresses, including UVB, remains largely unclear. ...
Lotti Torello - - 2002
The neuro-immuno-cutaneous-endocrine network is not a simple construct featuring organ systems intimately involved in the bridge between body and mind. Mind-body influences are bi-directional and the skin should be considered an active neuroimmunoendocrine interface, where effector molecules of neuropeptides act as common words used in a dynamic dialogue between brain, ...
Schwarz T - - 2002
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can exert a variety of biological effects, including induction of skin cancer, premature skin ageing and inhibition of the immune system. The immunosuppressive properties of UV radiation are of major biological relevance since suppression of the immune system by UV radiation is not only responsible for the ...
Simeonova Petia P - - 2002
Environmental and occupational exposure to arsenic is associated with increased risk of skin, urinary bladder and respiratory tract cancers. Increasing evidence indicates that arsenic acts at the level of tumor promotion by modulating the signaling pathways responsible for cell growth. One of this pathways might include c-Src dependent EGFR and ...
Gniadecki Robert - - 2002
Psoriasis is a relatively common, chronic skin disease affecting 1-2% of the population in the developed countries. It is an inflammatory, autoimmune skin disorder characterised by an accelerated rate of epidermal proliferation and disordered differentiation. Since our last review in 1999, considerable progress has been made in understanding the immunopathogenesis ...
Simbulan-Rosenthal Cynthia M - - 2002
UVB from solar radiation is both an initiating and promoting agent for skin cancer. We have found that primary human keratinocytes undergo an apoptotic response to UVB. To determine whether these responses are altered during the course of immortalization, we examined markers of apoptosis in primary human foreskin keratinocytes (HFK) ...
Misery L - - 2002
Skin innervation is extremely dense and reaches the most superficial layers of the epidermis (but not into the stratum corneum). The relationship between skin and the nervous system was neglected for a long time. Nowadays, this represents one of the most widely investigated fields of skin biology. Associations between nerve ...
Kirby B - - 2002
The primacy of the immune system in the pathogenesis of psoriasis is a well-established concept to the extent that psoriasis has been classified as a T-cell-mediated, autoimmune disease. An explosion of knowledge concerning immunological events in psoriasis and the clinical efficacy of immunologically directed therapies, such as cyclosporin, support this ...
Ingram R J - - 2002
One approach to the prevention of schistosomiasis is the use of topical formulations to inhibit cercarial penetration of skin. A number of formulations containing either cercaricidal ingredients or components designed to inhibit penetration have been studied, but with variable results. Such studies have rarely considered the persistence of inhibitory effects ...
Moretti Silvia - - 2002
Vitiligo is a skin disease that is caused by selective destruction of melanocytes and is characterized by white spots. Melanocytes and keratinocytes seem to exhibit a functional close relationship, mediated at least in part by keratinocyte-derived cytokines, which seem important for survival and activity of melanocytic cells. We wanted to ...
Ying Sun - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated infiltration of eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes, and T cells in the skin of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU), suggesting a possible T(H)2-type cytokine pathology analogous to the allergen-induced skin late-phase reaction (LPR). OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare skin biopsy specimens from patients with CIU and ...
Suárez-Peñaranda J M - - 2002
Demonstrating the vital character of an injury and estimation of the age are routine tasks in forensic pathology and although many different techniques have been applied to this problem none have been found to be completely satisfactory. Apoptosis, an active genetically controlled process, is the major mechanism by which homeostasis ...
Chuong C M CM Department of Pathology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 90033, USA. - - 2002
Conventional textbook wisdom portrays the skin as an organ that literally enwraps whatever each of us stands for as a more or less functional, individual member of the mammalian species, and has it that the skin primarily establishes, controls and transmits contacts with the external world. In addition, the skin ...
Watanabe Hideaki - - 2002
The skin is the largest organ in the human body. It acts not only as an important structural barrier against injury but also as a peripheral arm of the immune system. Elucidating the characteristics of this latter function has taken on renewed importance in recent years. Exposure to chemicals in ...
Takahashi Hidetoshi - - 2002
Apoptosis is a physiological form of cell death that is responsible for the deletion of cells. Epidermal keratinocytes are supposed to be regulated by cell proliferation and cell death leading to structural homeostasis. Psoriatic skin shows marked thickening of the epidermis, suggesting the imbalance of the homeostasis, which might be ...
Beer Hans-Dietmar - - 2002
Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) regulates proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival of different types of epithelial cells, including keratinocytes of the skin. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying these multiple functions, we searched for KGF- regulated genes in keratinocytes. Using the differential display reverse transcriptase-PCR technology, we identified the gene ...
Sitailo Leonid A - - 2002
UV radiation from the sun activates both the membrane death receptor and the intrinsic or mitochondrial apoptotic signaling pathways in epidermal keratinocytes, triggering apoptosis and affording protection against skin cancer formation. We have investigated the involvement of caspase-9 in the UV death effector pathway in human keratinocytes, since this is ...
Zhang Yan - - 2002
Murine sclerodermatous graft-vs-host disease (Scl GVHD) models human scleroderma, with prominent skin thickening, lung fibrosis, and up-regulation of cutaneous collagen mRNA. Fibrosis in Scl GVHD may be driven by infiltrating TGF-beta1-producing mononuclear cells. Here we characterize the origin and types of those cutaneous effector cells, the cytokine and chemokine environments, ...
Townley Scott L - - 2002
The induction of systemic immunosuppression following ultraviolet B radiation exposure has been linked with the release of inflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators by cells of the epidermis and dermis. Nerve growth factor has not previously been linked with ultraviolet-B-induced immunosuppressive effects. Nerve growth factor antibodies abrogated ultraviolet-B-induced systemic suppression of contact ...
Rafferty T S - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Selenium is an essential trace nutrient necessary for the normal function of the immune system. Selenium compounds protect mice against ultraviolet (UV) B-induced tumours, probably by preventing oxidative damage to the host skin cells and to the host immune system. One possible mechanism of protection is that selenium can ...
Koçak Mukadder - - 2002
Tinea capitis is a fungal infection of the skin and the hair with involvement of the hair shaft and the pilosebaceous unit. It may be the most common of all cutaneous mycoses in children. Tinea capitis can be inflammatory or noninflammatory. It is thought that humoral and cell-mediated immunities play ...
Mascia Francesca - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus is a trigger of atopic dermatitis. Many D pteronyssinus allergens are proteases that can elicit airway inflammation by stimulating the release of cytokines and chemokines by bronchial epithelial cells. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether D pteronyssinus allergens can exert a similar activity on skin keratinocytes. METHODS: ...
Smith Harvey R - - 2002
Irritant contact dermatitis is the clinical result of sufficient inflammation arising from release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from skin cells (principally keratinocytes) in response to (usually) chemical stimuli. Different clinical forms may arise. The three main pathophysiological changes seen are skin barrier disruption, epidermal cellular changes and cytokine release. An important ...
Tsatmali Marina - - 2002
Melanocytes are cells of neural crest origin. In the human epidermis, they form a close association with keratinocytes via their dendrites. Melanocytes are well known for their role in skin pigmentation, and their ability to produce and distribute melanin has been studied extensively. One of the factors that regulates melanocytes ...
Seike Masahiro - - 2002
Repeated ultraviolet (UV) irradiations have been shown to induce keratinocyte proliferation with acanthosis, stimulate the cutaneous nerve proliferation, and increase the synthesis of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). In the current study, we examined the role of CGRP in the UVB-induced proliferation of murine keratinocytes. UVB irradiation increased the number of ...
Kwon Sun Bang - - 2002
UV light is absorbed in the epidermis and induces sunburn cell formation. It has been reported that HSP70 increases the UVB resistance of cell lines by in vitro experiments using various cell lines. In this study, hsp70.1(-/-) KO mouse was used in order to study the role of HSP70 after ...
Millar Sarah E - - 2002
Clinical conditions causing hair loss, such as androgenetic alopecia, alopecia areata, and scarring alopecia, can be psychologically devastating to individuals and are the target of a multimillion dollar pharmaceutical industry. The importance of the hair follicle in skin biology, however, does not rest solely with its ability to produce hair. ...
Kimber Ian - - 2002
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common occupational and environmental health issue. In common with other forms of allergy the disease progresses in two stages; an initial phase during which sensitization is acquired, followed later (after subsequent exposure to the same chemical allergen) by elicitation of a cutaneous inflammatory reaction. ...
Walterscheid Jeffrey P - - 2002
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation plays a critical role in the induction of nonmelanoma skin cancer. UV radiation is also immune suppressive, and the immune suppression induced by UV irradiation has been identified as a major risk factor for skin cancer induction. Previously, we showed that UV exposure activates a cytokine cascade ...
Chan Marion Man-Ying MM Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Temple University School of Medicine, 3400 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA. - - 2002
The phytoalexin resveratrol is commonly found in food and drinks, including red wine, grapes, and peanuts. Many studies have shown that this compound has anti-inflammatory properties, and it has been ascribed as having health benefits that help to prevent cancer and coronary heart disease. A treatment that combines antimicrobial and ...
Ullrich Stephen E - - 2002
The ultraviolet (UV) radiation present in sunlight is immune-suppressive. Recently we showed that solar-simulated UV radiation (UVA + UVB; 295-400 nm), applied after immunization, suppressed immunological memory and the elicitation of delayed-type hypersensitivity to the common opportunistic pathogen, Candida albicans. Further, we found that wavelengths in the UVA region of ...
Krueger James G - - 2002
Psoriasis vulgaris is the most prevalent T-cell-mediated inflammatory disease in humans. The pathogenesis of psoriasis is linked to activation of several types of leukocytes that control cellular immunity and to a T-cell-dependent inflammatory process in skin that accelerates the growth of epidermal and vascular cells in psoriasis lesions. Critical steps ...
Modlin Robert L - - 2002
Leprosy provides an ideal model to study immune responses in humans and in skin. Learning from leprosy, we have gained insight into mechanisms of host resistance and susceptibility to infection. New paradigms include the role of Th1/Th2 cytokines, the ability of CD1 to present nonpeptide antigens to T cells, the ...
Asadullah Khusru - - 2002
There is a high medical need for better therapies for psoriasis. Based on new insight into the pathophysiology of this frequent immune disease, a number of novel systemic immunomodulatory therapies are currently in clinical development. These include approaches targeting antigen presentation and costimulation, T cell activation and leukocyte adhesion, action ...
Kasahara S. - - 2002
Increasing ultraviolet-B irradiation (UVB) resulting from diminution of stratospheric ozone is becoming a serious international problem. UVB irradiation exerts not only carcinogenic effects on animals but also causes them to become vulnerable to infections by modulating their immune responses. UVB irradiation suppresses innate immune functions of cells such as macrophages, ...
Schwarz Agatha - - 2002
It is almost three decades ago that it was discovered that ultraviolet radiation (UV) can compromise the immune system. UV suppresses immune responses in several ways. It inhibits the function of antigen-presenting cells, induces T cells with suppressor activity and induces the release of immunosuppressive cytokines. The latter phenomenon is ...
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