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Results 801 - 850 of 1483
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Kovacs D - - 2005
The pathogenic mechanism underlying the hyperproliferation of keratinocytes in psoriasis is still not completely clarified. The production of cytokines released by activated T lymphocytes infiltrating the upper dermis probably has a crucial role. Even dermal fibroblasts can participate in the process through the secretion of growth factors, and some studies ...
Braff Marissa H - - 2005
Innate immune defense against microbial pathogens occurs by physical barriers, by recruitment of cells such as neutrophils, NK cells, and macrophages, and by secretion of molecules with antimicrobial activity. Such molecules are produced by various epithelia including skin. The importance of antimicrobial peptides has been shown in cathelicidin-deficient mice, which ...
Alvarez David - - 2005
It is becoming increasingly evident that the compartmentalization of immune responses is governed, in part, by tissue-selective homing instructions imprinted during T cell differentiation. In the context of allergic diseases, the fact that "disease" primarily manifests in particular tissue sites, despite pervasive allergen exposure, supports this notion. However, whether the ...
Hirobe Tomohisa - - 2005
Melanocytes characterized by the activities of tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1 and TRP-2 as well as by melanosomes and dendrites are located mainly in the epidermis, dermis and hair bulb of the mammalian skin. Melanocytes differentiate from melanoblasts, undifferentiated precursors, derived from embryonic neural crest cells. Because hair bulb melanocytes are ...
Guhl Sven - - 2005
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is an established treatment for inflammatory skin diseases, although the precise mode of action is still unclear. Activating and suppressive effects on mast cell (MC) mediator release have been described. The aim of this study was to investigate systematically the effects of UVB, UVA-1, and psoralen plus ...
Pillai S - - 2005
Inflammation and the resulting accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the intrinsic and photoaging of human skin in vivo. Environmental insults such as ultraviolet (UV) rays from sun, cigarette smoke exposure and pollutants, and the natural process of aging contribute to the generation of free ...
Bachelez Hervé - - 2005
Psoriasis is a frequent chronic inflammatory disorder involving mostly skin and joints. Its characteristic features in the skin consist of inflammatory changes in both dermis and epidermis, with abnormal keratinocytic differentiation and proliferation. In recent years, an important set of knowledge has been provided by works addressing the immunopathogenic mechanisms ...
Lipozencić Jasna - - 2005
Pimecrolimus (SDZ ASM 981), an ascomycin derivative, as one of the new classes of immunomodulating macrolactams, is specifically effective in the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. The interest in pimecrolimus is highly important for its significant anti-inflammatory activity, cell-selective inhibition of inflammatory cytokines, immunomodulatory capabilities, and low systemic immunosuppressive potential. ...
Mumcuoglu Kosta Y - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Demodicosis is a chronic skin disease caused by parasitic mites of the genus Demodex. It usually affects the face area causing major esthetical problems. The pathogenesis of demodicosis is not fully understood; however, it is quite apparent that immunological mechanisms mediate its development. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study ...
Schleyer V - - 2005
Progress in the understanding of psoriasis as a T-cell mediated inflammatory disease has led to the development of new immunomodulatory therapies. Currently the main focus is on the so-called biologics (or biological agents), including fusion proteins, monoclonal antibodies, cytokines and selective receptors. They mainly target single steps in the complex ...
Maurer Marcus - - 2004
We previously reported that subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of stem cell factor (SCF), the ligand for the c-Kit receptor, to the back skin of mice promotes marked local increases in the numbers of cutaneous mast cells (MCs), and that cessation of SCF treatment results in the rapid reduction of cutaneous MC ...
Donnarumma Giovanna - - 2004
Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a neuropeptide predominantly produced by the pituitary gland, but it is also generated by many extra-pituitary cells including keratinocytes of the skin. This neuropeptide has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects and probably contributes in innate immunity. Staphylococcus aureus is the aetiological agent of a wide range of ...
auf demKeller Ulrich - - 2004
Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a potent and specific mitogen for different types of epithelial cells, and it can protect these cells from various insults. Due to these properties, it is of particular importance for the repair of injured epithelial tissues, and it is currently therapeutically explored for the treatment ...
Liu Clive M - - 2004
Recognition of psoriasis as a T-cell-mediated immune disease has led to the development of various therapeutic approaches directed against the T cell and T-cell processes such as activation, trafficking and cytokine release. The novel and selective biologic agent alefacept, with an effect of selective apoptotic reduction in memory-effector T cells, ...
Grassberger M - - 2004
Pimecrolimus is the most recent member of calcineurin inhibitors available for the therapy for inflammatory skin diseases. It targets T-cells and mast cells and inhibits the production and release of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators, as well as the expression of signals essential for the activation of inflammatory T-lymphocytes. Pimecrolimus ...
Jones Kim S - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Microencapsulation is under consideration as a means of enabling pancreatic islet transplantation. To understand better the ongoing destructive host response, we examined whether the adaptive immune system of the recipient recognized polymer-encapsulated xenogeneic cells implanted intraperitoneally. METHODS: Balb/c mice were implanted with xenogeneic Chinese hamster ovary cells, inside and ...
Lehmann H S - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus colonization has been found in 80-100% of lesional skin from patients with atopic eczema dermatitis syndrome (AEDS) and is thought to have a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Furthermore, up to 65% of S. aureus from lesional skin has been shown to produce toxigenic superantigens. ...
Banerjee Gautam - - 2005
Human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were exposed to UV (A+B) (UVA-350-400 mJ/cm2 and UVB-30 mJ/cm2) which induces apoptosis as evidenced by MTT assay, DNA laddering, Bax and Fas up-regulation. UV induced apoptotic conditioned media (6 h or earlier) did not cause apoptosis in unexposed cells. However, treatment with conditioned medium collected post ...
Gutermuth Jan - - 2004
Atopic eczema (AE) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disorder with increasing prevalence in Western societies. Even though we have made considerable progress in understanding the cellular and molecular nature of cutaneous inflammation, the precise pathomechanisms of AE still remain elusive. Experimental animal models are indispensable tools to study the ...
Watanabe Hideaki - - 2004
The angiogenic mediator vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGFRs) have been studied extensively in neoplastic disease and some inflammatory conditions. Contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is a prototypic Langerhans' cell-dependent, T-helper (Th) 1 cell-mediated inflammatory skin disease that is now also thought to involve angiogenic mediators. The purpose of ...
Misery Laurent - - 2004
The adverse effects of tobacco on the skin are well known but the role of nicotine is more controversial. Nicotinic receptors are expressed in the skin, on keratinocytes, fibroblasts and blood vessels. Nicotine induces vasoconstriction associated with local hyperaemia. It inhibits inflammation through effects on central and peripheral nervous system ...
Aspres Nicholas - - 2004
Atopic dermatitis is a common skin condition, the aetiology of which is multifactorial, involving genetic, immunological and environmental factors. In recent years, it has been suggested that various microbial organisms may also be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Yeasts belonging to the Malassezia genus have received particular attention. ...
Sato Shinichi - - 2004
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease characterized by excessive extracellular matrix deposition in the skin and visceral organs. SSc is associated with immune activation characterized by autoantibody production, lymphocyte activation, and release of various cytokines. The presence of autoantibodies is a central feature of immune activation in SSc. ...
Gafter-Gvili Anat - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Cyclosporin A (CsA) often causes hair growth in transplant recipients. Our objectives were to evaluate the effect of CsA on follicular hair keratinocyte growth in nude mice by assessing their proliferation in vivo, and to assess the ability of CsA to prevent follicular keratinocyte apoptosis in vivo and chemotherapy-induced ...
Giustizieri Maria Laura - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Keratinocytes participate in initiation and amplification of T-cell-mediated skin diseases. During these disorders, histamine can be released from both residents skin cells and immigrating leukocytes, and can affect the functions of dendritic cells, monocytes, and lymphocytes. Little information is available on the effects of histamine on keratinocytes. OBJECTIVE: To ...
Strickland Faith M - - 2004
Modern sun-protection products reduce the risk for erythema and DNA damage, but even those products with a very high sun protection factor (SPF) and full-spectrum UVB and UVA protection may not prevent UV radiation (UVR)-induced immunomodulation. Formulating sunscreens with a high SPF, as well as a high immune protection factor, ...
Shiina Takahiko - - 2004
MAIL (molecule-possessing ankyrin repeats induced by lipopolysaccharide) is a nuclear IkappaB protein that is also termed interleukin-1-inducible nuclear ankyrin repeat protein or inhibitor of nuclear factor kappaB (IkappaB) zeta. In this study, we generated Mail-/- mice to investigate the roles of MAIL in whole organisms. Mail-/- mice grew normally until ...
Simon Dagmar - - 2004
BACKGROUND: In several clinical studies, topical calcineurin inhibitors have been shown to be effective in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). They target signaling pathways that control gene expression, particularly the expression of cytokines. OBJECTIVE: We examined the cellular infiltrate in skin lesions of 10 patients with AD and characterized ...
Maytin Edward V - - 2004
Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid, HA) is a glycosaminoglycan in the extracellular matrix of tissues that plays a role in cellular migration, proliferation and differentiation. Injury to the stratum corneum elicits an epidermal hyperproliferative response, a pathogenic feature in many cutaneous diseases including eczema and psoriasis. Because HA is abundant in the ...
Yamauchi Paul S - - 2004
It is quite evident the pathogenesis of psoriasis is modulated by immune-mediated mechanisms that invoke activated T cells and inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Current immunosuppressive systemic treatments may be effective in controlling psoriasis to a certain degree but have significant drawbacks, such as toxicity and relapse of ...
Roll Antonie - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing, pruritic inflammation of the skin, affecting 10-20% of children and 1-3% adults worldwide, with increasing prevalence in highly industrialized countries. Here we review relevant studies, published since June 2002, about immunological triggers in atopic dermatitis, with emphasis on the role of ...
Shirasawa Senji - - 2004
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) family members, including epiregulin (EP), play a fundamental role in epithelial tissues; however, their roles in immune responses and the physiological role of EP remain to be elucidated. The skin has a versatile system of immune surveillance. Biologically active IL-1alpha is released to extracellular space upon ...
Zouboulis Christos C - - 2004
The embryologic development of the human sebaceous gland is closely related to the differentiation of the hair follicle and the epidermis. The number of sebaceous glands remains approximately the same throughout life, whereas their size tends to increase with age. The development and function of the sebaceous gland in the ...
Saint-Mezard Pierre - - 2004
Contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin condition induced by exposure to an environmental agent. Eczema and dermatitis are used synonymously to denote a polymorphous pattern of skin inflammation characterized at least in its acute phase by erythema, vesiculation and pruritus. Substances responsible for contact dermatitis after single or multiple exposures ...
Gallucci Randle M - - 2004
The Department of Defense (DoD) has identified that one of the main complaints of personnel exposed to JP-8 jet fuel is irritant dermatitis. The purpose of this investigation is to describe the JP-8-induced inflammatory cytokine response in skin. JP-8 jet fuel or acetone control (300 microl) was applied to the ...
Yamaoka Junichi - - 2004
Cytotoxic effects of nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are considered to be one of the major causes of inflammatory diseases. On the other hand, protective effects of NO on toxic insults-induced cellular damage/apoptosis have been demonstrated recently. Ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced apoptosis of epidermal keratinocytes leads ...
Wolk Kerstin - - 2004
Interleukin 22 (IL-22) is mainly produced by activated Th1 cells. The data presented here indicate that neither resting nor activated immune cells express IL-22 receptor, and IL-22 did not have any effects on these cells in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, cells of the skin and the digestive and ...
Bergfeld Wilma F - - 2004
Microcomedones, the earliest lesions of acne, appear at adrenarche, which typically occurs at about 8 years of age when androgens of adrenal origin begin to stimulate follicular hyperkeratosis and sebaceous hyperplasia in pilosebaceous units on the face. Comedones appear about 2 years later, when androgens of gonadal origin are produced ...
Esche Clemens - - 2004
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that usually predates the development of allergic airway disease. In most cases, this is thought to be an allergen-driven disease with prominent roles played by antigen presenting cells and effector Th2 cells. But keratinocytes, by virtue of their location, provide an ...
Kim H J - - 2004
Inappropriate apoptosis results in the epidermal hyperplasia as in psoriasis and UVB irradiation has been successfully used to treat this kind of skin disorders. Previously, we reported that the novel phytosphingosine derivative, tetraacetyl phytosphingosine (TAPS) induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells. This study examined the effect of UVB irradiation and/or TAPS ...
Decraene David - - 2004
In previous work, we have described an early-activated and ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced apoptotic pathway in human keratinocytes, which can be completely inhibited by AKT activation. We now compared this response of primary human keratinocytes with the response of two p53-mutated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)-derived cell lines (A431 and A253) to ...
Schornagel Ines J - - 2004
UV radiation, in particular UVB, suppresses the skin immune response. In patients with polymorphous light eruption (PLE) the skin immune response seems activated after UV exposure. Typical PLE skin lesions can occur as early as several hours after UV exposure. In healthy volunteers, neutrophils infiltrate the skin shortly after UV ...
Kormeili T - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that is presently without a permanent cure. Up to 40% of patients with psoriasis also develop psoriatic arthritis. The mainstay armamentarium to treat psoriasis systemically includes methotrexate, cyclosporin and oral retinoids, all with significant potential for toxicity and the need for close ...
Walsh Scott R A - - 2004
Psoriasis is an immune-mediated skin disease in which chronic T-cell stimulation by antigen-presenting cells (APC) occurs in the skin. This interplay between the T-cell and APC has been likened to a "T-AP dance" where specific steps must occur in sequence to result in T-cell activation and the disease phenotype; otherwise ...
Homey Bernhard - - 2004
Chemokines are members of a superfamily of small, cytokine-like, chemotactic proteins that have recently been shown to critically regulate leukocyte trafficking. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chronically relapsing inflammatory skin disease psoriasis represents a T cell-mediated disease. Thus, the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of memory T cell homing to ...
Murphy George F - - 2004
Considerable data exist regarding the mechanisms of allostimulation and homing (the effector phases) in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Current dogma suggests that target specificity involves preferential injury to epithelial surfaces of the skin and squamous mucosae, liver, and gut. Little attention has been devoted, however, to mechanisms of cellular targeting or ...
Meador Kimford J - - 2004
Cerebral lateralization may be important in neural control of immune function. Animal studies have demonstrated differential effects of left and right brain lesions on immune function, but human studies are inconclusive. Here, we show that resections in the language dominant hemisphere of patients with epilepsy reduce lymphocytes, total T cells, ...
Uchino T - - 2004
Ishigami et al. (Ishigami et al., 1998) reported that squalene monohydroperoxide (SQOOH) induced skin damage in hairless mice. Kohno and Takahashi (Kohno and Takahashi, 1993) reported that SQOOH induced cytotoxicity against Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts. We have already evaluated the efficacy of extracts obtained from Brazilian herbal medicines in protecting ...
Mössner R - - 2004
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder characterized by accumulation of Th1-type T cells and neutrophils, regenerative keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, and enhanced epidermal production of antimicrobial peptides. The underlying cause is unknown, but there are some similarities with the immunologic defense program against bacteria. Development of psoriasiform skin lesions ...
Ozawa Maki - - 2004
Psoriasis is characterized by sustained T cell activation by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the lesions, and by a deviation of T cell differentiation to type 1 helper T and type 1 cytotoxic T cells, although no specific antigens have yet been determined. These characteristics are at least promoted by decreased ...
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