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Results 701 - 750 of 1483
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Pastore Saveria - - 2006
Atopic dermatitis (AD) develops from a complex interplay between environmental, genetic, immunologic and biochemical factors. Relevant to the amplification and persistence of inflammatory and immune responses in AD skin are keratinocytes, which can be induced to secrete proinflammatory mediators in response to a variety of stimuli, including epidermal barrier perturbation. ...
Villarroel Dorrego M - - 2006
AIMS: CD40 expression is restricted to Keratinocytes of normal epidermis or stratified squamous epithelium of oral mucosa. Ligation of CD40 inhibits keratinocyte proliferation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional significance of CD40 in the proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration of human oral keratinocytes in ...
French Lars E - - 2006
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN, Lyell's syndrome) are now considered to be distinct clinical entities within a spectrum of adverse cutaneous drug reactions of increasing severity based on their surface of skin detachment. Within this spectrum, SJS which can be considered as a minor form of TEN ...
Tyrrell R M - - 2006
The UVA (320-380 nm) component of sunlight has oxidizing properties which may be deleterious to skin cells and tissue but can also lead to the strong up-regulation of the heme-catabolizing enzyme, heme oxygenase-1. This enzyme has well-established antioxidant actions in cells as well as anti-inflammatory properties in mammals. There is ...
Steerenberg Peter A - - 2006
It is well known that ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces erythema, immunosuppression and carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that chronic exposure to solar UV radiation induces adaptation that eventually prevents the suppression of acquired immunity. We studied adaptation for UV-induced immunosuppression after chronic exposure of mice to a suberythemal dose of solar simulated ...
Jyonouchi Harumi - - 2006
We report the development and spontaneous resolution of annular erythematous skin lesions consistent with sarcoid dermatitis in a child with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) carrying the 22q11.2 microdeletion. The skin lesion developed after she was treated with isoniazid (INH) following exposure to active tuberculosis (TB). After resolution of the skin lesions, ...
Kuhn Michaela - - 2006
Cytokines represent an integral part of the large group of mediators involved in dermal inflammation. In this in vivo study, ultraviolet light which is one of the major environmental factors affecting cytokine release patterns in the skin was employed. The effects of repeated versus one-time irradiation with solar-simulated ultraviolet light ...
Ghoreishi Mehran - - 2006
UV radiation of the skin impairs immune responses to haptens and to tumor Ags. Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is an effective method of inducing immune responses to protein and peptide Ag. We explore the effect of UV irradiation on TCI. The generation of Ag-specific CTL to OVA protein, but not class ...
Perez-Moreno Mirna M Laboratory of Mammalian Cell Biology and Development, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, - - 2006
Although p120-catenin regulates adherens junction (AJ) stability in cultured cells, genetic studies in lower eukaryotes have not revealed a role for this protein in vivo. Using conditional targeting in mice, we show that p120 null neonatal epidermis exhibits reduced intercellular AJ components but no overt disruption in barrier function or ...
Piskin Gamze - - 2006
Keratinocytes contribute to cutaneous immune responses through the expression of cytokines. We investigated whether human keratinocytes can express IL-23, a newly defined IFN-gamma-inducing cytokine composed of a unique p19 subunit and a p40 subunit shared with IL-12. Cultured keratinocytes from normal and lesional psoriatic skin were found to express constitutively ...
Matsushita Takashi - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Skin sclerosis that progresses in the earlier disease phase in systemic sclerosis (SSc) spontaneously regresses thereafter. We investigated the relationship between changes of the serum cytokine profile and changes in skin fibrosis in patients with SSc. METHODS: Serum cytokine levels were examined by ELISA using 180 sera samples from ...
Schröder J M - - 2006
Human skin is permanently exposed to microorganisms, but rarely infected. One reason for this natural resistance might be the existence of a 'chemical barrier' consisting in constitutively and inducibly produced antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs). Many of these AMPs can be induced in vitro by proinflammatory cytokines or bacteria. Apart ...
Raj Deepak D Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, - - 2006
Keratinocyte (KC) apoptosis plays a critical role in regulating epidermal development and restraining carcinogenesis. Apoptosis balances proliferation to maintain epidermal thickness, contributes to stratum corneum formation and may eliminate pre-malignant cells. Apart from the normal developmental program, KC apoptosis can be triggered by UV light and other stimuli. Dysfunctional apoptosis ...
Taïeb Alain - - 2006
The 4th Georg Rajka International Symposium on Atopic Dermatitis presented a comprehensive view of our current understanding and management of atopic dermatitis (AD). These proceedings highlight contributions related to the history of AD doctrines; genetic and epigenetic background; epidemiology; maturation of the immune system; infection and innate-adaptive immunity; epidermal inflammation, ...
Reinhardt P - - 2006
The combination of phototoxic drugs and ultraviolet (UV) radiation can trigger the release of proinflammatory cytokines. The present study measured the ability of sunscreens to prevent cytokine secretion in human keratinocytes following cotreatment of these cells with a known photoreactive drug and UVA. Keratinocytes were treated for 1 h with ...
Nickoloff Brian J - - 2006
The primary role of skin is to serve as a protective coat and epidermal keratinocytes are responsible for this barrier function. Besides providing structural support, keratinocytes can initiate inflammatory reactions, thereby enhancing healing of skin that follows barrier perturbation. In complex diseases such as psoriasis, in which both barrier function ...
Kim Sujong - - 2006
The binding of sphingoid bases to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) has been detected in a solid-phase binding assay. However, sphingoid base-induced changes in PPAR transactivation activity have not been examined. In this report, we show by reporter gene analyses that phytosphingosine (PS), a natural sphingoid base, activates the transcriptional activity ...
OztaƟ Pinar - - 2006
Psoriasis is a proliferative and inflammatory disease of the skin. Caspase 9 is responsible for initiating the caspase activation cascade during apoptosis. Apoptosis is a physiological mechanism of homeostasis and development, and caspases are the executioners of apoptosis. This study reports the immunohistochemical localisation of caspase 9 in psoriatic skin ...
MclInnes I B - - 2006
Targeting TNFalpha provided proof of concept for the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in promoting cutaneous inflammation, particularly psoriasis. Recent studies have elucidated the presence of numerous cytokine and chemokine activities in psoriatic skin and synovium. There is considerable interest in the potential of such activities as novel therapeutic targets. IL-15 ...
Kastelan Marija - - 2006
Psoriasis is a chronic hyperproliferative skin disease characterized by keratinocyte hyperproliferation and inflammation. It is generally considered as an autoimmune disease mediated by T cells. The precise mechanism of triggering keratinocyte hyperproliferation is as yet unknown. Apoptosis seems to be important in the maintenance of skin cell homeostasis as well ...
Verhagen Johan - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The role of regulatory T cells has been widely reported in the suppression of T-cell activation. A dysfunction in CD4(+)CD25(+) T-regulatory cell-specific transcription factor FoxP3 leads to immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy X-linked syndrome, often associated with atopic dermatitis. Increasing the number and activity of regulatory T cells in affected ...
Kim D J - - 2006
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) beta-null mice exhibit exacerbated epithelial cell proliferation and enhanced sensitivity to skin carcinogenesis, suggesting that ligand activation of PPARbeta will inhibit keratinocyte proliferation. By using of a highly specific ligand (GW0742) and the PPARbeta-null mouse model, activation of PPARbeta was found to selectively induce keratinocyte terminal ...
Cardona Ivan D - - 2006
The role of staphylococcal superantigens in the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD) has been the focus of intense interest during the past decade. Although the increased prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and its bacterial toxins in AD skin is well established, exploitation of the known mechanisms of superantigens in this disease ...
Santamaria-Babi Luis F - - 2006
The involvement of circulating cutaneous lymphocyte-associated (CLA)+ T cells in skin allergy was initially described in atopic and contact dermatitis in a series of experiments performed in Davos, at the Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research. Since then, numerous studies have confirmed and extended those initial findings. Both basic ...
Braff M H - - 2006
The skin is positioned at the interface between an organism's internal milieu and an external environment characterized by constant assault with potential microbial pathogens. While the skin was formerly considered an inactive physical protective barrier that participates in host immune defense merely by blocking entry of microbial pathogens, it is ...
Dezutter-Dambuyant C - - 2006
The development of human skin models that have the same properties as genuine human skin is of particular significance. Very promising skin models are the three-dimensional artificial skin constructs, which, similar to genuine skin, consist of an epidermis of differentiated keratinocytes and a dermis. A skin equivalent based on a ...
Beissert S - - 2006
The skin is a frequent site of pathological immune responses that can take place in the dermal and/or the epidermal compartments.These immunopathological reactions often occur towards innocuous antigens and may be the result of T cell-dependent and/or autoantibody dependent mechanisms. Defective immune regulation is increasingly recognized as very relevant in ...
Kagen M H - - 2006
Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune disease in which T lymphocytes are thought to be central in the pathogenesis. Recently, a T cell subset population was identified, whose role is to suppress inflammatory responses triggered by T effector cells. T cells in this new population are referred to as T regulatory ...
Fischer T W - - 2006
Melatonin is a potent antioxidant and direct radical scavenger. As keratinocytes represent the major population in the skin and UV light causes damage to these cells, the possible protective effects of melatonin against UV-induced cell damage in HaCaT keratinocytes were investigated in vitro. Cells were preincubated with melatonin at graded ...
Ottaviani Chiara - - 2006
Psoriasis is an immune-mediated skin disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration and altered keratinocyte differentiation. Using immunohistochemical techniques we found that the cellular infiltrate in acute psoriatic plaques includes 5-8% CD3(-)CD56(+) natural killer (NK) cells, mostly localized in the mid and papillary dermis. NK lymphocytes isolated from punch biopsy specimens of ...
Drosera M - - 2006
The skin is one of the most commonly involved tissue in rheumatic autoimmune diseases. Different mechanisms are thought to be implicated in the pathogenesis of skin lesions. In genetically predisposed individuals, ultraviolet (UV) light can contribute to the induction of skin lesions via an inflammatory process. UV light promotes the ...
Biedermann Tilo - - 2006
In patients with atopic dermatitis the skin is highly susceptible to infection by bacteria, fungi and viruses. Increasing knowledge about the complex immune network that regulates anti-microbial responses has helped to dissect further the role of infections in atopic dermatitis. Conserved patterns of microbes are recognized by the innate immune ...
Wilsmann-Theis Dagmar - - 2006
Innovations in biotechnology have made possible the development of several new systemic therapies for psoriasis - the "biologicals", a new group of compounds including monoclonal antibodies, fusion proteins and recombinant proteins. These novel biotechnological advances potentially offer designer drugs, which interfere with specific targets in the pathophysiological network of psoriasis ...
Bijl Marc - - 2006
Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light is one of the major factors known to trigger cutaneous disease activity in (systemic) lupus erythematosus patients. UV light, UVB in particular, is a potent inducer of apoptosis. Currently, disturbed clearance of apoptotic cells is one of the concepts explaining the development of inflammation in ...
Hipler Uta-Christina - - 2006
The skin is the interface between the body and the environment. Each skin type has a specific skin physiology and is more or less adapted for protection against multiple stress factors. Textiles on the other hand are the tissues with the longest contact with the human skin. They play a ...
Böhm M - - 2006
In the last years the neuropeptide a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone has emerged as a regulator of various biological processes far beyond the initially described pigment-inducing action. Expression of melanocortin-receptors (MC-Rs), mainly MC-1R, has been identified in several non-pigmentary human skin cell types. Moreover, expression of MC-5R has been detected in sebocytes and ...
Clothier Richard - - 2006
The potential to cause human skin irritation responses is part of the required information for the registration of new chemicals and for chemicals to conform to the new EU Chemical regulations under Registration, Evaluation, and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH). The Fund for Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME) has ...
Medi Babu M - - 2006
The human skin hosts a variety of immune response-associated components that together form the skin immune system. Any abnormality in the functioning of the skin immune system leads to a variety of dermatologic complications, including dermatitis, psoriasis, and eczema. Exposure to antigens/allergens can lead to allergic skin disorders such as ...
Traidl-Hoffmann C - - 2006
Desloratadine is an H1-histamine antagonist which possesses additional anti-inflammatory properties through inhibition of leukocyte activation and reduction of ICAM-1 expression on mucosal epithelial cells. So far no studies have addressed the potential anti-inflammatory activities of desloratadine and loratadine on skin keratinocytes. In this study the capacity of desloratadine and loratadine ...
Fivenson David P - - 2006
Nicotinamide (niacinamide), a physiologically active form of niacin (nicotinic acid), in combination with zinc is being assessed in clinical studies for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as acne vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid. The basis for these investigations is the variety of potential mechanisms of action of nicotinamide and ...
Alaibac M - - 2006
The pathomechanism of most autoimmune skin diseases is still elusive; however, recent clinical and basic research is leading novel insights into the cellular and molecular biological underlying pathways. Several types of infectious skin diseases are infiltrated by significant number of gamma/delta T cells and similar observations have been made in ...
Allam J-P - - 2006
Atopic eczema (AE) represents a pruritic chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex background, triggered by genetic and environmental factors. Different dendritic cells subtypes, such as Langerhans cells, inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, play a key role in AE and impact on the mechanisms underlying AE, such ...
Reefman E - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: Accumulation of apoptotic cells has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). As sunlight exposure is one of the factors that can trigger disease activity, we hypothesized that UV light may induce increased numbers of apoptotic cells in SLE. METHODS: Fourteen SLE patients ...
Pinto Cibele S - - 2006
Defect of the purine salvage enzyme, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT), results in Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND). It is unknown how the metabolic defect translates into the severe neuropsychiatric phenotype characterized by self-injurious behavior, dystonia and mental retardation. There are abnormalities in GTP, UTP and CTP concentrations in HPRT-deficient cells. Moreover, GTP, ...
Chow Jeffrey - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is an essential physiological process that controls cell numbers during physiological processes, and eliminates abnormal cells that can potentially harm an organism. OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes our current state of knowledge of apoptosis induction in skin by UV radiation. METHODS: A review of the ...
Ezendam Janine - - 2005
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental pollutant that causes adverse immune effects in man and rat. The Brown Norway (BN) rat is very susceptible to HCB-induced immunopathology and oral exposure causes inflammatory skin and lung lesions, splenomegaly, lymph node (LN) enlargement, and increased serum levels of IgE and anti-ssDNA IgM. ...
Paus Ralf - - 2006
The skin offers an ideally suited, clinically relevant model for studying the crossroads between peripheral and systemic responses to stress. A 'brain-skin connection' with local neuroimmunoendocrine circuitry underlies the pathogenesis of allergic and inflammatory skin diseases, triggered or aggravated by stress. In stressed mice, corticotropin-releasing hormone, nerve growth factor, neurotensin, ...
Lehmann Bodo - - 2005
The skin is the only tissue yet known in which the complete ultraviolet-B (UV-B)-induced pathway from 7-dehydrocholesterol to hormonally active calcitriol (1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)) occurs under physiological conditions. Epidermal synthesis of calcitriol could be of fundamental relevance because calcitriol regulates important cellular functions in keratinocytes and immunocompetent cells. Because of their ...
Pascarella Luigi - - 2005
Recent histological and immunocytochemical analyses of venous leg ulcers suggest that lesions observed in the different stages of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) may be related to an inflammatory process. This inflammatory process leads to fibrosclerotic remodeling of the skin and then to ulceration. The vascular network of the most superficial ...
Huang Chun-Ming - - 2005
The skin and its outer epidermis layer in particular, prevent access of various environmental agents including potential allergens, irritants, carcinogens, ultraviolet radiation and microbes. Cells in the epidermis make a significant contribution to innate as well as adaptive immune reactions in skin. The skin immunity thus provides a biologic defense ...
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