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Arthur Connie M CM The Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, - - 2015
Galectins are an evolutionarily ancient family of glycan-binding proteins (GBPs) and are found in all animals. Although they were discovered over 30 years ago, ideas about their biological functions continue to evolve. Current evidence indicates that galectins, which are the only known GBPs that occur free in the cytoplasm and ...
Franchi Silvia S Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Science, University of Milano, Via Vanvitelli 32, Milan, 20129, - - 2015
The discovery of opioid receptors expression on immune cells has originated a large research activity on the possible modulation by opioid drugs of immune system responses. In the present chapter we describe an easy methodology useful to obtain information about the potential immunomodulatory activity of opioid drugs. An in vivo ...
Castelli Mara M Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Science, University of Milano, Via Vanvitelli 32, Milan, 20129, - - 2015
The immune system is a complex and finely orchestrated system, and many soluble molecules and receptors contribute to its regulation.Recent studies have suggested that many of the modulatory effects induced by morphine on innate immunity, and in particular the effects on macrophage activation and function, can be due to the ...
Sioud Mouldy M Department of Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Radium Hospital, Montebello, Oslo, N-310, Norway, - - 2015
RNA interference has been of great interest not only as a research tool to suppress gene expression but also as an emerging therapeutic strategy to silence disease genes. However, the therapeutic use of siRNA faces the in vivo delivery challenge. An alternative method that could potentially be used for siRNA ...
Sioud Mouldy M Department of Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Radium Hospital, Norway, 0310, Montebello, Oslo, Norway, - - 2015
Over the past decade, immunotherapy has emerged as a promising new form of cancer treatment with the potential to eradicate tumor metastasis. However, its curative potential is in general limited by the existence of negative feedback mechanisms that control dendritic cells (DCs) and T-cell activation. For clinically effective immunity, there ...
Sioud Mouldy M Department of Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Ullernchausseen 70, Montebello, N-0310, Oslo, Norway, - - 2015
A subset of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) senses microbial nucleic acids in endosomal compartments. Furthermore, under certain conditions TLRs can recognize self-RNAs leading to the induction and/or perpetuation of inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have shown that the incorporation of modified nucleotides into small interfering RNA suppressed unwanted immunostimulation. Interestingly, RNA harboring ...
Yao Yong-Ming YM Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Burns Institute, First Hospital Affiliated to the Chinese PLA General Hospital, 51 Fu-cheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100048, People's Republic of - - 2015
Sepsis is defined as severe systemic inflammation in response to invading pathogens, or an uncontrolled hyperinflammatory response, as mediated by the release of various proinflammatory mediators. Although some patients may die rapidly from septic shock accompanied by an overwhelming systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) triggered by a highly virulent pathogen, ...
Lemarié Jérémie J Department of Medical Intensive Care, Hôpital Central, 29 avenue du Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, 54035, Nancy Cedex, - - 2015
The diagnosis of sepsis, and especially its differentiation from sterile inflammation, may be challenging. TREM-1, the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1, is an amplifier of the innate immune response. Its soluble form acts as a decoy for the natural TREM-1 ligand and dampens its activation. In this chapter, we ...
Yan Lisa L Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, - - 2015
Langerhans cells (LCs) are antigen-presenting cells responsible for initiating an immune response against human papillomaviruses (HPVs) entering the epithelial layer in vivo as they are the first immune cell that HPV comes into contact with. LCs become activated in response to foreign antigens, which causes internal signaling resulting in the ...
Monteiro Renato C RC Inserm UMRS-699, Paris, 75018, France, - - 2015
Immune-mediated glomerulonephritis is caused by deposition of immune complexes on the glomerular basement membrane or of autoantibodies directed against the glomerular basement membrane. Depositions lead to an inflammatory response that can ultimately destroy renal function and lead to chronic kidney disease. However, the pathological processes leading to the development of ...
De Miguel Carmen C Section of Cardio-Renal Physiology and Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, - - 2015
Research studying the role of inflammation in hypertension and cardiovascular disease has flourished in recent years; however, the exact mechanisms by which the activated immune cells lead to the development and maintenance of hypertension remain to be elucidated. The objectives of this brief review are to summarize and discuss the ...
Ruff William E WE Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 George St, Suite 353G, New Haven, CT, 06511, USA, - - 2015
Infectious triggers are associated with the induction of transient antiphospholipid antibodies. One therefore wonders if microbes that permanently colonize us play a role in the pathogenesis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). The microbiota represents the collection of all microorganisms colonizing humans and is necessary for normal host physiology. The microbiota, however, ...
Pilones Karsten A KA Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, - - 2015
The ability of ionizing radiation to cause cell death and inflammatory reactions has been known since the beginning of its therapeutic use in oncology. However, only recently this property of radiation has attracted the attention of immunologists seeking to induce or improve antitumor immunity. As immune checkpoint inhibitors are becoming ...
Schaue Dörthe D Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, - - 2015
The immune system has the power to modulate the expression of radiation-induced normal and tumor tissue damage. On the one hand, it can contribute to cancer cure, and on the other hand, it can influence acute and late radiation side effects, which in many ways resemble acute and chronic inflammatory ...
Eggert Hendrik H Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Hüfferstraße 1, Münster 48149, Germany - - 2014
Paternal trans-generational immune priming, whereby fathers provide immune protection to offspring, has been demonstrated in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum exposed to the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis. It is currently unclear how such protection is transferred, as in contrast to mothers, fathers do not directly provide offspring with a ...
Karrich Julien J JJ Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, the - - 2014
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) have been regarded as the "professional type I IFN-producing cells" of the immune system following viral recognition that relies on the expression of TLR7 and TLR9. Furthermore, pDC link the innate and adaptive immune systems via cytokine production and Ag presentation. More recently, their ability to ...
Binder Robert Julian RJ Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 - - 2014
For more than 50 years, heat shock proteins (HSPs) have been studied for their role in protecting cells from elevated temperature and other forms of stress. More recently, several roles have been ascribed to HSPs in the immune system. These include intracellular roles in Ag presentation and expression of innate ...
Bettigole Sarah E SE Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY and Program in Immunology, Division of Medical Sciences, Harvard Medical School, Boston MA; email: - - 2014
Immune responses occur in the midst of a variety of cellular stresses that can severely perturb endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function. The unfolded protein response is a three-pronged signaling axis dedicated to preserving ER homeostasis. In this review, we highlight many important and emerging functional roles for ER stress in immunity, ...
Koonin Eugene V EV National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland 20894, - - 2014
Adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes and animals give rise to long-term memory through modification of specific genomic loci, such as by insertion of foreign (viral or plasmid) DNA fragments into clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci in prokaryotes and by V(D)J recombination of immunoglobulin genes in vertebrates. Strikingly, ...
Morais Elis Araujo EA Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, - - 2014
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis in which the host response to the infectious agent typically consists of a chronic granulomatous inflammatory process. This condition causes lesions that impair lung function and lead to chronic pulmonary insufficiency resulting from fibrosis development, which is a sequel and disabling feature of the ...
Koch Miriam M Institute of Clinical Biochemistry and Pathobiochemistry, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, - - 2014
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial vessel wall. As part of a tightly connected cross-talk between inflammation and coagulation, there is growing evidence that the coagulation system plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. We here discuss the presence of coagulation factors in ...
Meya D B DB Infectious Disease Institute, Makerere University, Uganda Dept of Medicine, Center for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Translational Research, University of Minnesota, USA School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Makerere - - 2014
 HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is characterized by high fungal burden and limited leukocyte trafficking to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The immunopathogenesis of CM immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) after initiation of antiretroviral therapy at the site of infection is poorly understood.  We characterized the lineage and activation status of mononuclear cells ...
Kozlovskaya Veronika V Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, 35294, - - 2014
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune-mediated disease resulting in the destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells. Transplantation of insulin-producing islets is a viable treatment to restore euglycemia in Type 1 diabetics; however, the clinical application remains limited due to the use of toxic immunosuppressive therapies to prevent immune-mediated rejection. A nanothin ...
Schorey Jeffrey S JS Department of Biological Sciences, Eck Institute for Global Health University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA - - 2014
An effective immune response requires the engagement of host receptors by pathogen-derived molecules and the stimulation of an appropriate cellular response. Therefore, a crucial factor in our ability to control an infection is the accessibility of our immune cells to the foreign material. Exosomes-which are extracellular vesicles that function in ...
Frykman Philip K PK Division of Pediatric Surgery and The Pediatric Surgery Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, - - 2014
Potentially life-threatening enterocolitis is the most frequent complication in children with colonic aganglionosis (Hirschsprung disease, HSCR), and little is known about the mechanisms leading to enterocolitis. Splenic lymphopenia has been reported in the Endothelin Receptor B (Ednrb)-null mouse model of HSCR that develops enterocolitis. In this study, we sought to ...
Valenzuela Rachel Anne P RA Department of Chemistry, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 - - 2014
Immune stimulation triggered by siRNAs is one of the major challenges in the development of safe RNAi-based therapeutics. Within an immunostimulatory siRNA sequence, this hurdle is commonly addressed by using ribose modifications (e.g., 2'-OMe or 2'-F), which results in decreased cytokine production. However, as immune stimulation by siRNAs is a ...
Qin Yong Jie YJ Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences - - 2014
Disruptions in immunity and occurrence of inflammation cause many eye diseases. The growth hormone-releasing hormone-growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 (GHRH-GH-IGF1) axis exerts regulatory effects on the immune system. Its involvement in ocular inflammation remains to be investigated. Here we studied this signaling in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) generated by LPS. The increase ...
Cui Haitao H Department of Plant-Microbe Interactions, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, 50829 Cologne, Germany; email: - - 2014
In plant innate immunity, individual cells have the capacity to sense and respond to pathogen attack. Intracellular recognition mechanisms have evolved to intercept perturbations by pathogen virulence factors (effectors) early in host infection and convert it to rapid defense. One key to resistance success is a polymorphic family of intracellular ...
Kim Jaeyun J 1] School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. [2] The Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. [3] School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, - - 2014
Implanting materials in the body to program host immune cells is a promising alternative to transplantation of cells manipulated ex vivo to direct an immune response, but doing so requires a surgical procedure. Here we demonstrate that high-aspect-ratio, mesoporous silica rods (MSRs) injected with a needle spontaneously assemble in vivo ...
Vermeulen Anke A Department of Biology - Ethology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
Excessive deposition of metals in the environment is a well-known example of pollution worldwide. Chronic exposure of organisms to metals can have a detrimental effect on reproduction, behavior, health and survival, due to the negative effects on components of the immune system. However, little is known about the effects of ...
Bu Ning N Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710004, China. Electronic address: - - 2014
Dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with exosomes can stimulate efficient cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses and anti-tumorimmunity. However, the quantity of DC-derived exosomes (DCex) obtained from various culture systems is very low, which is a significant practical issue hampering progress in this research area and needs to be addressed. Gliomas were particularly aggressive, ...
Sznol Mario M From the Section of Medical Oncology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT - - 2014
Among the many subterfuges that cancer cells deploy to limit detection by host immune defenses, activation of so-called immune checkpoints is one that may be exploitable in activating a counterattack. Many complex multicellular regulatory events are involved in keeping the immune system from overreacting to a stimulus or mistaking a ...
Ledderose Carola C Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, - - 2014
The activation of immune cells must be tightly regulated to allow an effective immune defense while limiting collateral damage to host tissues. Cellular ATP release and autocrine stimulation of purinergic receptors are recognized as critical regulators of immune cell activation. However, the study of purinergic signaling has been hampered by ...
Rojas V V Laboratorio de Genética e Inmunología Molecular, Instituto de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, - - 2014
In response to pathogens, the higher vertebrate innate immune system activates pro-inflammatory caspase-1 which is responsible for the processing and secretion of several important cytokines involved in the host's defence against infection. To date, caspase-1 has been described in few teleost fish, and its activity has been demonstrated through substrate ...
Xiang Xiaogang X Department of Infectious Diseases; Translational Lab of Liver Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, - - 2014
IL-35, a recently identified cytokine of IL-12 family, is a potent immunosuppressive cytokine secreted by regulatory T cells (Treg cells) and the newly reported regulatory B cells (Breg cells), which function as a crucial immunosuppressive factor in immune-mediated diseases. The predominant mechanism of suppression associated with the activity of IL-35 ...
Li Jing J Department of Pharmacy, Tsinghua - - 2014
Immune rejection of tumors is mediated by IFN-γ production and T cell cytolytic activity. These processes are impeded by PD-1, a co-inhibitory molecule expressed on T cells that is elevated in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). PD-1 elevation may reflect T cell exhaustion marked by decreased proliferation, production of type 1 cytokines ...
Ushach Irina I Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA; Institute for Immunology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, - - 2014
Cytokines are involved in many functions of the immune system including initiating, amplifying and resolving immune responses. Through bioinformatics analyses of a comprehensive database of gene expression (BIGE: Body Index of Gene Expression) we observed that a small secreted protein encoded by a poorly characterized gene called meteorin-like (METRNL), is ...
Okada Kohki K Dept. of Clinical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Science, Tenri Health Care University, Nara 632-0018, Japan; Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, - - 2014
The development of ulcerative colitis (UC) is closely associated with abnormally functioning macrophages. Rat S100A8 (r-S100A8) and r-S100A9 (S100 proteins) is abundantly expressed in immune cells of myeloid origin, macrophages; however, it remains unclear why r-S100A9 is dominantly expressed in the macrophages of UC rats (UCR). The purpose of this ...
Jakobsen Martin R MR aInstitute of Biomedicine, Faculty of Health, Aarhus University bAarhus Research Centre of Innate Immunology, Aarhus, Denmark cVaccine and Gene Therapy Institute of Florida, Port Saint Lucie, Florida, - - 2014
The innate immune system plays a critical role in the control of viral infections. Although the mechanisms involved in sensing and response to viral pathogens has progressed tremendously in the last decade, an understanding of the innate antiviral response to human retroviruses lagged behind. Recent studies now demonstrate that human ...
Accarias Solène S Université de Toulouse, INP, ENVT, UMR1225, IHAP, F-31076, Toulouse, France; INRA, UMR1225, IHAP, Toulouse, - - 2014
The relationship between Staphylococcus aureus and innate immunity is highly complex and requires further investigation to be deciphered. Intraperitoneal challenge of C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice, resistant and susceptible to the infection, respectively, resulted in different patterns of cytokine production and neutrophil recruitment. S. aureus infection induced macrophage pyroptosis, an inflammasome-dependent ...
Xuan Nguyen Thi NT Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hospital Hygiene, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany; Institute of Genome Research, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, No.18, Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi, - - 2014
Dendritic cells (DCs) contribute to immune homeostasis under physiological conditions and regulate the immune activation during infection. The deubiquitinase A20 inhibits the activation of NF-κB-dependent immune reactions, and prevents the hyperactivation of DCs under steady-state conditions. However, the role of DC-specific A20 under pathological conditions is unknown. Here, we demonstrate ...
Gawish Riem R Ce-M-M-, Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria; Department of Medicine I, Laboratory of Infection Biology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; - - 2014
During infections, TLR-mediated responses require tight regulation to allow for pathogen removal, while preventing overwhelming inflammation and immunopathology. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-2 negatively regulates inflammation by macrophages and impacts on phagocytosis, but the function of endogenous TREM-2 during infections is poorly understood. We investigated TREM-2's role ...
Clatworthy Menna R MR Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge Research Unit, Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH, United Kingdom; and - - 2014
IgG immune complexes (ICs) are generated during immune responses to infection and self-antigen and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Their role, and that of the fragment crystallizable (Fc) receptors that bind them, in driving local inflammation is not fully understood. ...
Behr Marcel A MA Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4, Canada; McGill International TB Centre, Montreal H3G 1A4, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
Purpose: Mycobacterium tuberculosis contributed to the discovery of delayed-type hypersensitivity and cell-mediated immunity. However, the biochemical basis for the immunogenicity of the mycobacterial cell wall has until recently remained unknown. Recent findings: Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) responds to bacterial peptidolycan-derived muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Whereas most bacteria produce N-acetyl ...
Prokhorov Alexandr A School of Pharmacy, University of Kent, Anson Building, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent, ME4 4TB, United - - 2014
The T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3) is a plasma membrane-associated protein that is highly expressed in human acute myeloid leukaemia cells. As an acute myeloid leukaemia antigen it could therefore be considered as a potential target for immune therapy and highly-specific drug delivery. However, a conceptual understanding ...
Lee Sang-Im SI Department of Dental Hygiene, School of Health Sciences, Dankook University, Cheonan, Republic of - - 2014
The expression levels of intracellular pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) and microbial pattern-recognition receptors, such as nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2), have been reported in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) and inflamed dental pulp tissue, but the role of NLRP3 and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the production of human beta defensin ...
Didangelos Athanasios A Wolfson Centre for Age Related Diseases, Guy's Campus, King's College London, London SE1 1UL, United Kingdom elizabeth.bradbury@kcl.ac.uk - - 2014
Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) has striking effects on promoting neuronal plasticity after spinal cord injury (SCI), but little is known about its involvement in other pathological mechanisms. Recent work showed that ChABC might also modulate the immune response by promoting M2 macrophage polarization. Here we investigate in detail the immunoregulatory effects ...
Yang Yang Y State-key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China Department of Pathology , College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, - - 2014
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most efficient antigen presenting cells, playing a key role in the adaptive immune responses to viral infections. Our studies demonstrate that wild-type (wt) rabies virus (RABV) does not activate DCs. Adoptive transfer of DCs primed with wt RABV did not activate DCs, stimulate virus neutralizing ...
Maldonado-Aguayo W W Laboratory of Biotechnology and Aquatic Genomics, Interdisciplinary Center for Sustainable Aquaculture Research (INCAR), University of Concepción, - - 2014
The immune system in marine invertebrates is mediated through cellular and humoral components, which act together to address the action of potential pathogenic microorganisms. In bivalve mollusks biomolecules implicated in oxidative stress and recognition of pathogens have been involved in the innate immune response. To better understand the molecular basis ...
Schorn Tilo T Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Via J.H. Dunant 3, 21100, Varese, - - 2014
Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is a 17-kDa cytokine-inducible calcium-binding protein that, in vertebrates, plays an important role in the allograft immune response. Its expression is mostly limited to the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Until recently, AIF-1 was assumed to be a novel molecule involved in inflammatory responses. To clarify this aspect, we ...
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