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Arthur Connie M CM The Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, - - 2015
Galectins are an evolutionarily ancient family of glycan-binding proteins (GBPs) and are found in all animals. Although they were discovered over 30 years ago, ideas about their biological functions continue to evolve. Current evidence indicates that galectins, which are the only known GBPs that occur free in the cytoplasm and ...
Franchi Silvia S Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Science, University of Milano, Via Vanvitelli 32, Milan, 20129, - - 2015
The discovery of opioid receptors expression on immune cells has originated a large research activity on the possible modulation by opioid drugs of immune system responses. In the present chapter we describe an easy methodology useful to obtain information about the potential immunomodulatory activity of opioid drugs. An in vivo ...
Castelli Mara M Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Science, University of Milano, Via Vanvitelli 32, Milan, 20129, - - 2015
The immune system is a complex and finely orchestrated system, and many soluble molecules and receptors contribute to its regulation.Recent studies have suggested that many of the modulatory effects induced by morphine on innate immunity, and in particular the effects on macrophage activation and function, can be due to the ...
Sioud Mouldy M Department of Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Radium Hospital, Montebello, Oslo, N-310, Norway, - - 2015
RNA interference has been of great interest not only as a research tool to suppress gene expression but also as an emerging therapeutic strategy to silence disease genes. However, the therapeutic use of siRNA faces the in vivo delivery challenge. An alternative method that could potentially be used for siRNA ...
Sioud Mouldy M Department of Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Radium Hospital, Norway, 0310, Montebello, Oslo, Norway, - - 2015
Over the past decade, immunotherapy has emerged as a promising new form of cancer treatment with the potential to eradicate tumor metastasis. However, its curative potential is in general limited by the existence of negative feedback mechanisms that control dendritic cells (DCs) and T-cell activation. For clinically effective immunity, there ...
Sioud Mouldy M Department of Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Ullernchausseen 70, Montebello, N-0310, Oslo, Norway, - - 2015
A subset of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) senses microbial nucleic acids in endosomal compartments. Furthermore, under certain conditions TLRs can recognize self-RNAs leading to the induction and/or perpetuation of inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have shown that the incorporation of modified nucleotides into small interfering RNA suppressed unwanted immunostimulation. Interestingly, RNA harboring ...
Yao Yong-Ming YM Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Burns Institute, First Hospital Affiliated to the Chinese PLA General Hospital, 51 Fu-cheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100048, People's Republic of - - 2015
Sepsis is defined as severe systemic inflammation in response to invading pathogens, or an uncontrolled hyperinflammatory response, as mediated by the release of various proinflammatory mediators. Although some patients may die rapidly from septic shock accompanied by an overwhelming systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) triggered by a highly virulent pathogen, ...
Lemarié Jérémie J Department of Medical Intensive Care, Hôpital Central, 29 avenue du Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, 54035, Nancy Cedex, - - 2015
The diagnosis of sepsis, and especially its differentiation from sterile inflammation, may be challenging. TREM-1, the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1, is an amplifier of the innate immune response. Its soluble form acts as a decoy for the natural TREM-1 ligand and dampens its activation. In this chapter, we ...
Yan Lisa L Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, - - 2015
Langerhans cells (LCs) are antigen-presenting cells responsible for initiating an immune response against human papillomaviruses (HPVs) entering the epithelial layer in vivo as they are the first immune cell that HPV comes into contact with. LCs become activated in response to foreign antigens, which causes internal signaling resulting in the ...
Monteiro Renato C RC Inserm UMRS-699, Paris, 75018, France, - - 2015
Immune-mediated glomerulonephritis is caused by deposition of immune complexes on the glomerular basement membrane or of autoantibodies directed against the glomerular basement membrane. Depositions lead to an inflammatory response that can ultimately destroy renal function and lead to chronic kidney disease. However, the pathological processes leading to the development of ...
Eggert Hendrik H Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Hüfferstraße 1, Münster 48149, Germany - - 2014
Paternal trans-generational immune priming, whereby fathers provide immune protection to offspring, has been demonstrated in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum exposed to the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis. It is currently unclear how such protection is transferred, as in contrast to mothers, fathers do not directly provide offspring with a ...
Relan Manisha M Division of Allergy/Immunology/Pediatric Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Women and Children's Hospital of Buffalo, SUNY at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, 219 Bryant Street, Buffalo, NY, 14222, - - 2014
The skin is the largest organ of our body; it consists of the epidermis, dermis, hair follicles, sweat glands, blood vessels, and connective tissue matrix. Its main function is to act as a barrier to the outside world and protect us from infections. Any component of the skin is subject ...
Ballow Mark M Division of Allergy and Immunology, University of South Florida, Morsani College of Medicine, Children's Research Institute, All Children's Hospital, St Petersburg, Florida, - - 2014
In the past few years there have been many advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) modulates immune function in autoimmune disorders. Previous investigations have focused on the Fc domain of the IgG molecule, and the role of the FcγRIIB receptor and the sialylated ...
Mortensen Christian C Departments of aGastroenterology bClinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Centre of Functional Imaging and Research cCentre for Clinical Research, Hvidovre University Hospital, Hvidovre dMycoplasma Laboratory, Microbiology and Infection Control, Statens Serum Institut eDepartment of Internal Medicine I, Bispebjerg Hospital fDepartment of Internal Medicine, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup gDepartment of Medicine, Svendborg Sygehus, Svendborg, - - 2014
Bacterial translocation (BT) may cause infections, in particular, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). In the absence of overt infection, BT may further stimulate the immune system and contribute to haemodynamic alterations and complications. Bacterial DNA (bDNA) is claimed to be a promising surrogate marker for BT, although its clinical relevance has ...
Amanda Ramer-Tait RT 1University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, 2Iowa State University, Ames, - - 2014
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) behaves as complex disease, resulting from interactions between genetic and environmental factors that induce aberrant immune responses against resident members of the gut microbiota. New research has revealed that changes in the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota may be a previously underappreciated environmental risk factor. Alterations ...
Philip Dubé D Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, - - 2014
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a key regulator of epithelial proliferation, survival and migration in the colon, where it functions to stimulate epithelial repair following injury. However, recent work by our lab has uncovered a novel role for epithelial EGFR to limit inflammation and subsequent tumorigenesis in mouse colitis ...
Seijkens Tom T Department of Medical Biochemistry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the - - 2014
In the past two decades, numerous experimental and clinical studies have established the importance of inflammation and immunity in the development of obesity and its metabolic complications, including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this context, T cells orchestrate inflammatory processes in metabolic organs, such as the adipose ...
Deng Shuanglin S Institute of Translational Medicine, the First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, 130031, - - 2014
Gliomas are extremely aggressive brain tumors with a very poor prognosis. One of the more promising strategies for the treatment of human gliomas is targeted immunotherapy where antigens that are unique to the tumors are exploited to generate vaccines. The approach, however, is complicated by the fact that human gliomas ...
Belkaid Yasmine Y Program in Barrier Immunity and Repair and Mucosal Immunology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institute of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA. ybelkaid@niaid.nih.gov - - 2014
Human skin, the body's largest organ, functions as a physical barrier to bar the entry of foreign pathogens, while concomitantly providing a home to myriad commensals. Over a human's life span, keratinized skin cells, immune cells, and microbes all interact to integrate the processes of maintaining skin's physical and immune ...
Hirayanagi Yoshie Y Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, 160-8402, - - 2014
Testicular cell transplantation has generally been performed by using immune-deficient recipient mice to investigate the biology of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), the production of transgenic animals, and restoration of fertility. Recently, we demonstrated that rat spermatogenesis can occur in the seminiferous tubules of immune-competent recipient mice via pretreatment with busulfan ...
Baraldo Simonetta S University of Padova, Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences and Padova City Hospital, Padova, Italy ; - - 2014
Rationale: α1-antitrypsin (AAT) is a potent protease inhibitor which deficiency is associated with the presence of emphysema. An imbalance of elastase/antielastase, along with an innate inflammation in the lung, is believed to cause lung destruction in α1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). It is now apparent that AAT has important immune regulatory roles ...
Tulunay A A 0000000347359902 Division of Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Marmara University, School of Medicine Hospital, Istanbul, - - 2014
Th1/Th17-type T-cell responses are upregulated in Behcet's disease (BD). However, signaling pathways associated with this aberrant immune response are not clarified. Whole-genome microarray profiling was performed with human U133 (Plus 2.0) chips using messenger RNA of isolated CD14(+) monocytes and CD4(+) T cells from peripheral blood mononucleated cell (PBMC) in ...
Marois Isabelle I Pulmonary Division, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke and Centre de Recherche du CHUS, Québec, Canada; - - 2014
The clinical benefits of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) are well established, but the effects of antiviral treatment on the immune response are poorly understood. By use of flow cytometric analyses and the mouse model, we thoroughly investigated the impact of such a treatment on the immune response and the generation of protective ...
Hato Takashi T Department of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, - - 2014
The innate immune system is the first line of defense in response to nonself and danger signals from microbial invasion or tissue injury. It is increasingly recognized that each organ uses unique sets of cells and molecules that orchestrate regional innate immunity. The cells that execute the task of innate ...
Luu Lisa L Department of Infection Biology, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, - - 2014
Toxoplasma gondii is a highly successful parasite that can manipulate host immune responses to optimise its persistence and spread. As a result, a highly complex relationship exists between T. gondii and the immune system of the host. Advances in imaging techniques, and in particular, the application of two-photon microscopy to ...
Vendrig Johannes - - 2014
BackgroundIn the first phase of life, in which the immune system is primed and the bacterial colonization of epithelial surfaces takes place, foals are highly susceptible to bacterial infections. Next to strategies to optimize maternally acquired immunity in individual foals, current research explores other options to modulate immune responses in ...
van Blijswijk Janneke J Immunobiology Laboratory, Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, London WC2A 3LY, United - - 2014
Dendritic cells (DCs) are key regulators of innate and adaptive immunity. Our understanding of immune function has benefited greatly from mouse models allowing for selective ablation of DCs. Many such models rely on transgenic diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) expression driven by DC-restricted promoters. This renders DCs sensitive to DT but ...
Hicks Chelsea A E CA School of Veterinary Sciences, University of Bristol, Langford House, Bristol, BS40 5DU, United - - 2014
Haemoplasmas are potentially zoonotic mycoplasmal pathogens, which are not consistently cleared by antibiotic therapy. Mycoplasma haemofelis is the most pathogenic feline haemoplasma species. The aim of this study was to determine how previously infected M. haemofelis cats, that had recovered, reacted when re-challenged with M. haemofelis, and to characterize the ...
Li Nan N 1] Department of Cell Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China [2] Center for Biomedical Reseach, The Population Council, New York, NY, - - 2014
The mammalian testis is an immunoprivileged organ where male germ cell autoantigens are immunologically ignored. Both systemic immune tolerance to autoantigens and local immunosuppressive milieu contribute to the testicular immune privilege. Testicular immunosuppression has been intensively studied, but information on systemic immune tolerance to autoantigens is lacking. In the present ...
Han Sang-Chul SC Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, South - - 2014
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play key roles in the immune response by suppressing the differentiation and proliferation of various immune cells. The beneficial effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been described for many diseases; however, the mechanism by which it modulates immune system is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of ...
Arnold-Schrauf Catharina C Institute for Infection Immunology, TWINCORE, Centre for Experimental and Clinical Infection Research: A Joint Venture between the Medical School Hannover (MHH) and the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), Hannover, - - 2014
Dendritic cells (DCs) are key regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity. During infection, DCs recognise pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) including the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family. TLRs mainly signal via the adaptor protein MyD88. This signalling pathway is required for immune protection during many infections, ...
Heinekamp Thorsten T Department of Molecular and Applied Microbiology, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology (HKI), Jena, Germany, - - 2014
Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprotrophic filamentous fungus and also the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen of humans. Depending on the host's immune status, the variety of diseases caused by A. fumigatus ranges from allergies in immunocompetent hosts to life-threatening invasive infections in patients with impaired immunity. In contrast to the ...
Romani Luigina L Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Polo Unico Sant'Andrea delle Fratte, 06132, Perugia, Italy, - - 2014
An increased understanding of the importance of microbiota in shaping the host's immune and metabolic activities has rendered fungal interactions with their hosts more complex than previously appreciated. It is now clear that a three-way interaction between host, fungi, and microbiota dictates the types of host-fungus relationship. Indeed, microbial dysbiosis ...
Perkins G A GA Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, - - 2014
The development of equine immunity from the fetus to adulthood is complex. The foal's immune response and the immune mechanisms that they are equipped along with changes over the first months of life until the immune system becomes adult-like are only partially understood. While several innate immune responses seem to ...
Wu Jinghua J 1] Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China [2] Hebei United University Affiliated Hospital, Tangshan, - - 2014
Some pathogens can use host suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1), an important negative-feedback molecule, as the main mode of immune evasion. Here we found that group A Streptococcus (GAS) is capable of inducing SOCS-1 expression in RAW264.7 and BMDM macrophages. IFN-β plays a role in GAS-induced SOCS-1 expression in ...
Mortensen Martin B - - 2014
Genome-wide association studies have identified a link between genetic variation at the human chromosomal locus 1p13.3 and coronary artery disease. The gene encoding sortilin (SORT1) has been implicated as the causative gene within the locus, as sortilin regulates hepatic lipoprotein metabolism. Here we demonstrated that sortilin also directly affects atherogenesis, ...
Zhang Changqing C Endocrine Program, Rutgers - - 2014
Beta-endorphin (BEP) producing neuron in the hypothalamus plays a key role in brining the stress axis to a state of homeostasis and maintaining body immune defense system. Long-term delivery of BEP to obtain beneficial effect on chemoprevention is challenging, since the peptide rapidly develop tolerance. Using rats as animal model, ...
McKay Derek M DM Gastrointestinal Research Group and Inflammation Research Network, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Calvin, Joan and Phoebe Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases, University of Calgary, Alberta, - - 2014
Successful endoparasites of mammals must outwit the sophisticated immune systems of their hosts that have evolved to detect and destroy/eradicate them. Many species of helminth parasite can directly or indirectly manipulate host immunity: helminth-derived molecules can suppress or skew activity of many immune cell phenotypes and mobilization of regulatory cells ...
Ramos-Sevillano Elisa E Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (CIB-CSIC), Madrid, Spain CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Madrid, Spain Spanish Pneumococcal Reference Laboratory, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, - - 2014
The complement system is a key component of the host immune response for the recognition and clearance of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, we have demonstrated that the amidase LytA, the main pneumococcal autolysin, inhibits complement-mediated immunity independent of effects on pneumolysin by a complex process of impaired complement activation, ...
Schwartz Christian C Department of Infection Biology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, 91054 Erlangen, Germany; Department of Biology, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91058 Erlangen, - - 2014
Basophils orchestrate protection against reinfections with gastrointestinal helminths and ticks, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We investigated the role of Fc receptors on basophils, the antibody isotypes IgG1 and IgE, and basophil-derived IL-4/IL-13 during challenge infections with Heligmosomoides polygyrus and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Using mixed bone marrow chimeras, we found ...
Bueno Valquiria V Department of Microbiology Immunology and Parasitology, UNIFESP Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, - - 2014
Infections, cancer and autoimmune diseases occur more frequently in the elderly, and although many factors contribute to this, the age-related remodelling of the immune system, termed immunosenescence, plays a major role. Over the last two decades, studies have evaluated the effect of ageing on both the adaptive and innate arms ...
Seppälä O O Department of Aquatic Ecology, EAWAG, Dübendorf, Switzerland; Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zürich, Zürich, - - 2014
Parasites present a threat for free-living species and affect several ecological and evolutionary processes. Immune defence is the main physiological barrier against infections, and understanding its evolution is central for predicting disease dynamics. I review theoretical predictions and empirical data on natural selection on quantitative immune defence traits in the ...
Schroyen Martine M Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, 2255 Kildee Hall, Ames, IA, 50011, USA, - - 2014
Swine performance in the face of disease challenge is becoming progressively more important. To improve the pig's robustness and resilience against pathogens through selection, a better understanding of the genetic and epigenetic factors in the immune response is required. This review highlights results from the most recent transcriptome research, and ...
Huang Yvonne J YJ Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Allergy, and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, - - 2014
The purpose of this study is to summarize recent studies of the lower respiratory microbiome in asthma, the role of innate immunity in asthma and strategies to understand complex microbiome-immune interactions in asthma. Recent evidence indicates that the composition of lower respiratory microbiota in asthmatic individuals, across a spectrum of ...
Flier Suzanne S From the Department of Anaesthesiology, University Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU), Utrecht (SF, THK), Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, UMCU, Utrecht (ANC), Department of Clinical Microbiology, Admiraal de Ruyter Ziekenhuis, Goes (DV), Division of Heart and Lung, Experimental Cardiology Laboratory, UMCU, Utrecht (IEH, GP), Department of Intensive Care Medicine and Department of Emergency Medicine, UMCU, Utrecht (DWDL) and Department of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University Medical Center Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands - - 2014
Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass has a major impact on the congenital immune response, in which Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the first line of defence. Decreased surface expression of TLRs and impaired monocyte responsiveness to TLR ligands occur following surgery. However, the clinical implications of this altered immune response are ...
Audet Jonathan J 1 Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba , Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada - - 2014
Abstract Ebola virus (EBOV) infects humans as well as several animal species. It can lead to a highly lethal disease, with mortality rates approaching 90% in primates. Recent advances have deepened our understanding of how this virus is able to prevent the development of protective immune responses. The EBOV genome ...
Hristov M M PD Dr. med. Michael Hristov, IPEK, LMU München, Pettenkoferstr. 9, 80336 München, Tel. +49/(0)89/440 05 43 -71 Fax -82, E-mail: - - 2014
Endothelial dysfunction and chronic inflammation of the arterial wall continuously drive the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Monocytes, as cells of the innate immunity, are particularly involved in this process. In the last decade, heterogeneity of circulating monocytes has widely been acknowledged, and a recent consensus nomenclature subdivides classical, intermediate and ...
Fradin Chantal C Inserm U995, 59000, Lille, - - 2014
Fungal cell walls contain several types of glycans, which play important roles in the pathogenesis of fungal infection and host immune response. Among them, glycosphingolipids have attracted much attention lately since they contribute actively to the fungi development and fungal-induced pathogenesis. Although glycosphingolipids are present in pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi, ...
Zhao Fan - - 2014
Most of immunomodulatory materials (e.g., vaccine adjuvants such as alum) modulate adap-tive immunity, and yet little effort has focused on developing materials to regulate innate im-munity, which get mentioned only when inflammation affects the biocompatibility of bio-materials. Traditionally considered as short-lived effector cells from innate immunity primarily for the clearance ...
Wegmann Michèle M Evolutionary Ecology Lab, Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, Switzerland, - - 2014
After birth, an organism needs to invest both in somatic growth and in the development of efficient immune functions to counter the effects of pathogens, and hence an investment trade-off is predicted. To explore this trade-off, we simultaneously exposed nestling great tits (Parus major) to a common ectoparasite, while stimulating ...
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