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Cooper Kevin D - - 2003
Sunscreens are the most effective and widely available interventions for sun damage, other than sun avoidance or clothing. However, sun-screens vary widely in their ability to screen various UV wavelength components. Testing methods for sunscreens rely on UV-induced erythema to determine a sun protection factor (SPF), primarily a measure of ...
Whitaker-Menezes Diana - - 2003
The identity of cells within squamous epithelia that represent primary targets in acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) has been an enigma. Murine effector T cells implicated in the alloresponse by Vbeta complementarity-determining region-3 spectratype analysis were detected with a Vbeta-specific monoclonal antibody within discrete microdomains of tongue (lingual) squamous epithelium. These ...
Gordon Kenneth B - - 2003
Over the past three decades, laboratory and clinical research findings have shown that T cells are the primary mediators of psoriasis pathogenesis and that psoriasis can be treated by eliminating these T cells or interfering with their activation or activity. Based on these observations, many new biologic therapies to treat ...
Cataisson Christophe - - 2003
Skin keratinocytes are major mediators of host immune responses. The skin is also a target for immunologically based inflammation in many pathological states. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) can induce cutaneous inflammation, but the precise role of each of six cutaneous PKC isoforms (alpha, delta, epsilon, eta, zeta, mu) ...
Vestergaard C - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis are inflammatory skin diseases. AD is generally perceived as a T-helper (Th) 2-dominated disease whereas psoriasis is a Th1-dominated disease. The chemokine cutaneous T-cell attracting chemokine (CTACK) and its receptor CCR10 attract skin-homing lymphocytes to inflamed skin, suggesting that CCR10+ cells in AD and ...
Lee Kyu-Suk - - 2003
UV radiation is known to cause photoaging of the skin and is considered one of the leading cause of developing skin carcinogenesis. Melatonin which has a highly lipophilic molecular structure facilitating penetration of cell membranes and serving as an extra- and intracellular free radical scavenger has been demonstrated to protect ...
Madison Kathi C - - 2003
The primary function of the epidermis is to produce the protective, semi-permeable stratum corneum that permits terrestrial life. The barrier function of the stratum corneum is provided by patterned lipid lamellae localized to the extracellular spaces between corneocytes. Anucleate corneocytes contain keratin filaments bound to a peripheral cornified envelope composed ...
Weisfelner Michelle Emily - - 2003
The mechanisms of apoptosis have been extensively studied in certain cell types such as lymphocytes. However, while it is known that apoptosis is an intrinsic part of the turnover of normal human keratinocytes, relatively little is known about how this cell population utilizes programmed cell death to maintain cutaneous homeostasis. ...
Koria Piyush - - 2003
The main function of the skin is to protect the body from infection, dehydration, and other environmental insults by creating an impermeable barrier of cornified cell layers, the stratum corneum. In contrast to cells in culture, tissue-engineered skin equivalents contain well-developed basal, spinous, granular, and cornified cell layers providing an ...
González Salvador - - 2003
Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids found in green leafy vegetables with interesting antioxidant properties. They are present in high concentrations in the fovea centralis of the human retina and their role in the prevention of age-related macula degeneration has been reported. We have investigated the effect of orally administered lutein ...
Naessens Jan - - 2003
The first visible response in livestock to the bite of a trypanosome-infected tsetse fly is the formation of a localized skin reaction, also known as a chancre. This is an inflammatory response in the skin associated with swelling and an influx of cells. It is thought to be associated with ...
McKenzie R C - - 2003
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by the accumulation of red, scaly plaques on the skin. The plaques result from hyperproliferation and incomplete differentiation of keratinocytes (KC) in a process that seems to be driven, in part by skin-infiltrating leucocytes. We believe that the KC have inherent defects ...
Bianchi B - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Various types of UVB radiation source (290-320 nm) are used in treating psoriasis and their therapeutic mechanism has been attributed to immunosuppressive properties. Recently, a new UVB source generated by a 308-nm excimer laser has been introduced for the treatment of psoriasis. OBJECTIVE: In this study we investigated the ...
Tinkle Sally S - - 2003
Chronic beryllium disease is an occupational lung disease that begins as a cell-mediated immune response to beryllium. Although respiratory and engineering controls have significantly decreased occupational beryllium exposures over the last decade, the rate of beryllium sensitization has not declined. We hypothesized that skin exposure to beryllium particles would provide ...
Mascia Francesca - - 2003
During inflammatory skin disorders such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and allergic contact dermatitis, epidermal keratinocytes overexpress large amounts of soluble epidermal growth factor receptor ligands in response to tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma. These cytokines also promote de novo synthesis of numerous chemokines, including CCL2/MCP-1, CCL5/RANTES, CXCL10/IP-10, and ...
Kanitakis Jean - - 2003
Psoriasis is a common skin disease affecting 1 - 3% of the white population. Although its physiopathogenesis still remains poorly understood, recent data suggest a key role played by memory T cells in the genesis of skin and joint lesions. Recent developments in the understanding of cellular mechanisms underlying psoriasis ...
Griffiths C E M - - 2003
Evidence that psoriasis is an immune-mediated disorder comes from laboratory studies, clinical observation, and use of targeted therapies. Immunohistochemical studies have shown that the majority of T cells in psoriatic plaques are CD45RO+ memory-effector T cells that migrate into skin in recognition of an as yet undetermined antigen. There is ...
Burkhart Craig N - - 2003
Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous units. Traditional etiologic factors include increased sebum production, ductal hyperkeratosis, abnormality of the microbial flora within the pilosebaceous unit, and mediators of inflammation. Recent developments do not refute these familial elements, but rather refine particular aspects. Interleukin-1a influences hypercornification of the ...
Kennedy H E - - 2003
Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin-testing with mycobacterial antigens is often used as a means of identifying Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle. Better understanding of the cellular basis underlying the DTH reaction is required if diagnostic methods are to be improved upon. Previous studies have shown that gamma delta T-cells, particularly those bearing the ...
Tang Liren - - 2003
Although many therapeutic modalities have been tested on alopecia areata, patient outcomes have been disappointing. Use of animal models would help to develop more efficient therapies as well as understanding therapeutic mechanisms. We have demonstrated that 0.1% topical anthralin ointment is 100% effective in restoring follicular activity in Dundee experimental ...
McElwee Kevin J - - 2003
Rodent models of human disease provide an important tool in the investigation of genetic and environmental activation factors, disease pathogenesis, and the development of new and improved treatments. Up to 20% of aged C3H/HeJ mice and 70% of Dundee Experimental Bald Rats (DEBR) develop alopecia areata (AA), a nonscarring, inflammatory ...
Lebre M Cristina - - 2003
Dendritic cells play a key role in establishing the class of immune response against invading pathogens. Upon engagement with double-stranded RNA, a major bioactive constituent of many virus types, immature dendritic cells develop into type 1 immunostimulatory dendritic cells that promote Th1 responses. Immature dendritic cells reside in the epithelia ...
Weller Richard - - 2003
Nitric oxide (NO) can either prevent or promote apoptosis, depending on cell type. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that NO suppresses ultraviolet B radiation (UVB)-induced keratinocyte apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Irradiation with UVB or addition of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester ...
Kimber Ian - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To consider the factors that confer on chemicals the ability to cause allergic sensitization, with particular emphasis on the induction of skin sensitization. DATA SOURCES: Original and review articles available in the scientific literature. STUDY SELECTION: The expert opinion of the authors was used to select studies for inclusion ...
Umeda Jiro - - 2003
To investigate the function of Bcl-xL in the skin, we established keratinocyte-specific Bcl-x gene-targeted mice under the keratin 5 promoter (K5). K5.Bcl-xL-/- mice were viable, devoid of alteration in the development of skin or appendages. However, they harbored spontaneous apoptotic keratinocytes in the epidermis. Bcl-xL-deficient keratinocytes cultured in vitro readily ...
Rich Benjamin E - - 2003
The discovery of dramatic pro-inflammatory effects of IL-20 on skin highlighted a novel regulatory pathway in cutaneous inflammation. Specific receptor complexes for IL-20 are induced on keratinocytes and transmit potent signals via the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3. In response to IL-20, keratinocytes proliferate and express pro-inflammatory genes including ...
Zhou Xianghong - - 2003
A global picture of gene expression in the common immune-mediated skin disease, psoriasis, was obtained by interrogating the full set of Affymetrix GeneChips with psoriatic and control skin samples. We identified 1,338 genes with potential roles in psoriasis pathogenesis/maintenance and revealed many perturbed biological processes. A novel method for identifying ...
Kim Peter K M - - 2003
Ultraviolet irradiation (UV) can induce keratinocyte apoptosis by activating death receptors that recruit the intracellular adaptor molecule FADD/MORT1 (Fas-associating death domain protein/mediator of receptor-induced toxicity). We hypothesized that UV could alter FADD expression levels to augment UV-induced keratinocyte apoptosis. In a dose-dependent manner UV B irradiation increased the expression of ...
Curry Jonathan L - - 2003
CONTEXT: While it is well known that both exogenous and endogenous stimuli can trigger appearance of psoriatic lesions, the initial cellular and molecular events mediated by immunocompetent cells normally resident in prepsoriatic (PN) skin are not well understood. Moreover, it is unclear whether there are any fundamentally important differences in ...
Ablett Effie - - 2003
Expression of metallothionein, an antioxidant induced by a variety of stimuli including ultraviolet light, was quantitated by immunohistochemistry in the skin of males aged over 50 who had known short- and long-term exposures to sunlight. Skin punch biopsies were taken from two sites in each subject: the hand in all ...
Walters Ian B - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether 312-nm UV-B alters production of effector and regulatory cytokines by viable T cells that remain in psoriatic lesions during UV-B phototherapy. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: General clinical research center of The Rockefeller University Hospital. PATIENTS: Ten adult patients with moderate to severe psoriasis vulgaris that was ...
Boehncke Wolf-H - - 2003
Many novel anti-inflammatory compounds have been derived from research tools designed to better understand the complex process of leukocyte extravasation at sites of inflammation. Given that selectin-mediated rolling is the crucial initial step of leukocyte localization to the skin, specific interference with this mechanism is a particularly attractive target to ...
Curry Jonathan L - - 2003
CONTEXT: A precise role for the innate immune system in psoriasis remains to be determined. Surface receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that recognize bacterial ligands and CD91, which recognizes heat shock proteins (HSPs), are implicated in both innate and adaptive immunity. OBJECTIVE: Since skin is exposed to various exogenous stimuli, ...
Brazzini Benedetta - - 2003
Brain-body(skin) influences are bi-directional and skin should be considered as an active neuro-immuno-endocrine interface, where effector molecules act as common words used in a dynamic dialogue between brain, immune-system and skin. It has been widely demonstrated that stimuli received in the skin can influence the immune, endocrine and nervous systems ...
Gollnick Harald - - 2003
The pathogenesis of acne is complex, with strong evidence supporting the involvement of sebaceous hyperplasia, follicular hyperkeratinisation, bacterial hypercolonisation, as well as immune reactions and inflammation. High sebum concentrations and follicular hyperkeratinisation lead to a change of the follicular milieu with consecutive proliferation of bacteria, chiefly Propionibacterium acnes. This leads ...
Bowen Anneli R - - 2003
Apoptosis in keratinocytes is required for epidermal turnover, stratum corneum formation, and removal of ultraviolet-damaged premalignant cells. Its role in melanocyte homeostasis and transformation, on the other hand, has not been defined, although apoptosis resistance is a commonly recognized feature of melanoma. We examined the expression of apoptosis regulators in ...
Weinberg Jeffrey M - - 2003
During the past several years, a new generation of therapies for psoriasis has been in development. These biologic therapies target the activity of T lymphocytes and cytokines responsible for the inflammatory nature of this disease. The first article of this 2-part update reviewed the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, infliximab ...
Mu Ying - - 2003
Cell proliferation and cell death of keratinocytes are tightly regulated to ensure epidermal homeostasis. UV-B induces keratinocyte apoptosis. UV-B also induces lipid peroxidation of keratinocytes to increase their amount of malondialdehyde (MDA). These phenomena can be explained by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by UV-B radiation. We ...
Qin Jian-Zhong - - 2002
Properly regulated keratinocyte cell death is fundamentally important to maintain structural integrity and homeostatic function of epidermis. Moreover, from an oncological perspective, therapeutic approaches selectively targeting apoptosis of malignant cell types while sparing normal keratinocytes in surrounding skin is desirable. Apo2Ligand/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2L/TRAIL) has been observed to ...
Nickoloff Brian J - - 2002
Apoptosis is generally regarded as a critical regulatory event in the development of malignancies in several different organ systems (Thompson, 1995). Initially, oncologists focused on alterations in rates of proliferation and cell cycle kinetics, but more recently an emphasis on apoptosis has dominated the fight against cancer (Evan and Vousden, ...
Olszewski W L - - 2002
Obstructive lymphedema of extremities in humans is characterized by swelling of tissues with lymph stasis and inflammatory infiltrates in skin and subcutaneous tissues. Treatment of the inflammatory component requires application of antiinflammatory drugs. We studied the effect of topical application of Unguentum Lymphaticum (UL) containing antiphlogistic compounds (digitalis, calendulin, hyoscyamine, ...
Katiyar Santosh K - - 2002
It is well documented that ultraviolet (UV) light-induced immune suppression and oxidative stress play an important role in the induction of skin cancers. Earlier, we have shown that topical treatment of silymarin, a plant flavonoid from milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.), to mouse skin prevents photocarcinogenesis, but the preventive ...
Paquet Philippe - - 2002
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) results from the effect of exfoliative-toxins produced by staphylococcal strains. The disease affects predominantly children, and is rare in adults. We report two cases of the adult type of SSSS. Corticotherapy, chronic alcohol abuse and epilepsy-related immune changes might have been predisposing factors in these ...
Lubeseder-Martellato Clara - - 2002
During angiogenesis and inflammatory processes, endothelial cells acquire different activation phenotypes, whose identification may help in understanding the complex network of angiogenic and inflammatory interactions in vivo. To this goal we investigated the expression of the human guanylate-binding protein (GBP)-1 that is highly induced by inflammatory cytokines (ICs) and, therefore, ...
Di Girolamo Nick - - 2002
PURPOSE: Pterygia are common ocular surface lesions that are thought to be induced by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The hypothesis tested in the current study is that UV radiation modulates the expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and -8, which could promote the neovascularization and chronic inflammation regularly observed in pterygia. ...
Marsland Alexander M - - 2002
Macrolides are xenobiotics, produced by soil fungi, which have immunosuppressant properties. They will probably revolutionise the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses. This article outlines the context and putative mechanisms of action of this novel class of drugs. Cyclosporin, and the structurally distinct macrolides tacrolimus and pimecrolimus (an ascomycin derivative), modulate immune-cell ...
Worm Margitta - - 2002
Atopic dermatitis (AD) has been treated with topical glucocorticosteroids for decades. With the introduction of the topical immune modulators tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, a new treatment era has begun. The knowledge on pathophysiological interactions and immunological disturbances during the chronic inflammatory process in the skin has been continuously increasing and offers ...
Lundeberg Lena - - 2002
The expression of the serotonin (5-HT) receptors 5-HT1AR, 5-HT2AR and 5-HT3R was investigated in allergic contact eczematous human skin by an indirect fluorescence method. 5-HT1AR expression was found in basal epidermal NK1-beteb-positive cells, which were more elongated and showed longer dendritic processes in contact eczematous skin than in control skin. ...
Tufano M A - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Peptide T (PT) is an octapeptide shown to resolve psoriatic lesions. PT is from the V2 region of HIV-1 gp120, an exterior envelope glycoprotein that is a target for host immune responses. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of PT are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: We studied the immunomodulatory effects of PT ...
Meng Xianmin - - 2002
Using the plasmid DNA injection method, we introduced cytokine genes into skin to determine whether systemic expression of cytokine genes is possible. Eight human cytokine [interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and ...
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