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Lipozencić Jasna - - 2009
Atopic dermatitis/eczema is a chronically relapsing, pruritic, and inflammatory skin disease. The term "atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome" covers the "extrinsic" and "intrinsic" atopic dermatitis. The pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis includes complex interaction between the genetic background, skin barrier defects, abnormalities in innate and adaptive immunity, abnormalities of humoral and cellular immunity, ...
Rácz Emoke - - 2009
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterised by elevated red scaly plaques on specific body sites. Histologically, the plaques are defined by epidermal hyperplasia, epidermal and dermal infiltration by leukocytes, and changes in the dermal microvasculature. Differentiation and activation are disturbed in lesional psoriatic keratinocytes, and the pool of ...
Kastelan Marija - - 2009
Apoptosis is a process of programmed cell death that maintains homeostasis of the skin. Apoptotic cell death regulates keratinocyte proliferation and formation of stratum corneum. The process by which keratinocytes undergo apoptosis is a multistep program mediated by binding of specific death ligands to death receptors or by the release ...
Yoon Weon-Jong - - 2009
In this study, the chemical composition of Cryptomeria japonica essential oil (CJE) was analyzed and its biological activities were tested. CJE was obtained by steam distillation from leaves collected from Jeju Island and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detection (FID) and GC-MS. Kaurene (17.20%), elemol (10.88%), gamma-eudesmol (9.41%), and ...
Oyoshi Michiko K - - 2009
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a pruritic inflammatory skin disease associated with a personal or family history of allergy. The prevalence of AD is on the rise and estimated at approximately 17% in the USA. The fundamental lesion in AD is a defective skin barrier that results in dry itchy skin, ...
Munir K - - 2009
The effects of salinomycin (SAL) on protective cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses of vaccinated and challenged broiler chicks against hydropericardium syndrome virus (HPSV) and Newcastle disease (NDV) were investigated while comparing 3 reference drugs [levamisole, cyclophosphamide (CYP), and cyclosporine (CYS)]. Peripheral lymphoproliferation, skin hypersensitivity reactions, and the ability of chicks to ...
Ansorge Siegfried - - 2009
In the past, different research groups could show that treatment of immune cells with inhibitors of post-proline splitting dipeptidyl aminopeptidases leads to functional changes in the immune system consistent with immunosuppression. This is due to the inhibition of proliferation of lymphocytes and the production of inflammatory cytokines of the TH1, ...
de Oliveira Cristiane Carla - - 2009
Systemic sclerosis, or scleroderma, is a rheumatic disease characterized by autoimmunity, vasculopathy, and fibrosis of the skin and several internal organs. In the present study, our aim was to assess the skin alterations in animals with scleroderma during the first stages of disease induction. To induce scleroderma, female New Zealand ...
Korting H C - - 2009
Until today, the pathogenesis of rosacea is not known in detail. Yet in recent years evidence has been accumulating that rosacea with its common symptoms such as inflammatory lesions, erythema, telangiectasia, phymatous changes, and ocular symptoms is of inflammatory nature. Tetracycline derivatives like doxycycline successfully used in the treatment of ...
Scarponi Claudia - - 2009
Low-frequency ultrasounds (US) are used to enhance drug transdermal transport. Although this phenomenon has been extensively analyzed, information on US effects on the single skin cell components is limited. Here, we investigated the possible effects of low-frequency US on viability and immune functions of cultured human keratinocytes and dendritic cells ...
Tewari-Singh Neera N Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado 80045, - - 2009
Sulfur mustard (HD) is an alkylating and cytotoxic chemical warfare agent, which inflicts severe skin toxicity and an inflammatory response. Effective medical countermeasures against HD-caused skin toxicity are lacking due to limited knowledge of related mechanisms, which is mainly attributed to the requirement of more applicable and efficient animal skin ...
Boehme Stefen A - - 2009
A FITC-induced allergic contact hypersensitivity model was used to investigate the role that the prostaglandin D(2) receptor-chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T(h)2 cells (CRTH2) plays in modulating cutaneous inflammation. Our results show that inhibition of CRTH2, achieved via administration of a potent, small molecule antagonist, Compound A (Cmpd A), effectively ...
Eyerich Kilian - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Patients with atopic eczema (AE) regularly experience colonization with Staphylococcus aureus that is directly correlated with the severity of eczema. Recent studies show that an impaired IL-17 immune response results in diseases associated with chronic skin infections. OBJECTIVE: We sought to elucidate the effect of IL-17 on antimicrobial immune ...
Koçer S S - - 2008
AIMS: To investigate the effects of anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) on human primary keratinocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We show here that human primary keratinocytes are resistant to LeTx-triggered cytotoxicity. All but one of the MEKs (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases) are cleaved within 3 h, and the cleavage of MEKs in ...
Wong H K - - 2008
T cells are critical effectors of the adaptive immune response and play an important role in cutaneous immunity. In the skin, various cell types cooperate together, from components of both the innate immunity and adaptive immunity, provide sentinel function to mediate the immune response. However, when T cell function becomes ...
Lehman Jonathan M JM Department of Cell Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, - - 2009
The primary cilium is a microtubule-based organelle implicated as an essential component of a number of signaling pathways. It is present on cells throughout the mammalian body; however, its functions in most tissues remain largely unknown. Herein we demonstrate that primary cilia are present on cells in murine skin and ...
Schmidt Enno - - 2009
The autoimmune blistering skin disease pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is caused primarily by autoantibodies against desmosomal cadherins. It was reported that apoptosis can be detected in pemphigus skin lesions and that apoptosis can be induced by PV-IgG in cultured keratinocytes. However, the role of apoptosis in PV pathogenesis is unclear at ...
Sengupta Sujit Ranjan - - 2008
Arsenicosis is a multisystem disorder, with virtually no system spared from its vicious claw; though its predominant manifestations are linked to cutaneous involvement. Cutaneous effects take the form of pigmentary changes, hyperkeratosis, and skin cancers (Bowen's disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell epithelioma). Peripheral vascular disease (blackfoot disease), hypertension, ...
Janssens A S - - 2009
Polymorphic light eruption (PLE) is a putative delayed-type allergic reaction to (solar) ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Inadequate immune suppression after UVB-induced sunburn appears to be associated with reduced trafficking of Langerhans cells (LCs) out of and neutrophils into the epidermis of patients sensitive to UVB provocation of PLE. Therefore, we investigated ...
Stenderup K - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-20 is a recently discovered cytokine displaying increased levels in psoriatic lesions. Interestingly, IL-20 levels decrease with antipsoriatic treatment, correlating with clinical improvement. However, the role of IL-20 in the aetiology of psoriasis is unknown. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigate the effects both of blocking IL-20 signalling ...
Saxena Neha - - 2009
Patulin (PAT), a mycotoxin found in apples, grapes, oranges, pear and peaches, is a potent genotoxic compound. WHO has highlighted the need for the study of cutaneous toxicity of PAT as manual labour is employed during pre and post harvest stages, thereby causing direct exposure to skin. In the present ...
Chamorro Clara I - - 2009
The human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is involved in various aspects of skin biology, including protection against infection, wound healing, and also in psoriasis. The tight regulation of apoptosis is critical in tissue repair and its deregulation is a part of the psoriasis phenotype. Despite being involved in cell death ...
Zheng Tao - - 2009
IL-13 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis (AD). However, a direct role of IL-13 in AD has not been established. We aimed to develop an inducible transgenic model in which IL-13 can be expressed in the skin and to define the resulting dermal phenotype ...
Gendronneau Gaëlle - - 2008
Galectins, a family of beta-galactoside binding lectins, have recently emerged as novel regulators of tissue homeostasis. Galectin-7 is predominantly expressed in stratified epithelia, especially in epidermis. We report here the generation of galectin-7-deficient mice that are viable and do not display phenotypical abnormalities in skin structure or expression of epidermal ...
Kim Jenny - - 2008
Acne, one of the most common skin diseases, is caused by multiple factors, including Propionibacterium acnes. Studies suggest that responses to P. acnes by host immunity play important roles in its pathogenesis. Identifying immune modulators that attenuate inflammatory responses against P. acnes and the inhibition of bacterial growth may lead ...
Zefferino Roberto - - 2008
Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is used to control cell proliferation. It is not surprising then that a lack of GJIC (i.e., during loss of contact inhibition among adjacent cells) is associated with cancer promotion/progression. There also seems to be a link between ineffective GJIC and increases in inflammatory events. ...
Dell'oste Valentina - - 2008
Keratinocytes can be induced to produce cytokines by exogenous stimuli, such as UVB, and dysregulation of this production has been described in various skin diseases, including cancer. In this study, we compared the effect of UVB on the secretion of several cytokines involved in inflammation by human keratinocytes immortalized or ...
Ito Taisuke - - 2009
Roxithromycin (RXM) is a 14-member macrolide antibiotics, with a variety of bioregulatory functions including anti-apoptotic activity to keratinocytes. Therefore, RXM has been used for many kinds of skin diseases. In this study, human and murine hair follicles were treated with RXM in order to find the possibility to cure hair ...
Xu Cheng-Xiong - - 2008
Inflammatory factors are known to play a key role in promoting tumorigenesis; therefore, it is a promising strategy to inhibit the inflammation for cancer prevention. The current study was performed to investigate the potential effects of chondroitin sulfate (CS) extracted from ascidian tunic on the expression of inflammatory factors induced ...
Sárdy Miklós - - 2009
Calcineurin inhibitors are immunomodulator macrolides that block T cell activation in the skin. These molecules bind to macrophilin 12 to form a complex capable of blocking calcineurin, a protein that dephosphorylates, and thereby activates, the cytoplasmic subunit of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT). Thus, in the presence of ...
Hussein Mahmoud Rezk A - - 2009
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a cell-mediated, delayed type IV immunologic reaction. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that results from a complex interaction between immunologic, genetic, and environmental factors. Pityriasis rosea (PR) is a self-limited eruption of unknown etiology. Immune cell infiltrate is a constant feature ...
Wenzel Joerg - - 2009
Inappropriate activation of innate immune mechanisms, in particular of the type I interferon (IFN) system, is regarded to play an important role in the pathogenesis of lupus erythematosus (LE). Type I IFN serum levels have been shown to correlate with the disease activity in systemic LE and additionally play a ...
Jean Jessica - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by a thickening and disorganization of the skin's protective barrier. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to develop and characterize a novel in vitro psoriatic human skin model produced by tissue engineering. METHODS: The self-assembly method, a tissue engineering approach based on the capacity ...
Bos Jan D - - 2008
Topical therapy in psoriasis is of use in mild cases. It is also applied as an adjunct to phototherapy and systemic treatments in moderate to severe cases. Long-established pharmaceuticals such as cignolin, tar preparations, and glucocorticoids are still in use. Newer topical agents such as vitamin A and D derivatives ...
Homey Bernhard - - 2008
In recent years, our knowledge of the immunopathogenesis of chronic inflammatory skin diseases has increased significantly. Accumulating evidence indicates that the complex interaction of structural cells, in particular keratinocytes and endothelial cells, with skin-infiltrating leukocytes is key to our understanding of psoriasis. The recruitment of pathogenic leukocyte subsets into the ...
Incorvaia C - - 2008
Allergic skin disorders include urticaria, angioedema, contact dermatitis and atopic dermatitis, but the model fitting most closely the systemic concept of allergy is atopic dermatitis (AD), the pathogenesis of which is linked to a complex interaction between skin barrier dysfunction and environmental factors such as allergens and microbes. In particular, ...
Struijk Linda - - 2008
Epidemiological studies have shown an association between infections by specific betapapillomaviruses, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) types 5 and 8, and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The role of betapapillomaviruses in the development of cutaneous SCC is, however, still enigmatic. The ability to inhibit UVB-induced apoptosis, as demonstrated for HPV5 ...
Pacheco-Palencia Lisbeth A - - 2008
Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been associated with several acute and chronic conditions, including sunburn, edema, hyperplasia, immunosuppression, photoaging, and skin cancer. The role of naturally occurring phytochemicals in the prevention of such UV-related conditions has captured increased interest. Pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) is a rich source of ...
Hanifin Jon M - - 2009
The eczemas represent a common and diverse group of inflammatory skin diseases whose definitions and pathogenic mechanisms have often been confused and controversial. Since the millennium, fresh approaches are providing better insight. Research has focused much more upon the epidermis and the very relevant signaling pathways that contribute to spongiosis, ...
Yoshizumi Masakazu - - 2008
Ultraviolet (UV) B can lead to inflammatory responses such as sunburn, which involves the production of various inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and the induction of cell death. Keratinocytes in the skin has one of the highest risks of exposure to UV. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying UVB irradiation-induced inflammation and ...
Langberg M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy can induce severe skin responses that may limit the clinically acceptable radiation dose. The responses include erythema, dry and moist desquamation, erosions and dermal-epidermal blister formation. These effects reflect injury to, and reproductive failure of, epidermal cells and may also be due to dysregulation of the tissue remodelling ...
He Rui R Division of Immunology, Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2008
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine expressed by epithelial cells, including keratinocytes, and is important in allergic inflammation. Allergic skin inflammation elicited by epicutaneous immunization of mice with ovalbumin (OVA), a potential model of atopic dermatitis, was severely impaired in TSLPR(-/-) mice, as evidenced by decreased infiltration of eosinophils ...
Paz Mariela L - - 2008
Skin exposure to high doses of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation generates a severe inflammatory skin response. In the present study we aim to investigate, using in vitro and in vivo models, the time-course of the inflammatory skin immune response after an acute exposure to UVB irradiation, as well as its ...
Nograles K E KE Laboratory of Investigative Dermatology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, - - 2008
Psoriasis vulgaris is an inflammatory skin disease mediated by Th1 and Th17 cytokines, yet the relative contribution of interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22 on disease pathogenesis is still unknown. In this study, we sought to identify the cytokines produced by skin-resident T cells in normal skin, localize the receptors ...
Fourtanier Anny - - 2008
BACKGROUND: UVA exposure of human skin mainly produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to DNA, cell and tissue damage. It alters immune function, pigmentation and it is certainly responsible for a large part of photoaging changes. Moreover UVA is implicated in the etiology of several photodermatoses. As a consequence, to ...
Niu Yiwen - - 2008
The balance between proliferation and apoptosis of skin cells is responsible for skin turnover and the success of the wound healing process. Recent reports have shown that advanced glycosylation end product (AGE) formation participates in dermatologic problems in diabetes. However, the effect on proliferation and apoptosis of dermal fibroblasts remains ...
Cavani Andrea - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review summarizes the recent investigations focused on T regulatory cells in hapten diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple mechanisms ensure tolerance to small chemicals penetrating the skin. Among these, specific T regulatory cells play a major role in controlling harmful immune responses to environmental antigens. Most of the ...
Lee Laurie A - - 2008
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic skin disease in children. The defective barrier function of the skin in patients with AD allows foreign proteins to enter the body and interact with components of the innate and adaptive immune systems. The immune response characteristic of AD is complex with ...
Arck Petra Clara - - 2008
The term 'immune privilege' (IP) generally describes the protection of vital structures, such as the brain, the eye, or the pregnant uterus, from the potentially damaging effects of an inflammatory immune response. Initially, barriers physically camouflaging such organs were thought to shield autoantigens from immune recognition and inflammation. This simplistic ...
Metz Martin - - 2009
Mast cells are known to be important effector cells in innate immune responses to bacterial infections. However, up to now, neither the mechanisms nor the relevance of mast cell degranulation in innate skin immune responses to bacteria have been adequately addressed. In this article, we show that the bacterial toxins ...
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