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Lafond Anne A John Snow Inc., 1616 Fort Myer Drive, 16th Floor, Arlington, VA 22209, USA and Department of Global Health, School of Public Health and Health Services, George Washington University 2175 K Street, Suite 200 Washington, DC 20037, - - 2014
There is limited understanding of why routine immunization (RI) coverage improves in some settings in Africa and not in others. Using a grounded theory approach, we conducted in-depth case studies to understand pathways to coverage improvement by comparing immunization programme experience in 12 districts in three countries (Ethiopia, Cameroon and ...
Kooij Gijs G Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, - - 2013
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neuro-inflammatory disorder, which is marked by the invasion of the central nervous system by monocyte-derived macrophages and autoreactive T cells across the brain vasculature. Data from experimental animal models recently implied that the passage of leukocytes across the brain vasculature is preceded by their ...
Kunis Gilad - - 2013
Infiltrating T cells and monocyte-derived macrophages support central nervous system repair. Although infiltration of leucocytes to the injured central nervous system has recently been shown to be orchestrated by the brain's choroid plexus, the immunological mechanism that maintains this barrier and regulates its activity as a selective gate is poorly ...
Joseph-Mathurin Nelly N CEA, DSV, I2BM, MIRCen, 18 route du panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex, - - 2013
Anti-amyloid beta (Aβ) immunotherapy provides potential benefits in Alzheimer's disease patients. Nevertheless, strategies based on Aβ1-42 peptide induced encephalomyelitis and possible microhemorrhages. These outcomes were not expected from studies performed in rodents. It is critical to determine if other animal models better predict side effects of immunotherapies. Mouse lemur primates ...
Stridh Linnea - - 2013
The choroid plexus is the site of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCSFB) and has also been considered as a possible route for peripheral immune signals and cells to transfer to the central nervous system. Infection/inflammation stimulates innate and subsequent adaptive immune responses via Toll-like receptors (TLRs). In this study, ...
Cantarín-Extremera Verónica - - 2012
Hopkins syndrome occurs after an acute asthma attack. An immune-mediated mechanism has been suggested. Immunoglobulin or methylprednisone pulse therapies comprise the most useful treatment. We describe a 3-year-old girl who developed severe weakness in her left arm, 7 days after an acute asthma attack. A complete blood count with autoimmune ...
Eliades Alexia A Department of Biochemistry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, - - 2012
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated as a result of various reactions, control an array of cellular processes. The role of ROS during megakaryocyte (MK) development has been a subject of interest and research. The bone marrow niche is a site of MK differentiation and maturation. In this environment, a gradient ...
Jackson James G - - 2012
The tumour suppressor p53 directs cells towards different fates depending on the cell type and the stimulus. The decision to direct a cell towards apoptosis rather than cell-cycle arrest or senescence has important implications for tumour suppression in normal cells and drug response in tumour cells. Cells that undergo senescence ...
Kim Daekyung - - 2012
A time-course analysis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in fertilized eggs of the devil stinger (Inimicus japonicus) from 0 h post-fertilization (hpf) to the early larval stage indicated that the ROS level was highest in the 22 hpf embryo, and declined thereafter. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) had no effect ...
Mitchell Valerie L VL School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, 4206 VM3A, Davis, CA 95616-5270, - - 2012
The prevalence and severity of asthma is sexually dimorphic. Adult women have a higher incidence of asthma than men. This suggests that this disease may have a hormonal component. Progesterone has been shown to elicit an immune response similar to that seen in allergic asthma and previous studies have shown ...
Duranton Christophe - - 2012
Adaptation to hypoxia is an essential physiological response to decrease in tissue oxygenation. This process is primarily under the control of transcriptional activator hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1). A better understanding of the intracellular HIF-1 stabilization pathway would help in management of various diseases characterized by anemia. Among human pathologies, cystic fibrosis ...
Escribese María M - - 2012
Microenvironmental conditions in infected, inflamed or damaged tissues are characterized by low levels of oxygen (hypoxia) and nutrients. Myeloid cells (mostly macrophages and neutrophils) account for 95% of the cells newly recruited into inflammatory sites, and exert their effector functions under these restrictive conditions. In the case of macrophages, adaptation ...
Wolfson Marla R MR Department of Physiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. - - 2012
Acute inflammatory responses to supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation have been implicated in the pathophysiological sequelae of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Although surfactant replacement therapy (SRT) has contributed to lung stability, the effect on lung inflammation is inconclusive. Lucinactant contains sinapultide (KL4), a novel synthetic peptide that functionally mimics surfactant ...
Saitoh Tatsuya T Laboratory of Host Defense, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Suita, - - 2012
Neutrophils contribute to pathogen clearance by producing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are genomic DNA-based net-like structures that capture bacteria and fungi. Although NETs also express antiviral factors, such as myeloperoxidase and α-defensin, the involvement of NETs in antiviral responses remains unclear. We show that NETs capture human immunodeficiency virus ...
Tavares Ana Filipa N - - 2012
CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) are, in general, transition metal carbonyls complexes that liberate controlled amounts of carbon monoxide. In animal models, CO-RMs have been shown to reduce myocardial ischaemia, inflammation, vascular disfunction and to provide a protective effect in organ transplantation. Moreover, CO-RMs are bactericides that kill both Gram-positive and Gram-negative ...
Huang Ying-Ying - - 2012
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs the triple combination of photosensitizers, visible light and ambient oxygen. When PDT is used for cancer, it has been observed that both arms of the host immune system (innate and adaptive) are activated. When PDT is used for infectious disease, however, it has been assumed that ...
Schoultz Ida - - 2012
The enteric epithelium must absorb nutrients and water and act as a barrier to the entry of luminal material into the body; this barrier function is a key component of innate immunity. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced enteropathy occurs via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and perturbed epithelial mitochondrial activity. Here, the ...
Pak Seung S School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, - - 2012
Increasing evidence suggests that cytokine dysregulation in T-helper 1 and T-helper 2 (TH1/TH2) subsets contributes to the pathogenesis of Crohn disease (CD). The present pilot study examines the hypothesis that cytokine profiles differ between pediatric and adult patients with CD. Production of TH1 cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha ...
Diaz-Albiter Hector - - 2012
Phlebotomine sand flies are the vectors of medically important Leishmania. The Leishmania protozoa reside in the sand fly gut, but the nature of the immune response to the presence of Leishmania is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a major component of insect innate immune pathways regulating gut-microbe homeostasis. Here ...
Rosanna Di Paola - - 2012
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are well recognized for playing a dual role as both deleterious and beneficial species. ROS are products of normal cellular metabolism and under physiological conditions, participate in maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis. Overproduction of ROS, results in oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a deleterious process that ...
Wang Yixian - - 2012
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) produced by macrophages are essential for protecting a human body against bacteria and viruses. Micrometer-sized electrodes coated with Pt black have previously been used for selective and sensitive detection of ROS and RNS in biological systems. To determine ROS and RNS inside ...
López-Chicón Patricia - - 2012
The photoprocesses involved in hypericin photoinactivation of three different Candida species (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei) have been examined. Production of singlet oxygen from the triplet state and of superoxide from both the triplet state and the semiquinone radical anion are demonstrated. Hydrogen peroxide is formed downstream of ...
Greer Samantha N - - 2012
Oxygen is essential for eukaryotic life and is inextricably linked to the evolution of multicellular organisms. Proper cellular response to changes in oxygen tension during normal development or pathological processes, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, is ultimately regulated by the transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Over the past decade, ...
Köhler Theresa - - 2012
Dendritic cells(DCs) are important sentinels of the immune system and frequently reside in areas of low oxygen availability, in particular in the course of inflammatory processes. Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)1α is responsible for major alterations in gene expression as part of the cellular adaptation to low oxygen concentration. In this ...
Quintero P - - 2012
Adipose tissue often becomes poorly oxygenated in obese subjects. This feature may provide cellular mechanisms involving chronic inflammation processes such as the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and macrophage infiltration. In this context, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether a hyperoxia exposure on mature adipocytes may influence ...
Das Undurti N - - 2012
The inflammatory process seen in multiple sclerosis is due to an excess production of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferons, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, HMGB1 (high mobility group B1), and, possibly, a reduction in antiinflammatory cytokines IL-10, IL-4, and transforming growth factor-β that leads to increased secretion ...
Amcheslavsky Alla A Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, - - 2012
Local infection in the Drosophila larval intestine elicits a systemic immune reaction in fat bodies. In this issue, Wu and colleagues (2012) show that this is a reactive oxygen species-dependent communication.
Roselli Marianna - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Studies on health effects of organic (ORG) products are still limited and often contradictory. We have investigated the impact of ORG and conventional (CV) carrots from two consecutive harvest years on mouse peripheral and intestinal immunity. RESULTS: Danish carrots (Bolero variety) were grown in three ORG (O1, O2 and ...
Chávez-Galán Leslie - - 2012
Experimental models have shown that lipoproteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis induce apoptosis via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in the THP-1 cell line and in monocyte-derived macrophages from healthy volunteers. We found an increased percentage of circulating monocytes in patients with tuberculosis (TB) in comparison to healthy controls. Patients with TB showed ...
Kamga Christelle - - 2012
Since their initial discovery over a century ago, our knowledge of the functions of myoglobin and the mitochondrion has gradually evolved. The mitochondrion, once thought to be solely responsible for energy production, is now known to be an integral redox and apoptotic signal transducer within the cell. Likewise, myoglobin, traditionally ...
Grahl Nora N Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, - - 2012
We previously observed that hypoxia is an important component of host microenvironments during pulmonary fungal infections. However, mechanisms of fungal growth in these in vivo hypoxic conditions are poorly understood. Here, we report that mitochondrial respiration is active in hypoxia (1% oxygen) and critical for fungal pathogenesis. We generated Aspergillus ...
Nickel Daniel - - 2012
Low oxygen tension is a metabolic hallmark of chronic infection. To investigate the influence of hypoxia on macrophage biology, we analyzed the interaction between the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and primary human macrophages. Although the metabolic activity of extracellular M. tuberculosis was reduced at oxygen levels between 0.5 and 10%, ...
Buttigieg Josef - - 2012
The reduction of molecular oxygen in individual cells during the process of oxidative phosphorylation is central to oxidative metabolism and bioenergetic homeostasis. As such, any insufficiency in molecular oxygen availability represents a severe threat to sustained life. Thus, as with other similar multicellular organisms, the human body has evolved various ...
Dec Marta - - 2012
Conglutinin is a high molecular-weight lectin originally detected in bovine serum. It belongs to the family of collectins that bind sugar residues in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner and are effector molecules in innate immunity. Conglutinin appears to play an important role in immune defense mechanisms, showing antiviral and antibacterial activities when ...
Stone Rivka C RC University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey and New Jersey Medical School-University Hospital Cancer Center, Newark, NJ 07103, - - 2012
Genetic variants of interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF-5) are associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). IRF-5 regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and type I interferons (IFNs) believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of SLE. The aim of this study was to determine the activation status of ...
Heo Sook-Kyoung - - 2012
The development of gastric cancer (GC) is closely related to chronic inflammation caused by Helicobacter pylori infection, and herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) is a receptor expressed on the surface of leukocytes that mediates potent inflammatory responses in animal models. However, the role of HVEM in human GC has not ...
Jo Hakryul H Environmental Health Sciences, Yale University School of Public Health, 7th Floor, 1 Church Street, New Haven, CT 06510, USA. - - 2012
Targeting a specific arm of signaling pathways is of great interest. In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, Bosco et al. exploit the interactive interface between Rac GTPase and its effector p67(phox) to specifically inhibit reactive oxygen species production without perturbing other Rac-mediated cellular processes.
Singh Neetu - - 2012
A divergence in the supply and consumption of oxygen in brain tissue initiates complex cycle of biochemical and molecular events resulting in neuronal death. To overcome such adverse situation, the tissue has to adopt some cellular mechanisms such as induction of various transcription factors, such as hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). ...
Lindop Rhianna - - 2012
Ro/SSA and La/SSB comprise a linked set of autoantigens that are clinically important members of the extractable nuclear antigen family and key translational biomarkers for lupus and primary Sjögren's syndrome. Autoantibodies directed against the Ro60 and La polypeptide components of the Ro/La ribonucleoprotein complex, and the structurally unrelated Ro52 protein, ...
Varani Stefania - - 2012
BACKGROUND: In vitro studies suggest that human cytomegalovirus (CMV) modulates the functions of dendritic cells (DCs). However, there are limited data on DC homeostasis in CMV-infected patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize circulating DCs and plasma cytokine levels in immunocompetent patients with primary, symptomatic CMV infections. ...
Kaplan Daniel H - - 2012
The skin is a barrier site that is exposed to a wide variety of potential pathogens. As in other organs, pathogens that invade the skin are recognized by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). Recently, it has been recognized that PRRs are also engaged by chemical contact allergens and, in susceptible individuals, this ...
Munitz Ariel - - 2012
Resistin-like molecule α (Relm-α) is one of the most up-regulated gene products in allergen- and parasite-associated Th2 responses. Localized to alternatively activated macrophages, Relm-α was shown to exert an anti-inflammatory effect in parasite-induced Th2 responses, but its role in experimental asthma remains unexplored. Here, we analyzed the cellular source, the ...
Vadász István I Department of Internal Medicine, University of Giessen Lung Center, Justus Liebig University, Germany. - - 2012
Patients with severe acute and chronic lung diseases develop derangements in gas exchange that may result in increased levels of CO(2) (hypercapnia), the effects of which on human health are incompletely understood. It has been proposed that hypercapnia may have beneficial effects in patients with acute lung injury, and the ...
Win N - - 2012
Background: Hyperhaemolytic transfusion reaction (HHTR) has been well described in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). It is characterised by a decrease in haemoglobin concentration to levels below those before transfusion and a fall in the absolute reticulocyte count. As red blood cells (RBC) alloantibodies are typically not detected in ...
Hu Zhenli Z Department of Respiratory Medicine, Changhai Hospital, the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, - - 2012
Salmeterol is a long-acting β2-agonist that activates adenylate cyclase, causing long-lasting bronchodilation and has been used for many years to control asthma. However, little information is available about the immunoregulatory effects of salmeterol. We found that salmeterol decreases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a model of allergen-challenged mice that ...
van Hamburg Jan Piet - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: T helper 17 (Th17) cells from patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) induce a proinflammatory feedback loop upon RA synovial fibroblast (RASF) interaction, including autocrine interleukin (IL)-17A production. A major challenge in medicine is how to control the pathogenic Th17 cell activity in human inflammatory autoimmune diseases. The objective ...
Tsuneyoshi Y - - 2012
The distribution of folate receptor (FR)-β+ macrophages and their M1/M2 expression profiles were examined in osteoarthritis (OA) synovial tissues, and compared to those in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial tissues and CD163+ macrophages in both OA and RA synovial tissues. The phenotypes and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-folate uptake of FR-β+ synovial macrophages ...
Zhang Nan - - 2012
Background. Patients seek an effective alternative to pharmacotherapy including herbal treatment options for allergic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis. Material and Methods. Nasal mucosal tissue was obtained from 12 patients, fragmented, preincubated with tissue culture medium, S. baicalensis and/or E. senticosus and/or vitamin C (each compound 0.2 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL) for 1 hour ...
Brandtzaeg Petter - - 2012
The clinical symptoms induced by Neisseria meningitidis reflect compartmentalized intravascular and intracranial bacterial growth and inflammation. In this chapter, we describe a classification system for meningococcal disease based on the nature of the clinical symptoms. Meningococci invade the subarachnoid space and cause meningitis in as many as 50-70% of patients. ...
Lawyer T J - - 2012
In osteoarthritis, the metabolic activity of the chondrocytes is shifted toward a state where new matrix synthesis is outweighed by breakdown of matrix constituents. The result is degeneration and gradual loss of articular cartilage. Although osteoarthritis is frequently regarded as a non-inflammatory form of arthritis, considerable data implicates a role ...
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