Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1542
< 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >
Chrousos George P - - 2009
All organisms must maintain a complex dynamic equilibrium, or homeostasis, which is constantly challenged by internal or external adverse forces termed stressors. Stress occurs when homeostasis is threatened or perceived to be so; homeostasis is re-established by various physiological and behavioral adaptive responses. Neuroendocrine hormones have major roles in the ...
Ulrich-Lai Yvonne M YM Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati, Ohio 45237-0506, - - 2009
The survival and well-being of all species requires appropriate physiological responses to environmental and homeostatic challenges. The re- establishment and maintenance of homeostasis entails the coordinated activation and control of neuroendocrine and autonomic stress systems. These collective stress responses are mediated by largely overlapping circuits in the limbic forebrain, the ...
Yamazaki Matsumi - - 2009
Genipin is an iridoid compound and an aglucon of geniposide isolated from Gardenia fructus. We have previously reported that genipin induces neurite outgrowth in PC12h and Neuro2a cells and protects against cytotoxicity induced by several conditions such as beta-amyloid peptide, serum deprivation, and oxidative stress in rat primary hippocampal neurons ...
Oostingh Gertie Janneke - - 2009
Some organophosphate insecticides have immunomodulating capacities, but it is unknown whether different compounds within this class affect the immune system to the same extent. In this in vitro study, human immortalized T-lymphocytes or bronchial epithelial cells were treated with diazinon or chlorpyrifos in the absence or presence of cellular stress ...
Ventura Lori M - - 2009
Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is a relatively new discipline within the field of neuroscience which researches the relationship between emotional states, the central and peripheral nervous systems, and the endocrine and immune systems. Negative psychological states, such as stress, anxiety, and depression, may alter immune system regulation and modulation of peripheral cytokines. ...
Barouei J - - 2009
Neonatal stress is a common early life event which alters the development of the endocrine and immune systems. Specifically, exposure to neonatal stress results in alterations to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis resulting in offspring who hyper-respond to stress in adulthood. Recently, this concept has been applied to the ontogeny of ...
Wieten Lotte - - 2010
Stress proteins such as heat shock proteins (Hsps) are up-regulated in cells in response to various forms of stress, like thermal and oxidative stress and inflammation. Hsps prevent cellular damage and increase immunoregulation by the activation of anti-inflammatory T-cells. Decreased capacity for stress-induced Hsp expression is associated with immune disorders. ...
de Palencia Pilar Fernández - - 2009
Exopolysaccharides have prebiotic potential and contribute to the rheology and texture of fermented foods. Here we have analyzed the in vitro bioavailability and immunomodulatory properties of the 2-substituted (1,3)-beta-D-glucan-producing bacterium Pediococcus parvulus 2.6. It resists gastrointestinal stress, adheres to Caco-2 cells, and induces the production of inflammation-related cytokines by polarized ...
Ermolao A - - 2009
We previously confirmed that high altitude (HA) exposure can modify the number and function of immune cells, leading to a disruption in the homeostatic regulation of T helper1 (Th1)/T helper2 (Th2) immune responses. Our aim was to evaluate possible relationships between the stress response and immunological parameters during HA exposure. ...
Vanlerberghe Greg C - - 2009
All plants maintain a non-energy-conserving pathway of mitochondrial electron transport referred to as alternative oxidase (AOX) respiration. Here, we briefly review some of the most prevailing themes for the metabolic and physiological roles of this respiratory pathway. Many of these themes relate to the potential of AOX to provide metabolic ...
Avitsur Ronit R School of Behavioral Sciences, The Academic College of Tel Aviv-Yaffo, Yaffo 68114, Israel. - - 2009
The quality of the early environment, especially during the neonatal period, influences the development of individual differences in resistance to stress and illness in adulthood. A previous study demonstrated that neonatal stress augmented proinflammatory cytokine expression and viral replication in influenza virus-infected adult mice. The goal of the following study ...
Barry Seán P - - 2009
The transcription factor STAT1 plays a role in promoting apoptotic cell death, whereas the related STAT3 transcription factor protects cardiac myocytes from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury or oxidative stress. Cytokines belonging to the IL-6 family activate the JAK-STAT3 pathway, but also activate other cytoprotective pathways such as the MAPK-ERK or the ...
Yamakawa Kaori - - 2009
It has been demonstrated that concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are elevated by acute stress. Although several studies confirmed robust changes in IL-6, how acute stress affects other cytokines was less clear. Therefore, the present study simultaneously examined the effects of acute stress on ...
Ding Xiaoyan - - 2009
PURPOSE: To investigate the role of HtrA2/Omi, a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial serine protease with a proapoptosis function, under H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress in human RPE, in the Ccl2(-)(/)(-)Cx3cr1(-)(/)(-) double-knockout (DKO) mouse retina, and the HtrA2/Omi-deficient mice. METHODS: Oxidative stress was induced in ARPE-19 cells by 1 mM H(2)O(2) for 2 hours. HtrA2/Omi ...
Cirulli Francesca - - 2009
The role of the neurotrophins Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) has been expanding over the last years from trophic factors involved in brain growth and differentiation, to much more complex messengers, involved in psycho-neuro-endocrine adaptations. Much of this research stems from a series of studies inspired ...
Ulrich-Lai Yvonne M - - 2009
The survival and well-being of all species requires appropriate physiological responses to environmental and homeostatic challenges. The re-establishment and maintenance of homeostasis entails the coordinated activation and control of neuroendocrine and autonomic stress systems. These collective stress responses are mediated by largely overlapping circuits in the limbic forebrain, the hypothalamus ...
Avitsur Ronit - - 2009
This article summarizes the endocrine and immune changes induced by an experimental model for social stress characterized by repeated defeat. Data indicate that mice facing a social stressor may use different behavioral coping responses based on the environmental conditions and previous experiences. Although chronic stressors generally suppress immune function and ...
Multhoff Gabriele - - 2009
Intracellular heat shock proteins (HSP) function as molecular chaperones, they support folding and transport mechanisms of other proteins under physiological conditions and following physical or chemical stress. More recently, extracellular localized HSP have been found to play key roles in the induction of a cellular immune response. Either they act ...
Crucian Brian E - - 2009
As logistical access for space research becomes more limited and NASA prepares for exploration-class missions, ground-based spaceflight analogs will increase in importance for biomedical countermeasures development. A monitoring of immune parameters was performed during the NASA Flight Analogs Project bed rest study (without countermeasure); to establish 'control' data against which ...
Burmester Thorsten - - 2009
For a long time, haemoglobin and myoglobin had been assumed to represent the only globin types of vertebrates. In 2000, however, we discovered a third globin type by mining the genome sequence data. Based on a preferential expression in the nervous system, this globin is referred to as neuroglobin. Despite ...
Jiang Chen Chen - - 2009
Past studies have shown that melanoma cells have largely adapted to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In this study, we report that melanoma cells under ER stress are more resistant to apoptosis induced by the microtubule-targeting chemotherapeutic drugs, docetaxel and vincristine, and this is, at least in part, due to activation ...
Xu Dong - - 2009
Supplemental oxygen therapy (hyperoxia) in preterm babies with respiratory stress is associated with lung injury and the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis plays critical roles in maintaining cellular functions such as protein synthesis, folding, and secretion. Interruption of ER homeostasis causes ER stress and triggers the unfolded ...
Picardi Angelo - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: People seeking for psychotherapeutic help present with a variety of conditions including stress, depression, anxiety, and maladaptive individual difference factors. This paper reviews the studies investigating the link between these conditions and immunity. FINDINGS: The relationship between stress-related conditions and immunity varies depending on the nature of the stressor. ...
Xia Yun - - 2009
In response to various environmental stresses, the stress-responsive MAPKs p38 and JNK are activated and phosphorylate ATF2 and c-Jun transcription factors, thereby affecting cell-fate decision. Targeted gene disruption studies have established that JNK-c-Jun signaling plays a vital role in stress-induced apoptosis. The oncogenic phosphatase Wip1 acts as an important regulator ...
Anwar Adil A Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, - - 2009
The MerTK plays several important roles in normal macrophage physiology, including regulation of cytokine secretion and clearance of apoptotic cells. Mer signaling in other cell types, including malignant cells that ectopically overexpress the RTK, leads to downstream prosurvival pathway activation. We explored the hypothesis that Mer has a prosurvival role ...
Van Aken Olivier - - 2009
The alternative oxidase (AOX) is found in all plants examined to date, fungi and lower invertebrates. We propose that AOX is not only part of the stress response in plants, but it also plays a central role in defining the stress response. Three lines of evidence support this proposal: (1) ...
Taiyab Aftab - - 2009
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a major molecular chaperone that plays an essential role in the maintenance of several signaling molecules, most of which are oncogenic kinases. Hsp90 inhibition by specific inhibitors leads to destabilization and loss of activity of such proteins, thereby leading to inhibition of multiple signaling ...
Hussain Salik - - 2009
The ubiquitous presence of nanoparticles (NPs) together with increasing evidence linking them to negative health effects points towards the need to develop the understanding of mechanisms by which they exert toxic effects. This study was designed to investigate the role of surface area and oxidative stress in the cellular effects ...
Landini Paolo - - 2009
Switching from single-cell (planktonic) to biofilm growth (and vice versa) is regulated by a variety of environmental and physiological cues. Signals leading to activation of stress responses often lead to biofilm formation which, in turn, can trigger induction of stress response mechanisms, suggesting direct cross-talk between the two cellular processes. ...
Castielli Ornella - - 2009
Cyanobacteria are significant contributors to global photosynthetic productivity, thus making it relevant to study how the different environmental stresses can alter their physiological activities. Here, we review the current research work on the response of cyanobacteria to different kinds of stress, mainly focusing on their response to metal stress as ...
Alard Jean-Eric - - 2009
Heat shock protein (HSP) 60, up-regulated by endothelial cells (ECs) to resist stress, is the target of a subgroup of apoptosis-inducing anti-EC autoantibodies (Abs) in human vasculitides. Given that HSP60 is not a transmembrane protein, the mechanism by which these auto-Abs induces apoptosis is unclear. EC membrane proteins were analyzed ...
Chollangi Srinivas S Department of Bioengineering, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, - - 2009
Preconditioning with moderate oxidative stress (e.g., moderate bright light or mild hypoxia) can induce changes in retinal tissue that protect photoreceptors from a subsequent dose of lethal oxidative stress. The mechanism underlying this induced protection is likely a general mechanism of endogenous protection which has been demonstrated in heart and ...
Reuter Stefan - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Induction of heat shock proteins (HSP), i.e. of the major family member HSP70, is an important cytoprotective-resistance mechanism for monocytes/ macrophages (Mphi). Patients on haemodialysis present with a high infectious morbidity and enhanced carcinoma incidence. Renal insufficiency-related alteration of microbicidal and tumoricidal functions of Mphi, major effectors of the ...
Madeo Frank - - 2009
Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) interacts with Bax, neutralizing its proapoptotic activity. In this issue of Molecular Cell, Lisbona et al. (2009) show that BI-1 directly inhibits IRE1alpha, an essential mediator of the UPR, thereby facilitating crosstalk between apoptosis and ER stress pathways.
Appierto Valentina - - 2009
Fenretinide [N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-retinamide (4HPR)] is a synthetic retinoid with antitumor activity that induces apoptosis in various types of cancer cell. We showed previously that 4HPR upregulates the proapoptotic gene placental bone morphogenetic protein (PLAB), which is a mediator of 4HPR-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Here, we investigated the signaling cascade ...
Martin Lynn B - - 2009
Stress has profound effects on vertebrate immunity, but most studies have considered stress-immune interactions in terms of wild animals enduring demanding, but predictable activities (e.g., immune alterations during breeding). A growing biomedical literature, however, indicates that stress may not be obligatorily immunosuppressive; in response to transient, unpredictable stressors, immune activity ...
Couret David - - 2009
Events acting prenatally on developing foetuses are important determinants for disorders later in life. Prenatal stress (PNS) is one of these events. The purpose of this study was to determine the consequences of a repeated social stress applied during late gestation of the pregnant gilt on the immune system and ...
Giommarelli Chiara - - 2009
The cell ability of tumor cells to tolerate stress conditions is a typical feature of solid tumors. In particular, the resistance to oxidative stress of melanoma cells likely contributes to their intrinsic drug resistance. In an attempt to develop novel strategies for overcoming the mechanisms of cellular protection against oxidative ...
Seimon Tracie A TA Department of Medicine, Division of Molecular Medicine, Columbia University, PH 9-405, 630 W. 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA. - - 2009
ER stress occurs in macrophage-rich areas of advanced atherosclerotic lesions and contributes to macrophage apoptosis and subsequent plaque necrosis. Therefore, signaling pathways that alter ER stress-induced apoptosis may affect advanced atherosclerosis. Here we placed Apoe-/- mice deficient in macrophage p38alpha MAPK on a Western diet and found that they had ...
Adams J C JC Department of Otology and Laryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, 243 Charles Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA. - - 2009
Damage response pathways triggered by mechanical stress might reasonably be expected to be conserved throughout evolution. However, using a nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) reporter mouse we show here that this phylogenetically recent transcription factor plays a major role in the response to mechanosensory stress in the mammalian inner ear. ...
Mei Yang - - 2009
Loss-of-function mutations of phosphatase/tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (Pink1) (also known as Park6) identified in familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with compromised mitochondrial function. Emerging data suggest that Pink1 is an essential pro-survival factor that is induced in response to oxidative stress. ...
Galhardo Rodrigo S - - 2009
Stress-induced mutagenesis is a collection of mechanisms observed in bacterial, yeast, and human cells in which adverse conditions provoke mutagenesis, often under the control of stress responses. Control of mutagenesis by stress responses may accelerate evolution specifically when cells are maladapted to their environments, i.e., are stressed. It is therefore ...
Calabrese Vittorio - - 2009
Modulation of endogenous cellular defense mechanisms via the stress response signaling represents an innovative approach to therapeutic intervention in diseases causing chronic damage, such as neurodegeneration and cancer. Protein thiols play a key role in redox sensing, and regulation of cellular redox state is crucial mediator of multiple metabolic, signaling, ...
Hsu Chiu-Ling - - 2009
Cigarette smoking is the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which is associated with increased oxidative stress and numbers of apoptotic endothelial cells in the lungs. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) is a therapeutic agent for disorders such as vascular insufficiency and Alzheimer's disease. Although EGb is known to possess ...
Kalmar Bernadett B Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London, UK. - - 2009
Heat shock proteins (Hsps) have been studied for many years and there is now a large body of evidence that demonstrates the role of Hsp upregulation in tissue and cell protection in a wide variety of stress conditions. Oxidative stress is known to be involved in a number of pathological ...
Kaser Arthur A Department of Medicine II (Gastroenterology and Hepatology), Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, - - 2009
The unfolded protein response as a consequence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has recently been implicated as a novel mechanism that may lead to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Impairment of proper ER stress resolution in highly secretory Paneth and, to a lesser extent, goblet cells within the epithelium can primarily ...
Jaedicke Katrin M - - 2009
Lactation and stressor exposure both influence the activity of the immune system, but the interaction of both factors on the immune defense is poorly understood. The aim was therefore to investigate in lactating Long-Evans rats the effect of social stress on aspects of cellular immunity in the blood and mesenteric ...
Hill David S - - 2009
Single-agent chemotherapy is largely the treatment of choice for systemic therapy of metastatic melanoma, but survival rates are low, and novel adjuvant and systemic therapies are urgently required. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a potential therapeutic target, and two relatively new drugs, fenretinide and bortezomib (Velcade), each acting via different ...
Lin, Ann En-Ju
Campylobacter jejuni is a human pathogen that causes severe diarrhea! disease. However, our understanding of C. jejuni virulence mechanisms and survival during disease and transmission remains limited. Amino acid ATP Binding Cassette (AA-ABC) transporters in C. jejuni have been proposed as being important for bacterial physiology and pathogenesis. We have ...
Frick Luciana Romina - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Stress alters the neuroendocrine system, immunity, and cancer. Although the classic stress hormones are glucocorticoids and catecholamines, thyroid hormones have also been related to stress. We recently reported that chronic restraint stress impairs T-cell mediated immunity and enhances tumor growth in mice. METHODS: To study the participation of these ...
< 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >