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Results 501 - 550 of 1483
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Tian Tian T Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, - - 2009
Transepidermal inoculation of vaccinia virus (VV), or scarification, has been used effectively for the induction of specific and long-lasting immunity to smallpox and is superior to other routes of immunization. Scarification of individuals with atopic skin disease or immune deficiency, however, can lead to persistent viral replication and result in ...
Borchers Andrea T - - 2008
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are rare, but potentially life threatening, diseases characterized by widespread epidermal necrosis, and are predominantly medication-induced. Unfortunately, though they are often associated with long-term debilitating sequelae, there are currently no efficacious pharmaceutical interventions proven through large clinical trials. It has been well ...
Namjoshi Sarika - - 2008
The skin provides an effective barrier to the loss of body fluids and environmental assault. In addition to the physical barrier provided by the stratum corneum, the skin also contains a chemical barrier consisting of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which control microbial growth on the surface. These AMPs also have multiple ...
Leverkus Martin - - 2008
Keratinocyte skin cancer is a multi-step process, during which a number of obstacles have to be overcome by the tumor cell to allow the development of a manifest tumor. Beside proliferation and immortality, apoptosis resistance is one additional and critical step during skin carcinogenesis. Over the past two decades, much ...
Moran Gordon W - - 2008
Enteroendocrine cells (EEC) form the basis of the largest endocrine system in the body. They secrete multiple regulatory molecules which control physiological and homeostatic functions, particularly postprandial secretion and motility. Their key purpose is to act as sensors of luminal contents, either in a classical endocrine fashion, or by a ...
Fischer T W - - 2008
Based on extensive investigation of melatonin in human cell models (keratinocytes, fibroblasts), a great variety of melatonin actions, mechanisms, intracellularly localized synthesis and metabolism as well as receptor expression has been unravelled, identifying melatonin as a key player in cutaneous biology and dermato-endocrinology. Melatonin was reported to act directly protective ...
Dudda Jan C - - 2008
Cutaneous immune responses must be tightly controlled to prevent unwanted inflammation in response to innocuous antigens, while maintaining the ability to combat skin-tropic pathogens. Foxp3(+) regulatory T (T reg) cells are potent immune regulators and are found at high frequency in both human and mouse skin. Although T reg cells ...
Ghosh Nilanjan - - 2008
Psoriasis is one of the most common human skin diseases and is considered to have key genetic contributions. It is characterized by excessive growth and aberrant differentiation of keratinocytes, but is reversible with appropriate therapy with the possibilities of recurrence. The trigger of the keratinocyte response is thought to be ...
Zouboulis Christos C - - 2008
The development of experimental models for the in vitro study of human sebaceous gland turned down the theory of a phylogenetic relict and led to the identification of several, unknown or disregarded functions of this organ. Such functions are the production of foetal vernix caseosa, the influence of three-dimensional organization ...
Elsaie M L - - 2008
Contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is a dendritic cell (DC)-dependent T-cell mediated cutaneous inflammatory reaction elicited by epicutaneous exposure to reactive chemicals, known as haptens, from cosmetic products or through environmental and occupational exposures. The best-studied haptens are low molecular weight chemicals (<1,000) that bind discrete amino acid residues on self or ...
Hata Tissa R TR Division of Dermatology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, - - 2008
The innate immune system evolved more than 2 billion years ago to first recognize pathogens then eradicate them. Several distinct defects in this ancient but rapidly responsive element of human immune defense account for the increased incidence of skin infections in atopics. These defects include abnormalities in the physical barrier ...
Demehri Shadmehr S Department of Developmental Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America. - - 2008
Epidermal keratinocytes form a highly organized stratified epithelium and sustain a competent barrier function together with dermal and hematopoietic cells. The Notch signaling pathway is a critical regulator of epidermal integrity. Here, we show that keratinocyte-specific deletion of total Notch signaling triggered a severe systemic B-lymphoproliferative disorder, causing death. RBP-j ...
Büchau Amanda S AS Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego and VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California 92161, - - 2008
Calcineurin inhibitors are potent inhibitors of T-cell-receptor mediated activation of the adaptive immune system. The effects of this class of drug on the innate immune response system are not known. Keratinocytes are essential to innate immunity in skin and rely on toll-like receptors (TLRs) and antimicrobial peptides to appropriately recognize ...
Grandi Giulio - - 2008
Human subcutaneous dirofilariosis is an increasingly reported zoonosis caused by several filarial species, in particular by Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens. Like many filarial worms, D. repens harbours the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia that has been implicated in the inflammatory features of filarial infection. Immunohistochemical staining against the Wolbachia Surface Protein (WSP) was ...
Elias Peter M PM Dermatology Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94121, USA. - - 2008
The pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) has been attributed largely to abnormalities in the adaptive immune system, with key roles played by T-helper 1(Th1)/Th2 cell dysregulation, IgE production, dendritic cell signaling, and mast-cell hyperactivity, resulting in the pruritic, inflammatory dermatosis that characterizes AD (Leung et al., 2004). Accordingly, therapy has ...
Sonkoly E - - 2008
Compelling evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs), short, non-protein coding RNAs, are critical for the development and survival of multicellular organisms. Recently, miRNAs were implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and atopic eczema (AE), the two most common chronic inflammatory disorders in skin. In particular, miR-203, the first skin-specific miRNA, showing ...
Scharschmidt Tiffany C - - 2008
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disorder that affects approximately 15% of children in the United States. A complex disorder, AD is characterized by both skin barrier impairment and immunologic abnormalities, including decreased innate immune function and a polarized adaptive immune response. Mouse models have demonstrated the ...
Kuhn A - - 2008
Although for decades sunlight was suspected to be involved in the development of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE), only in recent years research on the effects of ultraviolet irradiation on the skin of patients with CLE has resulted in a more comprehensive model for the pathogenesis of the disease. In this ...
Schauber Jürgen J Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, - - 2008
Our skin is constantly challenged by microbes but is rarely infected. Cutaneous production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is a primary system for protection, and expression of some AMPs further increases in response to microbial invasion. Cathelicidins are unique AMPs that protect the skin through 2 distinct pathways: (1) direct antimicrobial ...
Xia Li-xin - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Haptoglobin (Hp) is one of the acute-phase proteins. Recent studies have demonstrated that Hp exerts immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory actions and may be one of the inhibitory factors of immune reactions in the skin. In this study we investigated the regulation of Hp expression in a human keratinocyte cell line ...
Wenzel Joerg - - 2008
The term "interface dermatitis" (ID) involves a specific histological inflammatory pattern that is characterized by a cytotoxic lymphocytic infiltration and a hydropic degeneration of the basal epidermal layer. ID is typically seen in autoimmune skin disorders such as lichen planus (LP), cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE), and may also appear during ...
Larocca R - - 2008
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: We investigated the influence of acute inflammation in skin isograft acceptance. METHODS: Two mouse lines selected for maximal (AIRMAX) or minimal inflammatory response (AIRMIN) were transplanted with syngeneic skin. Cellular infiltrates and cytokine production were measured 1, 3, 7 or 14 days post-transplantation. The percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ ...
Bennett Mary F - - 2008
The immune system may either have a protective role against sunburn and skin cancer or, conversely, promote solar damage. The skin is poised to react to infections and injury, such as sunburn, with rapidly acting mechanisms (innate immunity) that precede the development of acquired immunity and serve as an immediate ...
Mansueto P - - 2008
Among human rickettsial diseases caused by micro-organisms of the genus Rickettsia (Order Rickettsiales; Family Rickettsiaceae), transmitted to human hosts through arthropod vectors, Mediterranean Spotted Fever, or Boutonneuse Fever, and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever are considered to be important infectious diseases due to continued prevalence in the developed world, and potentially ...
Man Mao-Qiang MQ Dalian Skin Disease Hospital, Liaoning, - - 2008
While psoriasis is one of the most common skin disorders in humans, effective, safe and inexpensive treatments are still largely unavailable. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for centuries for treating psoriasis and several reports claim that systemic administration of one such CHM, Tuhuai, mainly composed of flos sophorae, ...
Miyata Akiko - - 2008
BACKGROUND: We often see aggravation of eczematous skin lesions associated with bacterial infection, but the mechanism of this phenomenon is unclear. Staphylococcus aureus is known to colonize on the eczematous lesion and produce some exotoxins, which act as bacterial superantigens. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the potential role of superantigens in chronic ...
Dallaglio Katiuscia - - 2009
Survivin is a bi-functional member of inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, as it is able to both inhibit apoptosis and to regulate cell cycle. We investigated the role of survivin in human keratinocytes under normal conditions and during UVB irradiation. Survivin siRNA decreases proliferation and induces apoptosis in human keratinocytes, ...
Peyssonnaux Carole - - 2008
Skin, the first barrier against invading microorganisms, is hypoxic, even under baseline conditions. The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha, the principal regulator of cellular adaptation to low oxygen, is strongly expressed in skin epithelium. HIF-1alpha is now understood to play a key role in the bactericidal capacity of phagocytic cells ...
Cogen A L AL Department of Bioengineering, Division of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, - - 2008
Microbes found on the skin are usually regarded as pathogens, potential pathogens or innocuous symbiotic organisms. Advances in microbiology and immunology are revising our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of microbial virulence and the specific events involved in the host-microbe interaction. Current data contradict some historical classifications of cutaneous microbiota ...
Heidenreich Regina - - 2008
Angiogenesis is a hallmark of chronic inflammation such as psoriasis. Unraveling the pathogenesis of psoriasis shows that several proangiogenic mediators are activated and highly expressed during psoriasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor, hypoxia- inducible factor, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-8 and angiopoietins are considered to be the main players responsible for the ...
Zöller Nadja Nicole - - 2008
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are highly effective compounds widely used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases; however, they offer distinct adverse effects such as skin thinning in response to long-term topical treatment. Nevertheless it is difficult to deduce the safety of a newly synthesized compound from its structural formula. Efficient assay systems ...
Ma Hak-Ling - - 2008
Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease resulting from the dysregulated interplay between keratinocytes and infiltrating immune cells. We report on a psoriasis-like disease model, which is induced by the transfer of CD4(+)CD45RB(hi)CD25(-) cells to pathogen-free scid/scid mice. Psoriasis-like lesions had elevated levels of antimicrobial peptide and proinflammatory cytokine mRNA. Also, ...
Timares Laura - - 2008
Solar UVR is highly mutagenic but is only partially absorbed by the outer stratum corneum of the epidermis. UVR can penetrate into the deeper layers of the epidermis, depending on melanin content, where it induces DNA damage and apoptosis in epidermal cells, including those in the germinative basal layer. The ...
Lewis Davina A - - 2008
To cope with the frequent exposure to carcinogenic UV B (UVB) wavelengths found in sunlight, keratinocytes have acquired extensive protective measures to handle UVB-induced DNA damage. Recent in vitro and epidemiological data suggest one these protective mechanisms is dependent on the functional status of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) ...
Palaksha K J - - 2008
The innate immune system, particularly the external body surface, plays a frontier role in protecting fish under intensive aquaculture and at prolonged low temperatures from relevant infections due to inadequate adaptive immune responses. In the present study we aimed to understand the mucosal immunity of an economically important mariculture fish, ...
Liu Weijun - - 2008
As a critical ubiquitin ligase, the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) governs cell cycle progression, signaling modulation and the pathogenesis of some human diseases. Recent studies implicate APC in maintaining genomic integrity, but the mechanism by which it plays such a role remains largely unknown. We report here that acute UV radiation ...
Pae Hyun-Ock - - 2008
Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 may have an important role in the resolution of T cell-mediated inflammation. The authors elucidated the role of the anti-inflammatory HO-1 in the pathogenesis of skin inflammation, using a mouse contact hypersensitivity (CHS) induced by 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB). Ear swelling was induced by challenge with DNFB, accompanied by ...
Osborne-Hereford Amber V AV Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, United - - 2008
The anti-inflammatory effects of the neuronal nicotinic receptor alpha7 (nAChRalpha7) are proposed to require acetylcholine release from vagal efferents. The necessity for vagal innervation in this anti-inflammatory pathway was tested in the skin, which lacks parasympathetic innervation, using ultraviolet radiation (UVB) to induce a local pro-inflammatory response. Cytokine responses to ...
Wang Guoying - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, for which no fundamental therapy exists. Immunostimulatory sequence CpG (ISS CpG) has potential in reducing susceptibility to allergic diseases and reversing established allergic reactions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of ISS CpG in the prevention and treatment of AD in ...
Muller H Konrad - - 2008
The neonatal immune environment and the events that occur during this time have profound effects for the adult period. While protective immune responses can develop, the neonatal immune system, particularly the skin immune system (SIS), tends to promote tolerance. With this information we undertook a number of studies to identify ...
Min Wei - - 2008
Baicalin, one kind of Chinese herbal medicine with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant property, has been commonly used as a clinical medicine. However, little has been known about the effects of Baicalin on ultraviolet (UV) induced photo-aging and photo-carcinogenesis. The photoproduct is critical to the initial event of UV-induced photo-carcinogenesis. The purpose ...
Gordon Kenneth B - - 2008
Our increased understanding of the mechanisms of immune-mediated skin disease has led to the growth of therapeutic options for these diseases. Treatment options impact the various levels of the immune response, including the activation and effector function of immune cells. In this review, we give a broad outline of the ...
Sertznig Pit - - 2008
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that regulate lipid, glucose, and amino acid metabolism. More recently, PPARs and corresponding ligands have been shown in skin and other organs to regulate important cellular functions, including cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as inflammatory responses. These new ...
Werfel Thomas - - 2008
Eczema does not occur in the absence of T cells. Here we provide an overview on the regulatory impact which T cells have on the establishment and maintenance of atopic dermatitis. Particularly, we outline the role of different T-helper cell subsets (i.e. Th-1, Th-2, T-regulatory and Th-17 cells) and their ...
Smyth Ian - - 2008
Harlequin Ichthyosis (HI) is a severe and often lethal hyperkeratotic skin disease caused by mutations in the ABCA12 transport protein. In keratinocytes, ABCA12 is thought to regulate the transfer of lipids into small intracellular trafficking vesicles known as lamellar bodies. However, the nature and scope of this regulation remains unclear. ...
Asarch Adam - - 2008
Inflammatory processes of the skin have classically been segregated to either the cell-mediated, T-helper type 1 (Th1) or the humoral (Th2) branch of the immune system. The recent addition of Th17 cells, a novel T-helper cell named for its secretion of interleukin (IL)-17, to current thinking in autoimmunity has resulted ...
Beissert Stefan - - 2008
Skin cancer constitutes one of the most frequent types of malignancies in humans with rapidly increasing incidences almost worldwide. UVR is an essential risk factor for the development of premalignant as well as malignant skin lesions. In this context UVR can function as a complete carcinogen by inducing "UV signature" ...
Akaishi Satoshi - - 2008
The mechanisms of fibroproliferation disease (FPD) of the skin, such as keloids and hypertrophic scars, are still unknown. Since mechanical stress appears to be an important factor for FPD generation, we have studied the intervening factors that connect mechanical stress with keloid and scar formation. Hence, we introduce our "neurogenic ...
Norval Mary - - 2008
A single or a limited number of UVR exposures is recognized to suppress cell-mediated immunity in human subjects. The complex pathway leading from the absorption of photons by chromophores in the skin to the generation of T regulatory cells has been, at least partially, elucidated. However, the effect of repeated ...
Schwarz Thomas - - 2008
For more than 25 years it is known that UV radiation, in particular the UVB range suppresses the immune system. In contrast to conventional immunosuppression by immunosuppressive drugs, UV radiation does not compromise the immune system in a general but rather in an antigen-specific fashion via induction of immunotolerance. This ...
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