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Pollott G E GE Department of Production and Public Health, Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London, NW1 0TU, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Milk production from dairy animals has been described in terms of 3 processes: the increase in secretory cell numbers in late pregnancy and early lactation, secretion rate of milk per cell, and the decline in cell numbers as lactation progresses. This latter process is thought to be determined by the ...
Berens-Riha Nicole - - 2014
Malaria has been shown to change blood counts. Recently, a few studies have investigated the alteration of the peripheral blood monocyte-to-lymphocyte count ratio (MLCR) and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) during infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Based on these findings this study investigates the predictive values of blood count alterations during ...
Glushakova Svetlana S Program in Physical Biology, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, - - 2014
Background. The mechanisms by which α-thalassemia and sickle cell traits confer protection from severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria are not yet fully elucidated. We hypothesized that hemoglobinopathic erythrocytes reduce the intraerythrocytic multiplication of P. falciparum, potentially delaying the development of life threatening parasite densities until parasite clearing immunity is achieved.Methods. We developed a ...
Wynant Niels N Molecular Developmental Physiology and Signal Transduction, Department of Animal Physiology and Neurobiology, KU Leuven, Naamsestraat 59, P.O. Box 02465, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
Desert locusts are characterized by a highly sensitive and effective RNA interference (RNAi) response. Moreover, delivery of dsRNA into the open body cavity will elicit potent silencing effects throughout the body. On the other hand, many other insect species, such as Bombyx mori and Drosophila melanogaster, lack the ability to ...
Moore Kathryn J KJ Marc and Ruti Bell Vascular Biology and Disease Program, Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, - - 2014
Macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques are activated, inflammatory cells that directly contribute to the disease process. De Nardo et al. (2013), now report that high-density lipoproteins (HDL) can reprogram macrophages to be less inflammatory through an ATF3-dependent pathway, providing another mechanistic basis for the atheroprotective properties of HDL.
Matsuura Eiji E Collaborative Research Center (OMIC), Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. - - 2014
Immunologic research into pathogenic mechanisms operating in autoimmune-mediated atherosclerosis initially focused on adaptive immunity. Current interest is directed to more basic inflammatory mechanisms. Chronic inflammation (innate immunity-associated) may trigger initial events that can lead to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This chronic inflammation may start early in life and be perpetuated by ...
Li Kun K 0000-0002-8244-9404 Key Laboratory of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Emergency, National Institute for Radiological Protection, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2 Xinkang Street, Deshengmenwai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088, - - 2014
Objective. The aim of the study is to estimate the immune function through cytokine profiles in sera of uranium mines. Methods. Antibody arrays were used to detect 50 cytokines in sera of uranium miners. Miners who had continuously worked underground for <5 years were treated as control group and those ...
O'Callaghan Yvonne C - - 2013
Abstract A high dietary intake of polyphenols has been associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, attributed in part to their antioxidant activity and pro-apoptotic effects. Aquamin is a multi-mineral algal extract that enhances bone mineralization, relieves osteoarthritis, and aids digestion; however, Aquamin has not demonstrated antioxidant ...
Bonfrate Leonilde - - 2013
Abstract The gastrointestinal tract is a natural reservoir of microbiota. The gut is germ-free at birth, but rapidly becomes host to various bacteria establishing a progressively mutual relationship. The composition of gut microbiota is individual-specific and depends on the genotype of the host and environmental factors. Novel techniques have been ...
Harrington Andrea D - - 2013
On the basis of a recent epidemiological study it is hypothesized that pyrite content in coal is an important factor in coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) pathogenesis. While the role of pyrite in pathogenesis remains to be resolved, the ability of the mineral to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) through various ...
Järemo Petter - - 2013
BACKGROUND: The current study investigates circulating eosinophils and neutrophils in Alzheimer's (AD) type dementia with respect to density (kg/L). The existence of β-amyloid plaques in the brain is a feature of AD. Sporadic scientific reports indicate that the disease affects circulating neutrophils. In contrast, numerous publications investigate inflammatory reactions in ...
Boruah Dibyajyoti - - 2013
Background: Vascular proliferation, inflammation and epidermal changes are important features in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Aims: In this study we attempted an objective evaluation of these parameters using morphometry. Methods: Inflammation, microvessels and epidermal parameters were assessed in 50 newly diagnosed cases of psoriasis vulgaris (between 01 Nov 2008 and ...
Nokelainen Ossi - - 2013
Warning signals are expected to evolve towards conspicuousness and monomorphism, and thereby hamper the evolution of multiple colour morphs. Here, we test fitness responses to different rearing densities to explain colour polymorphism in aposematic wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis) males. We used larval lines sired by white or yellow adult ...
Pacheco Patricia - - 2013
Controlled induction of phagocytosis in macrophages offers the ability to therapeutically regulate the immune system as well as improve delivery of chemicals or biologicals for immune processing. Maximizing particle uptake by macrophages through Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis could lead to new delivery mechanisms in drug or vaccine development. Fc ligand density ...
Kaji Hidesuke - - 2013
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) plays a major role in vasodilation and in the reduction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, inflammation, apoptosis, thrombosis, and infection; however, HDL is now less functional in these roles under certain conditions. This paper focuses on HDL, its anti-inflammation behavior, and the mechanisms by which HDL interacts ...
Pilakka-Kanthikeel Sudheesh - - 2013
Parenteral use of drugs; such as opiates exert immunomodulatory effects and serve as a cofactor in the progression of HIV-1 infection, thereby potentiating HIV related neurotoxicity ultimately leading to progression of NeuroAIDS. Morphine exposure is known to induce apoptosis, down regulate cAMP response element-binding (CREB) expression and decrease in dendritic ...
Stoepler Teresa M - - 2013
The cellular arm of the insect immune response is mediated by the activity of hemocytes. While hemocytes have been well-characterized morphologically and functionally in model insects, few studies have characterized the hemocytes of non-model insects. Further, the role of ontogeny in mediating immune response is not well understood in non-model ...
Pai Anand - - 2012
Bacteria secrete a variety of public good exoproducts into their environment. These exoproducts are typically produced under the control of quorum sensing (QS), a signaling mechanism by which bacteria sense and respond to changes in their density. QS seems to provide an advantageous strategy to regulate these costly but beneficial ...
Cameron Angus A Boyd Orr Centre for Population and Ecosystem Health, Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow Glasgow, UK ; Department of Systems and Computational Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine Bronx, NY, - - 2013
Parasites may alter their behaviour to cope with changes in the within-host environment. In particular, investment in transmission may alter in response to the availability of parasite resources or host immune responses. However, experimental and theoretical studies have drawn conflicting conclusions regarding parasites' optimal (adaptive) responses to deterioration in habitat ...
Hsieh Hsun-Yi - - 2012
Trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMII) can be as important as density-mediated indirect interactions. Here, we provide evidence for a novel trait-mediated cascade (where one TMII affects another TMII) and demonstrate that the mechanism consists of a predator eavesdropping on chemical signaling. Ants protect scale insects from predation by adult coccinellid beetles ...
Song Xinxin - - 2012
Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world; death usually results from uncontrolled metastatic disease. Previously, we developed a novel strategy of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2L/TRAIL) in combination with hyperthermia to treat hepatic colorectal metastases. However, previous studies suggest a potential hepatocyte cytotoxicity with TRAIL. ...
Humphreys Daniel - - 2012
Salmonella virulence effectors elicit host cell membrane ruffling to facilitate pathogen invasion. The WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) governs the underlying membrane-localized actin polymerization, but how Salmonella manipulates WRC is unknown. We show that Rho GTPase activation by the Salmonella guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) SopE efficiently triggered WRC recruitment but ...
Chiswick Evan L - - 2012
Accurate measurement of cytokine concentrations is a powerful and essential approach to the study of inflammation. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a simple, low-cost analytical tool that provides both the specificity and sensitivity required for the study of cytokines in vitro or in vivo. This communication describes a systematic ...
Landis Susanne H - - 2012
Extreme climate events such as heat waves are expected to increase in frequency under global change. As one indirect effect, they can alter magnitude and direction of species interactions, for example those between hosts and parasites. We simulated a summer heat wave to investigate how a changing environment affects the ...
Kirton Christopher M - - 2011
The induction of cytokine release is a common consequence of the administration of therapeutic antibodies and in most cases is either tolerated by the patient or can be managed clinically by the administration of corticosteroids. However, in 2006, the administration of TGN1412 to six patients in a Phase I trial ...
Tian F - - 2011
Background.  Numerous molecular events have been associated with the development of malignant melanoma (MM). The cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) was originally identified as an inhibitor of death-receptor signalling through competition with FADD-like interleukin-1β-converting enzyme (FLICE; also known as caspase-8) for recruitment to the FAS-associated death domain (FADD), and it ...
Alvarez Hamsell M - - 2011
Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a potent cytokine homodimer with multiple immunoregulatory functions. Here, we have characterized the effects of pegylation and formation of hIL-10/hαhIL-10 (humanized anti-hIL-10) immune complexes in the pharmacokinetics (PK), biodistribution and biotransformation of IL-10 in mice. In order to assess the fate of native, pegylated and antibody ...
Dawson Dominic R - - 2011
Objective-To investigate the effect of opsonization of Rhodococcus equi with R equi-specific antibodies in plasma on bacterial viability and phagocyte activation in a cell culture model of infection. Sample-Neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrophages from 6 healthy 1-week-old foals and 1 adult horse. Procedures-Foal and adult horse phagocytes were incubated with either ...
Perrier Clémentine - - 2011
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic disabling diseases with significant morbidity. A deregulated immune response towards the intestinal microbiota is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of IBD, and thus biological therapies targeting key molecules such as cytokines have been designed. Several anti-TNF-α agents are currently being ...
Woo Chern Chiuh - - 2011
Thymoquinone is an active ingredient isolated from Nigella sativa and has been investigated for its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities in both in vitro and in vivo models since its first extraction in 1960s. Its anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory effect has been reported in various disease models, including encephalomyelitis, diabetes, asthma and carcinogenesis. ...
Molfino N A - - 2011
Interleukin-5 is a Th2 homodimeric cytokine involved in the differentiation, maturation, migration, development, survival, trafficking and effector function of blood and local tissue eosinophils, in addition to basophils and mast cells. The IL-5 receptor (IL-5R) consists of an IL-5-specific α subunit that interacts in conformationally dynamic ways with the receptor's ...
Choy E - - 2011
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis with many systemic manifestations. Several monoclonal antibodies targeting different components of the immune systems have been licensed for treatment of RA. Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) are found abundantly in the blood and the joints. The biologic effect of IL-6 on ...
Atreya Raja - - 2011
The anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibodies infliximab, adalimumab, and certolizumab pegol have proven clinical efficacy in Crohn's disease. Here, we assessed the effects of anti-TNF antibodies on apoptosis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CD14(+) macrophages and CD4(+) T cells were isolated from peripheral blood and lamina propria mononuclear cells from ...
Potůčková Lucie - - 2011
Reliable and simple methods are required for detection of low concentrations of cytokines and some other proteins in complex biological fluids. This is especially important when monitoring the immune responses under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions in vivo or following production of these compounds in in vitro systems. Cytokines and ...
de Moraes Weuller F - - 2011
Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of Pterodon emarginatus Vogel stem bark (EtEx) resulted in the isolation and characterization of lupeol and betulin. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and comparison with literature values. This study showed the anti-inflammatory activity of EtEx, the hexane (HexL) ...
Marzouk B - - 2011
Inflammations and immune-related diseases including rheumatoid arthritis are widespread in the entire globe. The treatment of these illnesses is mainly based on the use of synthetic and biotechnological drugs, in recent years. Tunisian traditional medicine is a potential source of new remedies namely Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae): endemic in southern ...
Borie R - - 2011
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare pulmonary disease characterised by alveolar accumulation of surfactant. It may result from mutations in surfactant proteins or granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor genes, it may be secondary to toxic inhalation or haematological disorders, or it may be auto-immune, with anti-GM-CSF antibodies blocking ...
Di Rong - - 2011
Momordica grosvenori (<i>Luo Han Guo</i>), grown primarily in Guangxi Province in China, has been traditionally used for thousands of years by the Chinese to make hot drinks for the treatment of sore throat and the removal of phlegm. The natural non-caloric sweetening triterpenoid glycosides (mogrosides) contained in the <i>M. grosvenori</i> ...
Wang Dong - - 2011
  Background:  The stress-inducible chaperone heat shock protein (HSP) 70 is considered a 'danger signal' if released into the extracellular environment. It has been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of skin diseases such as psoriasis and lupus erythematosus (LE). Objectives:  The aim of this study was to ...
Hvid Malene - - 2011
  Caspase 14 is a unique member of the cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase family. Its expression is confined primarily to cornified epithelium such as the skin. Caspase 14 has been associated with the processing of filaggrin monomers and the development of natural moisturising factors of the skin, and thus, it could ...
von Stebut Esther - - 2011
It was long believed that epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) are responsible for the initiation of cellular immunity. Only recently it has been shown that in skin alone 5 different subtypes of dendritic cells (DC) can be identified. Among these, LC, but also two Langerin-expressing dermal DC populations and two more ...
Moravvej Hamideh - - 2011
The Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) system has been recognized as an important pathway for apoptosis induction in cells and tissues. It has recently been shown that skin lesions of pemphigus vulgaris are associated with Fas mediated apoptosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of serum soluble Fas ...
Kamsteeg Marijke - - 2011
Both the immune system and the epidermis likely have an important role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). The objective of the present study was to develop a human skin equivalent model exhibiting morphologic and molecular characteristics of AD in a controlled manner. Skin equivalents generated from normal adult ...
Hiromi Narumi - - 2011
Keratinocytes play an important role in the inflammatory response of the skin. UVB stimulates keratinocytes to secrete several cytokines. To our knowledge, there are no reports that have examined which layer or cell type is responsible for producing these cytokines. Thus, in this study we performed immunohistochemical experiments to determine ...
Nicolaou Anna A School of Pharmacy and Centre for Skin Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford, UK. - - 2011
Acute exposure of human skin to the ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in sunlight results in the sunburn response. This is mediated in part by pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and other bioactive lipids, which are in turn produced via mechanisms including UVR-induction of oxidative stress, cell signalling and gene expression. Sunburn is a self-limiting ...
Takizawa Fumio - - 2011
Rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon interleukin-4/13A (IL-4/13A) genes were identified. They were found expressed at high level in thymus, gill, and skin, in concert with the transcription factor gene GATA-3. High expression levels of IL-4, IL-13, and GATA-3 were also detected in murine thymus, suggesting similar importance of the fish ...
Katz David - - 2011
Cocoa contains more phenolic antioxidants than most foods. Flavonoids, including catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidins predominate in antioxidant activity. The tricyclic structure of the flavonoids determines antioxidant effects that scavenge reactive oxygen species, chelate Fe2+ and Cu+, inhibit enzymes, and upregulate antioxidant defenses. The epicatechin content of cocoa is primarily responsible ...
Kaur Simarna - - 2011
The human body has its own innate electrical system that regulates the body's functions via communications among organs through the well-known neural system. While the effect of low-level electrical stimulation on wound repair has been reported, few studies have examined the effect of electric potential on non-wounded, intact skin. A ...
Moeen Rezakhanlou Alireza - - 2011
NO (nitric oxide) molecule is produced by various mammalian cell types and plays a significant role in inflammation, infection and wound healing processes. Recently, gNO (gaseous nitric oxide) therapy has been utilized for its potential clinical application as an antimicrobial agent, with special focus on skin infection. In a previous ...
Grice Elizabeth A - - 2011
The skin is the human body's largest organ, colonized by a diverse milieu of microorganisms, most of which are harmless or even beneficial to their host. Colonization is driven by the ecology of the skin surface, which is highly variable depending on topographical location, endogenous host factors and exogenous environmental ...
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