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Barry Jane - - 2004
There has been a recent explosion in knowledge regarding the central role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Originally felt to be primarily a disorder of keratinocyte hyperproliferation, it has recently been classified as a T cell-mediated, autoimmune disease. Type 1 cytokines released predominantly from activated T ...
Takeshita Keisuke - - 2004
Chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 lymphocytes, CRTH2, is a cognate receptor for prostaglandin (PG) D(2) and, in humans, is suggested to play a functional role in Th2-dependent allergic inflammation. While peripheral blood leukocytes expressing high levels of surface CRTH2 have been detected in disease, little is known of the ...
Cals-Grierson M-M - - 2004
Endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO) has a remarkably diverse range of biological functions, including a role in neurotransmission, smooth muscle relaxation, and the response to immunogens. Over the last 10 years, it has become clear that this extraordinary molecular messenger also plays a vital role in the skin, orchestrating normal ...
Simonetti O - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata (AA) is a relatively common inflammatory form of nonscarring hair loss of unknown pathogenesis, but possibly of autoimmune origin. Topical immunotherapy, using a potent contact allergen such as diphencyprone (DPC), is currently considered the most effective mode of treatment. However, the way in which DPC operates on ...
Papp H - - 2004
We have previously shown that the protein kinase C (PKC) system plays a pivotal role in regulation of proliferation and differentiation of the human keratinocyte line HaCaT which is often used to assess processes of immortalization, transformation, and tumorigenesis in human skin. In this paper, using pharmacological and molecular biology ...
Novák Zoltán - - 2004
Ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation is a modality widely used for the treatment of different skin diseases. One of the major mechanisms of UV-B immunosuppression in this treatment modality is thought to be an apoptosis-inducing effect on T cells infiltrating the skin. We examined the T-cell apoptosis-induction capacities of four different ...
Echigo Takeshi - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Fractalkine (FKN) induces activation and adhesion of leukocytes expressing its receptor, CX(3)CR1. FKN is released from the cell surface through proteolytic cleavage as soluble FKN (sFKN). OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess FKN and CX(3)CR1 expression in the skin, serum sFKN levels, and CX(3)CR1 expression on blood leukocytes in patients ...
Eberhard Yanina - - 2004
Expression of murine CCL21 by dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) has been demonstrated to be one of the most important steps in Langerhans cell emigration from skin. Previously, our group and others have found that this chemokine is up-regulated in different human inflammatory skin diseases mediated by diverse specific immune ...
Bardan Antoanella - - 2004
In recent years, hundreds of naturally occurring peptide antibiotics have been discovered based on their ability to inhibit the growth of microbial pathogens. These antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) participate in the innate immune response by providing a rapid first-line defence against infection. This review discusses the biology and clinical relevance of ...
Ruzek Melanie C - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Diffuse systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma) is a debilitating disease characterized by excessive dermal fibrosis with later progression to internal organs. In addition to the fibrotic component, major aspects of the disease include vascular or circulatory involvement and immune dysregulation evidenced by inflammatory cells in affected tissues and production of ...
Khandpur S - - 2004
Topical immunomodulators are agents that regulate the local immune response of the skin. They are now emerging as the therapy of choice for several immune-mediated dermatoses such as atopic dermatitis, contact allergic dermatitis, alopecia areata, psoriasis, vitiligo, connective tissue disorders such as morphea and lupus erythematosus, disorders of keratinization and ...
Banerjee G - - 2004
Allergic contact dermatitis is a T-cell-mediated inflammatory skin disease in which interaction between skin keratinocytes and migrating T lymphocytes may play a critical part. In this study, the role of keratinocytes as allergen-/antigen-presenting cells (APCs) leading to activation of T lymphocytes is investigated using a human epidermal cell line A431. ...
Antúnez C - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disease whose lesions can have two stages: acute and chronic. In skin biopsies a biphasic pattern of cytokine expression has been shown, Th2 in acute lesions and Th1 in chronic AD lesions. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the expression of an activation marker and ...
Li Allen G - - 2004
Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1), a potent keratinocyte growth inhibitor, has been shown to be overexpressed in keratinocytes in certain inflammatory skin diseases and has been thought to counteract the effects of other growth factors at the site of inflammation. Surprisingly, our transgenic mice expressing wild-type TGFbeta1 in the epidermis ...
Dhanalakshmi Sivanandhan - - 2004
Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) accounts for >1 million new cases each year in the US alone suggesting that more approaches are needed for its prevention and control. Earlier studies by us have shown that silymarin (a crude form of biologically active silibinin with some other isomers), isolated from milk thistle, ...
Piskin Gamze - - 2004
The type 1 T cell-derived cytokine interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) is overexpressed in psoriatic lesional skin. Recently, we have shown that a single high erythemal dose of broad-band ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation reduces type 1 and favors type 2, i.e. interleukin-4 (IL-4), cytokine expression in normal and psoriatic skin. In this ...
Kourilová Pavlína - - 2004
Avian schistosomes are the primary causative agent of cercarial dermatitis in humans, but despite its worldwide occurrence, little is known of the immune mechanism of this disease. Using a murine model, hosts were exposed to primary (1x) and multiple (4x) infections of Trichobilharzia regenti via the pinna. Penetration of larvae ...
Lemaire Raphael - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Skin fibrosis in the TSK mouse, a model of skin fibrosis seen in systemic sclerosis (SSc), is caused by a large in-frame duplication in the Fbn1 gene, tsk-Fbn1. We investigated whether tsk-Fbn1 might cause dermal fibrosis by affecting Fbn1 and associated extracellular matrices. We also studied whether deposition of ...
Raychaudhuri Siba P - - 2004
The peripheral nervous system, in addition to its sensory and motor functions, can induce a local inflammatory response known as neurogenic inflammation. This phenomenon plays a critical role in several inflammatory diseases, e.g., asthma, atopy, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and ulcerative colitis. Neurogenic inflammation and the role of nerve growth factor ...
Holzer Aton M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The nucleotide adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has long been known to drive and participate in countless intracellular processes. Extracellular ATP and its metabolite adenosine have also been shown to exert a variety of effects on nearly every cell type in human skin. Knowledge of the sources and effects of extracellular ...
Takahashi Hidetoshi - - 2004
BACKGROUND: In addition to their antimicrobial action, roxithromycin (RXM), a new 14-membrane macrolide antibiotics, have immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activity. Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation induces reactive oxygen intermediates and apoptosis of keratinocytes. OBJECTIVE: To examine the anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative effect of RXM on UVB-irradiated keratinocytes. METHODS: UVB-induced apoptosis was determined ...
Kirkiles-Smith Nancy C - - 2004
IL-11 can reduce tissue injury in animal models of inflammation but the mechanism(s) is unknown. When C.B-17 SCID/beige mice bearing human skin grafts are injected i.p. with human PBMC allogeneic to the donor skin, infiltrating T cells destroy human microvessels by day 21. Intradermal injection of human IL-11 (500 ng/day) ...
Gottlieb Alice B - - 2004
Immunobiologics provide the hope for safe and effective long-term management of psoriasis, a life-disabling condition. The use of targeted immunotherapies as pathogenic probes has led to scientific discoveries that help uncover new information on the pathogenesis of psoriasis and on the control of cutaneous immunity. The research described in this ...
Homey B - - 2004
Accumulating evidence indicates that chronically relapsing inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis are T cell-mediated diseases. Thus, understanding the underlying mechanisms of memory T-cell homing to the skin may provide promising targets for the development of novel therapeutics to interfere with inflammatory processes of the skin. Chemokines, ...
Sleijffers Annemarie - - 2004
Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, as in sunlight, can modulate immune responses in animals and humans. This immunomodulation can lead to positive health effects especially with respect to certain autoimmune diseases and allergies. However, UV-induced immunomodulation has also been shown to be deleterious. Experimental animal studies have revealed that UV ...
Böhm Markus - - 2004
The skin is a target organ and source for proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides, such as alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), which acts by binding to melanocortin receptors (MC-Rs). Recent progress in our understanding of the cutaneous POMC system has demonstrated that human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) are a novel target for alpha-MSH. MC-1R is ...
Joshi Rajiv - - 2004
Psoriasis is an immunologically mediated disease caused by activation of T lymphocytes that elaborate a Th1 type of immune response. Targeted manipulation of the various mechanisms involved in T cell activation and blockade or inactivation of the various proinflammatory cytokines released by the process of T cell activation are methods ...
Boisseau M R - - 2004
Disturbances in haemodynamic, biochemical and enzymatic factors have been observed in chronic venous diseases (CVD). These changes lead to the development of varices, telangiectasies and skin disorders. They affect vessels, blood, skin tissues and cells. It is now possible to describe their time course and interdependance of these changes. Orthostatism ...
Giacomelli R - - 2004
Increased amounts of foetal cells persisting after pregnancy could be involved in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and other autoimmune diseases. Evidence suggests a specific role for a subset of T lymphocytes showing the gamma/delta T cell receptor (TCR) at the foetal/maternal interface. gamma/delta T cells significantly increase in ...
Maestroni Georges J M - - 2004
The information gathered by dendritic cells during the innate immune response is determinant for the type and strength of the adaptive response. We showed that the sympathetic neurotransmitter norepinephrine influences dendritic cell migration and T helper priming via alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors. Others have shown that Langerhans cells also express mRNA ...
Jullien D - - 2004
Psoriasis is a chronic, incurable, auto-immune disorder with cutaneous manifestations. New evidence on the central role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of psoriasis increasingly provides insight into pathogenic steps that can be modulated to provide disease control. Numerous biological therapies are in various stages of clinical development, with ...
Vestergaard Christian - - 2004
Monocytes form a significant component of the inflammatory reaction taking place in the skin of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Chemokines are pivotal in mediating the attraction of leucocytes to sites of inflammation. The CC-chemokine, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL2), is expressed by keratinocytes in both atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. MCP-1 ...
Majewski Slawomir - - 2003
We have shown previously in psoriasis a very high prevalence of epidermodysplasia verruciforms-associated human papillomavirus 5 (EVHPV5) DNA and antibodies to human papillomavirus 5 (HPV5) virus-like particle (VLP) L1, and we suggested that this benign hyperproliferative disorder could be a reservoir for EVHPVs. Here we provide new data confirming the ...
Jones Thomas R - - 2003
T cell homing to sites of injury and inflammation is a critical step for adaptive immune responses. While much has been learned regarding T cell homing to lymphoid tissues, few studies have directly observed trafficking events during an effector response. In this study, we developed a model that uses intravital ...
Le Pillouer-Prost A - - 2003
This paper briefly examines the fibroblast network with particular emphasis on the exceptionally complex pattern of specific interactions and their effects on dermal integrity and homeostasis regulation systems. It will be some time before we have a full understanding of the cellular biology mechanisms involved in the operation of lasers, ...
Svobodová Alena - - 2003
UV skin exposure induces extensive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These can react with DNA, proteins, fatty acids and saccharides causing oxidative damage. Such injuries result in a number of harmful effects: disturbed cell metabolism, morphological and ultrastructural changes, attack on the regulation pathways and, alterations in the differentiation, ...
Aubin François - - 2003
Ultraviolet radiation (UV) represents one of the most important environmental factors affecting human health, especially with regard to its hazardous effects on the generation of skin cancer, suppression of the immune system and premature skin aging. At molecular level, various chromophores have been identified, and DNA remains the major chromophore ...
Jun Jae-Bum - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Systemic sclerosis is a disease characterized by vascular and skin changes associated with activation of fibroblasts and increased synthesis of matrix components. These abnormalities lead to fibrosis and impaired function of internal organs such as the lung, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract. Recent evidence suggests that although activation ...
Peachman Kristina K - - 2003
The skin has evolved as a barrier to prevent external agents, including pathogens, from entering the body. It has a complex and efficient immune surveillance system, which includes Langerhans cells and dendritic cells. By targeting the body's natural defense system, skin-DNA immunization attempts to produce an efficient immune response. Nucleic ...
Laouini Dhafer - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by skin infiltration with eosinophils and lymphocytes and expression of Th2 cytokines in acute skin lesions. The skin of patients with AD is frequently colonized with enterotoxin-secreting strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcal enterotoxins have been implicated in the exacerbations of the inflammatory skin lesions ...
Steinhoff Martin - - 2003
Recent findings have shed new light on the role of peripheral nerves in the skin and established a modern concept of cutaneous neurobiology. Closely related monodirectional and/or bidirectional pathways exist in which the central and peripheral nervous system, the endocrine and immune system, and almost all skin cells are involved. ...
Liu Ling - - 2003
The skin plays a crucial role in defence against microbial infection via the innate immune system, but the exact cellular mechanisms of this defence are not well understood. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a newly recognized 10-member family of vertebrate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), have been identified as crucial mediators of innate ...
Di Girolamo Nick - - 2003
PURPOSE: Pterygia are common, frequently recurring ocular surface lesions characterized by tissue remodeling, cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, and inflammation. The increased incidence of pterygia in persons exposed to excessive solar radiation suggests that ultraviolet (UV) light may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of this disease. These investigations were focused ...
Briganti S - - 2003
Due to its interface function between the body and the environment, the skin is chronically exposed to both endogenous and environmental pro-oxidant agents, leading to the harmful generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). There is compelling evidence that oxidative stress is involved in the damage of cellular constituents, such as ...
Ahuja Angela - - 2003
Atopic dermatitis is a common, chronic skin condition characterized by xerosis, pruritus, and inflammation. Numerous factors place individuals at increased risk for developing this disease. T-helper cells and their cytokines, in addition to immunoglobulin E and eosinophils, play a major role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Various hypotheses including ...
Schwarz T - - 2003
As the major barrier of the body to the outside, the skin is constantly confronted with microbial, chemical and physical insults. However, the skin does not only function as a mechanical barrier but also uses the immune system for protection. Therefore, the skin is endowed with the capacity to generate ...
Baron Elma D - - 2003
Solar radiation causes immunosuppression that contributes to skin cancer growth. Photoprotective strategies initially focused on the more erythemogenic ultraviolet B. More recently, the relationship of ultraviolet A and skin cancer has received increased attention. We hypothesized that if ultraviolet A contributes significantly to human ultraviolet-induced immune suppression, then increased ultraviolet ...
Le Poole I C - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Detection of CDw60 in skin is representative of ganglioside D3 expression. This ganglioside is expressed primarily by melanocytes, and is of interest as a membrane antigen targeted by immunotherapy for melanoma patients. Expression of CDw60 by keratinocytes is defined by the presence of T-helper cell (Th)1 vs. Th2 cytokines, ...
Botchkarev Vladimir A - - 2003
Neurotrophins comprise a family of structurally and functionally related proteins that are critical for the development and maintenance of cutaneous innervation. They also fulfill multiple non-neurotrophic functions in skin, including regulation of epidermal proliferation and apoptosis, control of hair follicle development and cycling, and melanogenesis. Numerous indications suggest that neurotrophins ...
Matsushima Hironori - - 2003
The balance between Th1 and Th2 subsets is important with respects to susceptibility and resistance to particular infection or autoimmune diseases. However, the mechanism controlling Th1/Th2 balance remains unclear, although several factors have been reported to induce Th1/Th2 differentiation. Atopic Dermatitis (AD) that is a chronic skin disorder has been ...
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