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Results 651 - 700 of 1483
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Melikoglu Melike - - 2006
Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcerations and uveitis, with varying other manifestations associated with vascular inflammation. A unifying feature of BD inflammation is the skin pathergy reaction (SPR), a nonspecific tissue hyperreactivity to minor trauma involving epithelial disruption. ...
Seiffert Kristina - - 2006
It has long been postulated that stress can affect certain skin conditions, and there is increasing experimental evidence that the neuroendocrine system can directly participate in cutaneous inflammation. Neurohormones, such as glucocorticoids and catecholamines, can reach the skin through the bloodstream after activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic ...
Saraceno Rosita - - 2006
Several systemic drugs are available for the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, including photochemotherapy, retinoids, cyclosporin, methotrexate, and fumarates. Although these options have been shown to maintain efficacy, frequently they produce significant subjective side effects. Recently, there has been a significant advance in developing newer medications that may be used ...
Vena Gino A - - 2006
Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease characterised by abnormal keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation. The immunopathogenesis is complex and novel evidence shows the involvement of both innate and adaptive immune response. Type 1 T cells and their effector cytokines play a pivotal role. Several drugs under preclinical and clinical ...
Leverkus Martin - - 2006
The death ligand CD95L (Fas/Apo-1-ligand) has been viewed as a proapoptotic molecule involved in the pathogenesis of T cell-mediated skin diseases including eczema. In the presence of inhibitors of caspases, CD95L induces proinflammatory genes in keratinocytes. This more pleiotropic function of CD95L as enhancer of inflammation may be equally important ...
Ishibashi Yoshio - - 2006
The lipophilic yeast Malassezia is an exacerbating factor in atopic dermatitis (AD). Among organisms of the Malassezia species, Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restricta are particularly dominant on the skin of AD patients. However, the precise role of Malassezia yeasts in the pathophysiology of AD remains uncertain. Keratinocytes play a critical ...
Niyonsaba François - - 2007
Besides their microbicidal functions, human beta-defensins (hBD) and LL-37 activate different immune and inflammatory cells, and their expression is enhanced in inflamed skin and cutaneous wound sites. To protect against pathogens, the skin produces antimicrobial peptides including hBDs and LL-37. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether ...
Baker Barbara S - - 2006
Peptidoglycan (PG), a major cell-wall component of Gram-positive bacteria, has been detected within antigen-presenting cells in various inflammatory conditions, including psoriasis. The additional presence of T-helper 1 cells specific for streptococcal or staphylococcal PG in psoriasis skin lesions implicates PG as an important T-cell stimulator for the disease. PG is ...
Kennedy Malcolm W - - 2006
Several techniques are available for quantifying the vertebrate immune response, information that is particularly useful for understanding the contribution of immunity to the evolution of life-history strategies. The most widely used is the phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) skin-swelling technique, which is usually regarded as an index of acquired immunity. However, our understanding ...
Wittmann Miriam - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eczematous skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis, are characterized by T-cell infiltration into the epidermal compartment. Whereas an active role of the main constituents of the epidermis, the keratinocytes, has long been neglected, it has become clear in the last decade that they are important, immunological active cells. ...
Kuhn A - - 2006
The pathophysiology of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) has been investigated in numerous studies demonstrating that the combination of specific cellular and molecular events is leading to inflammation and tissue damage in this disease. However, a complete understanding of the diverse pathophysiological mechanisms and interactions does not exist. Various environmental factors ...
HogenEsch Harm - - 2006
Mammalian chitinase-like proteins belong to a family of proteins structurally related to chitinases but devoid of enzymatic activity. They have a postulated role in remodeling of extracellular matrix and defense mechanisms against chitin-containing pathogens. The expression of these proteins is increased in parasitic infections and allergic airway disease, but their ...
Zuber J-P - - 2006
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a disease of unknown aetiology characterized by excessive and often progressive fibrosis in skin and multiple internal organs, an aberrant immune activation marked by multiple humoral and cellular immunological abnormalities and pronounced alterations in the microvasculature. The pathogenesis of SSc is complex and, although progress in ...
Cinque B - - 2006
Current management of atopic dermatitis is mainly directed to the reduction of cutaneous inflammation. Since patients with atopic dermatitis show abnormalities in immunoregulation, a therapy aimed to adjust their immune function could represent an alternative approach, particularly in the severe form of the disease. Indeed, T-lymphocytes constitute a large population ...
Piérard-Franchimont C - - 2006
Dandruff is a common scalp disorder affecting almost half of the postpubertal population of any ethnicity and both genders. It may, however, represent a stubborn esthetical disturbance often source of pruritus. Skin biocenosis, in particular the Malassezia spp. flora, plays a key aetiologic role, in combination with the unusual capacity ...
Doherty Sean D - - 2006
Progression of mycosis fungoides (MF) to Sézary syndrome (SS) is accompanied by a shift from a T(H)1 to a T(H)2 cytokine profile. Interleukin (IL)-23 is a novel cytokine that shares a common p40 subunit with the T(H)1 inducer, IL-12. IL-23 induces a third profile, T(H)IL-17, that is dominant in inflammation ...
Liang Spencer C - - 2006
Th17 cells are a distinct lineage of effector CD4(+) T cells characterized by their production of interleukin (IL)-17. We demonstrate that Th17 cells also expressed IL-22, an IL-10 family member, at substantially higher amounts than T helper (Th)1 or Th2 cells. Similar to IL-17A, IL-22 expression was initiated by transforming ...
Ong Peck Y - - 2006
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that causes significant morbidity in affected individuals. It is characterized by dysregulated immune responses that consist of an increased systemic Th2 response and a combination of Th2 and Th1 responses in the skin lesions. In this article, we review factors that contribute ...
Wolf Peter P Research Unit for Photodermatology, Department of Dermatology, Medical University Graz, Auenbrugger Platz 8, A-8036 Graz, Austria. - - 2006
Psoralen plus UVA (PUVA) is used as a very effective treatment modality for various diseases, including psoriasis and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. PUVA-induced immune suppression and/or apoptosis are thought to be responsible for the therapeutic action. However, the molecular mechanisms by which PUVA acts are not well understood. We have previously ...
Hasegawa Minoru - - 2006
Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) is an autoimmune disease characterized by excessive extracellular matrix deposition in the skin. A direct role for B lymphocytes in disease development or progression has remained controversial, although autoantibody production is a feature of this disease. To address this issue, skin sclerosis and autoimmunity were assessed in ...
Miyoshi Shin-Ichi - - 2006
Vibrio vulnificus is ubiquitous in aquatic environments; however, it occasionally causes serious and often fatal infections in humans. These include invasive septicemia contracted through consumption of raw seafood, as well as wound infections acquired through contact with brackish or marine waters. In most cases of septicemia, the patients have underlying ...
Shiraki Yumi - - 2006
Dermatophytes cause intractable superficial infections in humans. Arthroderma benhamiae, a zoophilic dermatophyte, triggers severe inflammatory responses in humans, while Trichophyton tonsurans, an anthropophilic dermatophyte, triggers minimal ones. Cytokines and other factors derived from keratinocytes play important roles in inflammatory and immune responses in the skin. The authors performed an in ...
Böhm Markus - - 2006
The melanocortin (MC) system is probably the best characterized neuropeptide network of the skin. Most cutaneous cell types express MC receptors (MC-Rs) and synthesize MCs, such as alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), that act in autocrine and paracrine fashion. In human skin cells, activation of adenylate cyclase by MCs occurs at 10(-6)-10(-9) ...
Peters Eva M J - - 2006
The skin as a barrier and immune organ is exposed to omnipresent environmental challenges such as irradiation or chemical and biologic hazards. Neuropeptides released from cutaneous nerves or skin and immune cells in response to noxious stimuli are mandatory for a fine-tuned regulation of cutaneous immune responses and tissue maintenance ...
Athar Mohammad - - 2006
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignancy, affecting 750,000 Americans each year. The understanding of mutations that are known to activate hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway genes, including PATCHED (PTCH), sonic hedgehog (Shh) and smoothened (Smo), has substantially expanded our current understanding of the genetic basis of BCC ...
Bevelacqua Valentina - - 2006
Psoriasis is a common cutaneous disorder characterized by abnormal epidermal differentiation, proliferation and inflammation mediated by dermal infiltrates, such as T cells, neutrophils, dendritic cells and macrophages. There are renewed interest in the role of components of the innate immune system. Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin ...
Afaq Farrukh - - 2007
Solar UV radiation, in particular its UVB component, is the primary cause of many adverse biological effects, the most damaging of which is skin cancer. Here, we assessed the photochemopreventive effect of delphinidin, a major anthocyanidin present in many pigmented fruits and vegetables, on UVB-mediated responses in human immortalized HaCaT ...
D'Errico Mariarosaria - - 2007
The epidermis has evolved to provide a barrier against the environment, which is essential for survival. This barrier is constituted and continuously regenerated by terminally differentiating keratinocytes. Here, we summarize the main features of the response to UVB and oxidizing agents of human keratinocytes and compare it with that of ...
Clark Rachael A - - 2006
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease unique to humans. In this issue of the JCI, 2 studies of very different mouse models of psoriasis both report that macrophages play a key role in inducing psoriasis-like skin disease. Psoriasis is clearly a polygenic, inherited disease of uncontrolled cutaneous inflammation. The ...
Handa Osamu - - 2006
For many years, methylparaben (MP) has been used as a preservative in cosmetics. In this study, we investigated the effects of ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposure on MP-treated human skin keratinocytes. HaCaT keratinocyte was cultured in MP-containing medium for 24h, exposed to UVB (15 or 30 mJ/cm(2)) and further cultured for another ...
Svobodova Alena - - 2006
Solar light is the primary source of UV radiation for all living systems. UV photons can mediate damage through two different mechanisms, either by direct absorption of UV via cellular chromophores, resulting in excited states formation and subsequent chemical reaction, or by phosensitization mechanisms, where the UV light is absorbed ...
Wenzel J - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Dermatomyositis (DM) is an autoimmune disease of unknown origin affecting skin and muscles. Infiltrating autoreactive T lymphocytes are thought to play an important pathogenetic role, but it is unclear which mechanisms are involved in the recruitment of these cells. Recent studies provided evidence that a type I interferon (IFN)-driven ...
Homey Bernhard - - 2006
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common pruritic and chronically relapsing inflammatory skin disease. The pathophysiology of AD includes disturbed skin barrier functions, frequent allergic responses against allergens, defects in the antimicrobial immune defense, and a genetic predisposition. In this review we summarize advances in our understanding of the complex interdependent ...
Xiao Zhenyu - - 2006
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of esculentoside A (EsA) on radiation-induced cutaneous and fibrovascular toxicity and its possible molecular mechanisms, both in vivo and in vitro. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Mice received drug intervention 18 hours before 30 Gy to the right hind leg. Alterations in several cytokines expressed in skin ...
Kim Mi-Sun - - 2006
Incident UV radiation leads to the upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent angiogenic factor, in human skin. However, the molecular basis of UV-induced angiogenesis in skin remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the roles of UV exposure on cutaneous angiogenesis, its associated signaling mechanisms, ...
Dutz Jan P - - 2006
Dendritic cells are the coordinators of the adaptive immune response. Chronic activation of skin dendritic cells by keratinocyte expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L; CD154) leads to autoimmunity. In this issue, systemic administration of tacrolimus is shown by Loser et al. to effectively treat autoimmunity in a murine model involving transgenic ...
Ashbee Helen Ruth - - 2006
Malassezia spp. are members of the normal cutaneous flora, but are also associated with several cutaneous diseases. Recent studies of the interaction of Malassezia spp. with melanocytes, fibroblasts, keratinocytes and dendritic cells have highlighted their potential to modulate the immune response directed against them. In normal skin they may downregulate ...
Holman Danah M - - 2006
Cytokines are polypeptides that are produced by various cell types and act in an autocrine or paracrine manner. They have many different biological actions and have been used in dermatology to treat a wide range of dermatologic diseases. In this paper we review some of the more commonly used cytokines ...
Lim Hyun - - 2006
Flavonoids are known as natural anti-inflammatory agents. In this investigation, an anti-inflammatory potential of new topical preparation (SK Ato Formula) containing flavonoid mixtures from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi roots and Ginkgo biloba L. leaves with an extract of Gentiana scabra Bunge roots was evaluated in an animal model of chronic skin ...
Simon Dagmar - - 2006
Keratinocyte apoptosis mediated by Fas/Fas ligand molecular interactions and subsequent caspase activation is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD), in particular for the formation of spongiosis. To estimate epidermal caspase activation in normal and AD skin under in vivo conditions, we analysed caspase-3 ...
Averbeck Marco - - 2006
In skin, an evolving inflammatory or immune response is triggered by early release of a cytokine cascade into the extracellular space. Investigation of extracellular cytokine secretion in situ has been limited by low cut-off filtering membranes and sample volume size and the inability to monitor changes in cytokine protein levels ...
Cimino Francesco - - 2006
One of the most significant risk factors associated with the development of skin disease is exposure to UVB radiation from the sun. In particular, UVB light can activate inflammatory and apoptotic pathways, leading to skin damage. Anthocyanins, a group of flavonoids present in many common vegetable foods, are known for ...
Perera Ranjan J - - 2006
Epidermal keratinocytes (KCs) undergo highly orchestrated morphological and molecular changes during transition from proliferative compartment into growth arrested early and late differentiation layers, prior to dying in outermost cornified layers of normal skin. Creation of stratum corneum is vital to barrier function protecting against infection. Transcriptional events in KCs regulating ...
He Y-Y - - 2006
Ultraviolet A (UVA, 315-400 nm), constituting about 95% of ultraviolet irradiation in natural sunlight, represents a major environmental challenge to the skin and is clearly associated with human skin cancer. It has proven difficult to show direct actions of UVA as a carcinogen in human cells. Here, we demonstrate that ...
Wolk Kerstin - - 2006
IL-22 is an IFN-IL-10 cytokine family member, which is produced by activated Th1 and NK cells and acts primarily on epithelial cells. Here we demonstrate that IL-22, in contrast to its relative IFN-gamma, regulates the expression of only a few genes in keratinocytes. This is due to varied signal transduction. ...
Djalilian Ali R - - 2006
Inflammatory skin disorders result in significant epidermal changes, including keratinocyte hyperproliferation, incomplete differentiation, and impaired barrier. Here we test whether, conversely, an impaired epidermal barrier can promote an inflammatory response. Mice lacking the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) have a severe defect in epidermal barrier acquisition. Transcription profiling of ...
Anjuère Fabienne - - 2006
Comparative analyses of murine dendritic cells (DC) isolated from the skin and from the intestinal mucosa after exposure to cholera toxin and its non-toxic B subunit disclose striking differences regarding the migratory and functional behaviour of these cells. The nature of the epithelial microenvironment, especially locally produced cytokines and chemokines, ...
Katagiri Chika - - 2006
Protection from ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is a fundamental issue for living organisms. Although melanin's critical role in the protection of basal keratinocytes is well understood, other factors remain essentially unknown. We demonstrate that up-regulation of squamous cell carcinoma antigen-1 (SCCA1) suppresses c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-1 (JNK1) and thus blocks UV-induced keratinocyte ...
Charlesworth Ernest N - - 2006
With the widespread recognition that T-cells are the key mediators of psoriasis, current treatment strategies have focused on reducing the population of these cells or modulating their activity through the use of immunosuppressive treatments such as methotrexate, cyclosporine, and psoralens plus ultraviolet A radiation. Now, a greater understanding of the ...
Tan Stephen R - - 2006
Pemphigus refers to a group of autoimmune blistering diseases that affect the skin and mucous membranes. Pemphigus may be induced following exposure to various exogenous agents, including thermal burns, drugs, infectious agents, and neoplasms, as well as UV, ionizing, and x-ray irradiation. We report a case of a 28-year-old man ...
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