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Krathen M S MS Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19119, - - 2008
Dermatomyositis (DM) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the skin and muscles. Although thought to be autoimmune in origin, many questions remain as to the etiopathogenesis of this disease. DM has classically been considered a humorally mediated disease. Current evidence, however, seems to increasingly support alternative (though not mutually exclusive) ...
Spergel Jonathan M - - 2008
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory disease hypothesized to be the product of complex interactions among the host's environment, susceptibility genes, skin barrier dysfunction, and immune system dysregulation. The objective of this article is to describe the pathobiology and treatment of AD, with particular focus on the role of ...
Metz Martin - - 2008
Mast cells are not only potent effector cells in allergy, but are also important players in protective immune responses against pathogens. Most of our knowledge about mast cells in innate immunity is derived from models of sepsis, whereas their role in innate immune responses of the skin has largely been ...
El-Mahdy Mohamed A MA Department of Radiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, - - 2008
Many naturally occurring agents are believed to protect against UV-induced skin damage. In this study, we have investigated the effects of naringenin (NG), a naturally occurring citrus flavonone, on the removal of UVB-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) from the genome and apoptosis in immortalized p53-mutant human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The ...
Fischer T W TW Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, - - 2008
Melatonin is a recognized antioxidant with high potential as a protective agent in many conditions related to oxidative stress such as neurodegenerative diseases, ischemia/reperfusion syndromes, sepsis and aging. These processes may be favorably affected by melatonin through its radical scavenging properties and/or antiapoptotic activity. Also, there is increasing evidence that ...
Gaga M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1/CCL2), the ligand for CCR2 and CCR5, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha/CCL3), the ligand for CCR1 and CCR5, are potent chemo-attractants in vitro and produce lesions in experimental animals, which resemble immediate and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions. CCL3 induces mononuclear cell and granulocyte infiltration in human ...
Wüthrich Brunello - - 2007
Atopic eczema (AE) is a multifactorial skin disease caused by a variety of factors such as genetic conditions, alterated skin structure, immunologic deviations and environmental factors, among others. There are two main subtypes of AE, i.e. the IgE-associated ("atopic eczema") and the non-IgE-associated type ("nonatopic eczema") with different prognosis concerning ...
de Jongh Cindy M - - 2007
In vivo levels of cytokines and presence of neutrophils and eosinophils in skin irritation are not well known. Our objective was to get more insight in inflammatory mediators and markers involved in single and repeated skin irritation. We sampled epidermis-derived fluid using a novel technology that includes application of a ...
Seung Na Reu - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease that appears to be autoimmune in nature. Recently, it is thought that microbial pathogens of skin can affect the pathogenesis of psoriasis by inducing autoimmunity. Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) are known to play an important role in immune and inflammatory responses of the skin ...
Traub Michael - - 2007
Psoriasis is a common T-cell-mediated immune disorder characterized by circumscribed, red, thickened plaques with an overlying silver-white scale. It occurs worldwide, although the incidence is lower in warmer, sunnier climates. The primary cause of psoriasis is unknown. During an active disease state, an underlying inflammatory mechanism is frequently involved. Many ...
Ou Liang-Shiou - - 2007
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a highly pruritic, chronic, and relapsing inflammatory skin disease. Recent interest in AD has been sparked by reports of its increasing prevalence and its contribution to increasing health care costs. A precise understanding of immunologic mechanisms is crucial for the development of effective treatment strategies for ...
Minghetti Paola - - 2007
In this study the skin permeation and the topical anti-inflammatory properties of ginger extracts were investigated. A commercial ginger dry extract (DE) and a gingerols-enriched dry extract (EDE) were evaluated for their in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of Croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice. Furthermore, the feasibility of ...
Scheler Marina - - 2007
Recent studies have provided evidence that a type I interferon (IFN)-driven immune response might play an important role in the pathogenesis of lichen planus (LP), an inflammatory disorder of the skin of unclear etiology. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells in affected skin from LP have been proposed to produce IFN-alpha/beta locally, which ...
Pastore Saveria - - 2008
The epidermal growth factor (EGF) family comprises multiple mediators such as transforming growth factor-alpha, amphiregulin, heparin binding-EGF, and epiregulin, which are crucially involved in the tissue-specific proliferation/differentiation homeostasis. Typically, they act in an autocrine and paracrine manner on their specific cell membrane receptor and mount an effective reparative response to ...
Wang Linan - - 2008
It is well documented that UV radiation present in sunlight suppresses immune responses, especially T(h)1-driven cellular immune responses, resulting in the exacerbation of skin cancer and infectious diseases. However, the effects of UV irradiation on humoral immune responses remain less clearly defined. In addition, the majority of studies documenting immunosuppressive ...
Schmidhuber Sabine M SM Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Salzburg, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Muellner-Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg, - - 2008
The release of neuropeptides from primary sensory nerve fibers has been implicated in the modulation of local immune responses in surface tissues, such as the skin and the gastrointestinal mucosa, thereby inducing neurogenic inflammation, which is characterized by plasma extravasation and vasodilatation. In addition, cytokines, either alone or in conjunction ...
Nickoloff Brian J - - 2007
Creation and maintenance of psoriatic plaques require a multicellular conspiracy by which prepsoriatic skin becomes infiltrated by a variety of immunocytes triggering changes in the behavior of epidermal keratinocytes and endothelial cells. These complex cellular events require coordination in space and time to achieve the mature plaque. Key molecular coordinators ...
Sabat Robert - - 2007
Psoriasis is a common chronic skin disease. Its pathogenesis has intensively been investigated in the last 3 decades. In the 1970s, the observed increased proliferation of keratinocytes and their altered differentiation were considered to be the most important signs and causes of psoriatic skin lesions. Since the early 1980s, T ...
Tschachler Erwin - - 2007
Besides the infiltrate of immune cells in psoriatic lesions, the principal characteristic changes in the skin are changes of the epidermal architecture and alterations of keratinocyte differentiation, which are distinct from other inflammatory skin diseases clinically and histologically. Several lines of evidence suggest that 3 of the 9 psoriasis susceptibility ...
Jarrousse Véronique - - 2007
Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) plays an important role in the induction and maintenance of the inflammatory phase of acne. At the therapeutic level, it has been shown that zinc salts could have a beneficial effect on mild and moderate inflammatory acne lesions. However, their mechanisms of action are still only ...
Prens Errol P - - 2008
Keratinocytes play a key role in innate immune responses of the skin to bacterial and viral pathogens. Viral double-stranded RNA and its synthetic analogue polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly-IC) are recognized via multiple pathways involving the receptors Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), protein kinase R (PKR), and the recently described cytosolic RNA helicases ...
Mowbray Megan M Department of Dermatology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, - - 2008
Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the cutaneous response to UV radiation and in cutaneous inflammation. The presence of inducible NO synthase protein in a number of inflammatory dermatoses, coupled with the induction of an intense cutaneous inflammatory infiltrate following topical application of the NO donor-acidified nitrite (NO2(-)), ...
Girardi Michael - - 2007
The skin, situated at the critical juncture between the host and the environment, is subject to a variety of potentially damaging agents including microbial organisms, toxins, and gene-altering radiation. Diverse immunocytes, including those resident in the skin and those with the capacity to traffic to and from the skin, direct ...
Fyhrquist-Vanni Nanna - - 2007
Contact dermatitis is a common skin disease caused by contact with irritants or allergens. Irritant contact dermatitis is a result of nonspecific irritant factors, which cause activation of mainly innate immunity, resulting in skin inflammation. Contact hypersensitivity, which manifests itself as allergic contact dermatitis, is result of adaptive immune response, ...
Pan Min Hong - - 2007
Recreational and occupational exposure to seawater (SW), have increased but the effect of SW on skin has not been elucidated. The purpose of present study was to assess the effects of SW immersion on the dorsal skin in hairless mice. Adult hairless mice were individually immersed in SW for 3 ...
Wollenberg Andreas - - 2007
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a highly pruritic, chronic, multifactorial skin disease predisposing to bacterial and viral infections based on abnormalities of the innate and acquired immune system. The innate system quickly mobilizes an inflexible, standardized first-line response against different pathogens. Epidermal barrier dysfunction results in increased protein allergen penetration through ...
Hueber Axel J - - 2007
Psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are common diseases associated with considerable morbidity and disability. Their pathophysiology comprises a dysfunctional stromal-immune cell and cytokine network leading to inflammation of skin, entheses and joints. Recent advances in understanding of disease pathogenesis have led to the introduction of novel therapeutics providing the ultimate ...
Scott Jordan E JE Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Immunology, Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, - - 2007
Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) exposed to the vaccinia virus (VV) smallpox vaccine have an increased risk of developing eczema vaccinatum. To investigate the effects of local allergic skin inflammation on vaccinia immunity. BALB/c mice were epicutaneously sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) to induce allergic skin inflammation or with saline control, ...
Urosevic Mirjana - - 2007
Skin is the largest organ of the human body that harbors a robust and versatile immune surveillance system. Whereas impaired immune function of the skin enables tumor growth, excessive immune activation results in different inflammatory diseases of the skin. HLA-G is a non-classical MHC class I molecule that was initially ...
Ullrich Stephen E SE Department of Immunology and the Center for Cancer Immunology Research, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA. - - 2007
Exposing experimental animals or human volunteers to UVA II (320-340 nm) radiation after immunization suppresses immunologic memory and the elicitation of delayed-in-time hypersensitivity reactions. Previous studies indicated that the mechanisms underlying UVA-induced immune suppression are similar to those described for UVB-induced immune suppression, i.e. transferred by T regulatory cells, overcome ...
Nestle Frank O - - 2007
Advances in our understanding of the skin immune system have a major impact on studies of skin autoimmunity, graft-versus-host disease, inflammation, and cancer as well as on the development of novel vaccines and immunotherapy approaches. In this issue of the JCI, Zaba et al. carefully dissected the complex network of ...
Manni Michela - - 2008
Disorders of the skin immune activity are implicated in the pathogenesis of acquired inflammatory skin disorders. Inflammatory diseases including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, lichen planus and vitiligo have also been associated with local alterations of adrenergic mechanisms and emotional stress. Here we show that the beta-adrenergic receptors antagonist propranolol along with ...
Huber Lars C - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Tissue fibrosis is a hallmark compromising feature of many disorders. In this study, we investigated the antifibrogenic effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) on cytokine-driven fibrotic responses in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Skin fibroblasts from patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and normal healthy control subjects ...
Madson Justin G - - 2007
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation causes multiple pathologic changes in the skin including inflammation, immune suppression, photoaging, and cancer. Effects of UV irradiation include the activation of numerous signal transduction pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and the activation of transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB). These responses ...
Rebholz Bernd - - 2007
Inflammatory diseases at epithelial borders develop from aberrant interactions between resident cells of the tissue and invading immunocytes. Here, we unraveled basic functions of epithelial cells and immune cells and the sequence of their interactions in an inflammatory skin disease. Ubiquitous deficiency of the IkappaBalpha protein (Ikba(Delta)(/Delta)) as well as ...
Yamasaki Kenshi - - 2007
Acne rosacea is an inflammatory skin disease that affects 3% of the US population over 30 years of age and is characterized by erythema, papulopustules and telangiectasia. The etiology of this disorder is unknown, although symptoms are exacerbated by factors that trigger innate immune responses, such as the release of ...
Gorbachev Anton V - - 2007
Quinacrine (QC) is an anti-inflammatory drug that has been used for the treatment of malaria and rheumatoid diseases. The mechanism(s) underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of QC remains poorly understood. We recently reported the QC-mediated inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway using an in vitro model. To test this potential mechanism in ...
Reichelt Julia - - 2007
The epidermis, like many other tissues, reacts to mechanical stress by increasing cell proliferation. Mechanically stressed skin regions often develop thicker skin and hyperkeratosis. Interestingly, a large number of skin diseases are accompanied by epidermal proliferation and hyperkeratosis even under normal mechanical stress conditions. Although, some of the molecular pathways ...
Ogawa E - - 2008
The epidermis must be protected against excess apoptotic cell death in response to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation. p53 is known to be critical for this protection. Although the p53 family member DeltaNp51B/DeltaNp63alpha (an N terminal-deleted form of p51/p63) is abundantly expressed in keratinocytes, its contribution to UV-B-dependent apoptosis is largely unknown. ...
Feldmeyer Laurence - - 2007
It has long been known that human keratinocytes are a potent source of the proinflammatory cytokines proIL-1alpha and -1beta[1], which are activated and released in response to UV irradiation [2]. However, the intracellular pathways, which regulate maturation and secretion of IL-1 in keratinocytes, are unknown. Here we show that the ...
Mee John B - - 2007
Psoriasis has been considered an autoimmune, T cell-mediated disorder in which adaptive immune responses predominate over those of non-antigen-specific innate immunity. To test this hypothesis, we profiled the transcriptome of psoriatic tissue and compared the data with that from cultured human keratinocytes exposed to the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1alpha and ...
Langley Richard G - - 2007
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease principally mediated by activated T cells, which release proinflammatory cytokines with reactive epidermal changes in the skin, producing the characteristic lesions of psoriasis. New research into possible treatment options has been inspired by increased understanding of the pathophysiology of psoriasis and advances in ...
Metcalfe Anthony D AD UK Centre for Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, 3.239 Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, - - 2007
Advanced therapies combating acute and chronic skin wounds are likely to be brought about using our knowledge of regenerative medicine coupled with appropriately tissue-engineered skin substitutes. At the present time, there are no models of an artificial skin that completely replicate normal uninjured skin. Natural biopolymers such as collagen and ...
Portugal Meital - - 2007
The pathogenicity of skin disorders involves a complexity of physiological, immunological, environmental, and genetic phenomena. This review focuses on cross-talks between two main agents, the oxidants and cytokines network, which have recently been found to play important roles in the pathophysiology of a large variety of skin disorders, including carcinogenesis, ...
Bijl Marc - - 2007
In the human body, every day billions of apoptotic cells are produced. Removal of these cells is necessary, to prevent the release of intracellular toxic constituents, and occurs very effectively via phagocytosis by (semi)-professional phagocytes. This elimination process occurs rapidly and without inflammation. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) a disturbed ...
Tenaud Isabelle - - 2007
The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of adapalene, a synthetic retinoid used for the treatment of acne patients, are partially understood. They seem particularly related to the modulation of the non-specific immunity. Recent studies have shown that Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 expression, a receptor of the innate immune system, was increased in acne lesions ...
Troy Tammy-Claire - - 2007
Skin is one of the largest organs of the body, and is formed during development through a highly orchestrated process involving mesenchymal-epithelial interactions, cell commitment, and terminal differentiation. It protects against microorganism invasion and UV irradiation, inhibits water loss, regulates body temperature, and is an important part of the immune ...
Mathers Alicia R - - 2007
The proinflammatory capacities of the skin and the presence of high numbers of resident dendritic cells (DCs) constitute an ideal microenvironment for successful immunizations. Regardless of the ability of DCs to respond to local inflammatory signals in an immunostimulatory fashion, the immune functions of skin-resident DCs remain controversial, and epidermal ...
Frischknecht Freddy - - 2007
Animal skin separates the inner world of the body from the largely hostile outside world and is actively involved in the defence against microbes. However, the skin is no perfect defence barrier and many microorganisms have managed to live on or within the skin as harmless passengers or as disease-causing ...
El-Domyati Moetaz - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The histopathologic changes characteristic of psoriasis might be related to suppressed apoptosis. The P53 and Bcl-2 proteins play a central role in the regulation of apoptosis. This study aimed to evaluate P53 and Bcl-2 expression and apoptotic cells in the psoriatic skin before and after topical calcipotriol therapy. METHODS: ...
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