Search Results
Results 1 - 50 of 2128
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Arthur Connie M CM The Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, - - 2015
Galectins are an evolutionarily ancient family of glycan-binding proteins (GBPs) and are found in all animals. Although they were discovered over 30 years ago, ideas about their biological functions continue to evolve. Current evidence indicates that galectins, which are the only known GBPs that occur free in the cytoplasm and ...
Franchi Silvia S Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Science, University of Milano, Via Vanvitelli 32, Milan, 20129, - - 2015
The discovery of opioid receptors expression on immune cells has originated a large research activity on the possible modulation by opioid drugs of immune system responses. In the present chapter we describe an easy methodology useful to obtain information about the potential immunomodulatory activity of opioid drugs. An in vivo ...
Castelli Mara M Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Science, University of Milano, Via Vanvitelli 32, Milan, 20129, - - 2015
The immune system is a complex and finely orchestrated system, and many soluble molecules and receptors contribute to its regulation.Recent studies have suggested that many of the modulatory effects induced by morphine on innate immunity, and in particular the effects on macrophage activation and function, can be due to the ...
Sioud Mouldy M Department of Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Radium Hospital, Montebello, Oslo, N-310, Norway, - - 2015
RNA interference has been of great interest not only as a research tool to suppress gene expression but also as an emerging therapeutic strategy to silence disease genes. However, the therapeutic use of siRNA faces the in vivo delivery challenge. An alternative method that could potentially be used for siRNA ...
Sioud Mouldy M Department of Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Radium Hospital, Norway, 0310, Montebello, Oslo, Norway, - - 2015
Over the past decade, immunotherapy has emerged as a promising new form of cancer treatment with the potential to eradicate tumor metastasis. However, its curative potential is in general limited by the existence of negative feedback mechanisms that control dendritic cells (DCs) and T-cell activation. For clinically effective immunity, there ...
Sioud Mouldy M Department of Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Ullernchausseen 70, Montebello, N-0310, Oslo, Norway, - - 2015
A subset of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) senses microbial nucleic acids in endosomal compartments. Furthermore, under certain conditions TLRs can recognize self-RNAs leading to the induction and/or perpetuation of inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have shown that the incorporation of modified nucleotides into small interfering RNA suppressed unwanted immunostimulation. Interestingly, RNA harboring ...
Yao Yong-Ming YM Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Burns Institute, First Hospital Affiliated to the Chinese PLA General Hospital, 51 Fu-cheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100048, People's Republic of - - 2015
Sepsis is defined as severe systemic inflammation in response to invading pathogens, or an uncontrolled hyperinflammatory response, as mediated by the release of various proinflammatory mediators. Although some patients may die rapidly from septic shock accompanied by an overwhelming systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) triggered by a highly virulent pathogen, ...
Lemarié Jérémie J Department of Medical Intensive Care, Hôpital Central, 29 avenue du Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, 54035, Nancy Cedex, - - 2015
The diagnosis of sepsis, and especially its differentiation from sterile inflammation, may be challenging. TREM-1, the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1, is an amplifier of the innate immune response. Its soluble form acts as a decoy for the natural TREM-1 ligand and dampens its activation. In this chapter, we ...
Relan Manisha M Division of Allergy/Immunology/Pediatric Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Women and Children's Hospital of Buffalo, SUNY at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, 219 Bryant Street, Buffalo, NY, 14222, - - 2014
The skin is the largest organ of our body; it consists of the epidermis, dermis, hair follicles, sweat glands, blood vessels, and connective tissue matrix. Its main function is to act as a barrier to the outside world and protect us from infections. Any component of the skin is subject ...
Jay David C DC Institute of Immunity, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, Stanford University, 269 Campus Drive, CCSR Building, Room 3215, Stanford, CA, - - 2014
Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a well-established allergen-specific immunotherapy and a safe and effective strategy to reorient inappropriate immune responses in allergic patients. SLIT takes advantage of the tolerogenic environment of the oral mucosa to promote tolerance to the allergen. Several clinical studies have investigated the complex interplay of innate and ...
Fong Lawrence L University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA (LF, PC, VW, SC, JL, JS, EJS); Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA (JC); Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR (CLA); University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (RAS); Dendreon Corporation, Seattle, WA (NAS, RBS, MWF). - - 2014
Sipuleucel-T is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved immunotherapy for asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Its mechanism of action is not fully understood. This prospective trial evaluated the direct immune effects of systemically administered sipuleucel-T on prostatic cancer tissue in the preoperative setting. Patients with untreated ...
Page Emma E EE *Department of Medicine, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom; †Division of Biological Chemistry, Biocenter, Medical University, Innsbruk, Austria; ‡Department of Infection and Immunity, Imperial College NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom; and §Department of HIV and Sexual Health, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United - - 2014
Immune activation plays a key role in the immunopathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. Microbial translocation, secondary to loss of epithelial integrity and mucosal immune deficiency, is believed to contribute to systemic immune activation. Interleukin 22 maintains intestinal epithelial barrier integrity and stimulates the secretion of antimicrobial peptides that limit bacterial dissemination ...
Gentek Rebecca R Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy, Aix-Marseille Université, UM2, Marseille, France; Institute National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U1104, Marseille, France; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), UMR7280, Marseille, - - 2014
Macrophages are cellular components of the innate immune system that reside in virtually all tissues and contribute to immunity, repair, and homeostasis. The traditional view that all tissue-resident macrophages derive from the bone marrow through circulating monocyte intermediates has dramatically shifted recently with the observation that macrophages from embryonic progenitors ...
Hill Andrea A AA Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, - - 2014
One decade has passed since seminal publications described macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue (AT) as a key contributor to inflammation and obesity-related insulin resistance. Currently, a PubMed search for 'adipose tissue inflammation' reveals over 3500 entries since these original reports. We now know that resident macrophages in lean AT are ...
Wang Jun J Department of Immunobiology and Yale Cancer Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, - - 2014
An immune-suppressive role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in melanoma has long been speculated, whereas molecular mechanisms underlying this role are not well understood. Here, Chung and colleagues show that dendritic cell-associated, heparan sulfate proteoglycans-dependent integrin ligand (DC-HIL), a cell surface immune-modulatory molecule, is highly expressed on tumor-associated MDSCs. Genetic ...
Xavier Anna L AL Laboratório de Neuroanatomia Celular, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, Brazil Center for Translational Neuromedicine, University of Rochester Medical School, Rochester, NY 14642, USA - - 2014
Microglia constitute as much as 10-15% of all cells in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and are the only glial cells that do not arise from the neuroectoderm. As the principal CNS immune cells, microglial cells represent the first line of defence in response to exogenous threats. Past studies ...
Weinstock Joel V JV Division of Gastroenterology (Box 233), Tufts Medical Center, 800 Washington St., Boston, MA, 02111, USA, - - 2014
Many immune-mediated diseases like inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, asthma, and food allergy appeared to have increased in frequency in developed countries in the latter part of the twentieth century. Reports from less developed countries suggest that the "epidemic" of immune-mediated diseases now is spreading into these ...
Noh Kyung - - 2014
BackgroundThe application of vaccine adjuvants has been vigorously studied for a diverse range of diseases in order to improve immune responses and reduce toxicity. However, most adjuvants have limited uses in clinical practice due to their toxicity.MethodsTherefore, to reduce health risks associated with the use of such adjuvants, we developed ...
Gazzinelli Ricardo T RT 1] Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 01605-02324 Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. [2] Laboratório de Imunopatologia, Centro de Pesquisa René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, 30190-002 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. [3] Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, - - 2014
Innate immune receptors have a key role in immune surveillance by sensing microorganisms and initiating protective immune responses. However, the innate immune system is a classic 'double-edged sword' that can overreact to pathogens, which can have deleterious effects and lead to clinical manifestations. Recent studies have unveiled the complexity of ...
Pombo Marina A - - 2014
BackgroundPlants have two related immune systems to defend themselves against pathogen attack. Initially, pattern-triggered immunity is activated upon recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns by pattern recognition receptors. Pathogenic bacteria deliver effector proteins into the plant cell that interfere with this immune response and promote disease. However, some plants express resistance ...
Cyster Jason G JG 1] Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, California 94143-0414, USA. [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Francisco, California 94143-0414, - - 2014
Cholesterol and components of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway have fundamental roles in all mammalian cells. Hydroxylated forms of cholesterol are now emerging as important regulators of immune function. This involves effects on the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway and cell membrane properties, which can have antiviral and anti-inflammatory influences. In addition, a ...
Wang Li-Fong LF 1 Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital , Kaohsiung, Taiwan - - 2014
Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an antimalarial drug also used in treating autoimmune diseases. Its antiviral activity was demonstrated in restricting HIV infection in vitro; however, the clinical implications remain controversial. Infection with dengue virus (DENV) is a global public health problem, and we lack an antiviral drug for DENV. Here, we ...
Kansara Maya M 1] Research Division, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, 3002, Victoria, Australia. [2] Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, 3010, Victoria, - - 2014
For the past 30 years, improvements in the survival of patients with osteosarcoma have been mostly incremental. Despite evidence of genomic instability and a high frequency of chromothripsis and kataegis, osteosarcomas carry few recurrent targetable mutations, and trials of targeted agents have been generally disappointing. Bone has a highly specialized ...
McGovern Naomi N Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), 8A Biomedical Grove, IMMUNOS Building #3-4, BIOPOLIS, 138648, - - 2014
The human immune system evolves continuously during development from the embryo into the adult, reflecting the ever-changing environment and demands of our body. This ability of our immune system to sense external cues and adapt as we develop is just as important in the early tolerogenic environment of the fetus, ...
Malavez Yadira Y Department of Molecular Genetics, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep, Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, - - 2014
Monocytes, key components of the immune system, are a heterogeneous population comprised of classical monocytes (CD16(-) ) and non-classical monocytes (CD16(+) ). Monocytes are short lived and undergo spontaneous apoptosis, unless stimulated. Dysregulation of monocyte numbers contribute to the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases, yet the contribution of each subset remains ...
Bassi Giulio G Verona, Italy ; - - 2014
The aim of this study was to assess the immune modulatory properties of human mesenchymal stromal cells obtained from bone marrow (BM-MSCs), fat (ASCs) and cord blood (CB-MSCs) in presence of a hydroxyapatite and tricalcium-phosphate (HA/TCP) biomaterial as a scaffold for MSC delivery. In resting conditions, a short-term culture with ...
Ostrand-Rosenberg Suzanne S Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 - - 2014
Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1, also known as B7 homolog 1 or CD274) is a major obstacle to antitumor immunity because it tolerizes/anergizes tumor-reactive T cells by binding to its receptor programmed death-1 (CD279), renders tumor cells resistant to CD8(+) T cell- and FasL-mediated lysis, and tolerizes T cells by ...
Chen Xiaojuan X Division of Infection and Immunity, Department of Electromagnetic and Laser Biology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, 100850, - - 2014
Autophagy plays important roles in modulating viral replication and antiviral immune response. Coronavirus infection is associated with the autophagic process, however, little is known about the mechanisms of autophagy induction and its contribution to coronavirus regulation of host innate responses. Here, we show that the membrane-associated papain-like protease PLP2 (PLP2-TM) ...
Pap Péter László PL MTA-DE "Lendület" Behavioural Ecology Research Group, Department of Evolutionary Zoology and Human Biology, University of Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1, 4032, Debrecen, Hungary, - - 2014
Constitutive innate immunity is the first lined of defence against infections, but the causes determining its variability among species are poorly understood. The pace of life hypothesis predicts that species with a fast speed of life, characterized by high energy turnover and short developmental time, invest relatively little in defence ...
Levy Maayan M Immunology Department, Weizmann Institute of Science, 100 Herzl Street, 76100, Rehovot, - - 2014
Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that serve as signaling platforms initiating innate immune responses. These structures are assembled upon a large array of stimuli, sensing both microbial products and endogenous signals indicating loss of cellular homeostasis. As such, inflammasomes are regarded as sensors of cellular integrity and tissue health, which, upon ...
Park Su-Jin SJ College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Pusan, 609-735, Republic of - - 2014
In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, quorum sensing (QS) plays an essential role in pathogenesis and the QS response controls many virulence factors. Using a mealworm, Tenebrio molitor as a host model, we found that Protease IV, a QS-regulated exoprotease of P. aeruginosa functions as a key virulence effector causing the melanization and ...
Peng Ying Y a Laboratory of Pathology, Department of Pathology , West China Hospital, Sichuan University , Chengdu 610041 , - - 2014
Abstract The innate and adaptive immune response could be initiated by toll like receptors (TLRs) by recognizing the conserved components of microbes. Among human TLR family, TLR9 was critical in sensing DNA viruses and endogenous DNA. Previous researches confirmed that activation of TLR9 could initiate many important cytokines such as ...
Zhao Qinglan Q Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People's Republic of - - 2014
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human γ-herpesvirus with latent and lytic reactivation cycles. The mechanism by which KSHV evades the innate immune system to establish latency has not yet been precisely elucidated. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the first line of defense against viral infections. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) ...
Gazzaniga Francesca S FS Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, University of California, San Francisco, CA, United - - 2014
Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex that adds telomeric DNA to the ends of linear chromosomes. It contains two core canonical components: the essential RNA component, hTR, which provides the template for DNA synthesis, and the reverse transcriptase protein component, hTERT. Low telomerase activity in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells has ...
Janczy John R JR Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242; Inflammation Program, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA - - 2014
IgG immune complexes have been shown to modify immune responses driven by APCs in either a pro- or anti-inflammatory direction depending upon the context of stimulation. However, the ability of immune complexes to modulate the inflammasome-dependent innate immune response is unknown. In this study, we show that IgG immune complexes ...
Martínez-López María M Department of Vascular Biology and Inflammation, CNIC-Fundación Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares "Carlos III", Madrid, - - 2014
The role of different dendritic cell (DC) subsets in priming and maintenance of immunity against Leishmania major (L. major) infection is debated. The transcription factor Batf3 is essential for the development of mouse CD103(+) DCs and some functions of CD8α(+) DCs. We found that CD103(+) DCs were significantly reduced in ...
Mortaz Esmaeil E Division of Pharmacology and Pathophysiology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The - - 2014
Tuberculosis (TB) is considered a major worldwide health problem with 10 million new cases diagnosed each year. Our understanding of TB immunology has become greater and more refined since the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) as an etiologic agent and the recognition of new signaling pathways modulating infection. Understanding the ...
Zhang Shuangyue S a Department of Food and Tourism Management, Hollings Faculty , Manchester Metropolitan University , Hollings Faculty, Old Hall Lane , Manchester , M14 6HR , United - - 2014
ABSTRACT Arabinoxylans are of significant importance to human health due to their potential to modulate both the adaptive and innate immune systems. Arabinoxylans of various structures and sources have been shown to affect different immune cells to augment a wide range of immune responses in vitro and in vivo in ...
Cai Qunfeng - - 2014
BackgroundThe cochlea is the sensory organ of hearing. In the cochlea, the organ of Corti houses sensory cells that are susceptible to pathological insults. While the organ of Corti lacks immune cells, it does have the capacity for immune activity. We hypothesized that resident cells in the organ of Corti ...
Tateda Chika C Department of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois - - 2014
In Arabidopsis thaliana, responses to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are mediated by cell surface pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and include the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, callose deposition in the cell wall, and the generation of the signal molecule salicylic acid (SA). SA acts in a positive feedback loop with ...
Yao William - - 2014
BackgroundInnate immunity and tissue proliferation play important roles in otitis media (OM), the most common disease of childhood. CJUN terminal kinase (JNK) is potentially involved in both processes.ResultsGenes involved in both innate immune and growth factor activation of JNK are upregulated during OM, while expression of both positive and negative ...
Kasahara Emiko - - 2014
Various stressors activate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) that stimulates adrenal secretion of glucocorticoids, thereby playing critical roles in the modulation of immune responses. Transcriptional regulation of nuclear genes has been well documented to underlie the mechanism of glucocorticoid-dependent modulation of cytokine production and immune reactions. Glucocorticoids also regulate inflammatory responses ...
Walker W Allan WA Department of Pediatrics, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, - - 2014
Newborns adjust to the extrauterine environment by developing intestinal immune homeostasis. Appropriate initial bacterial colonization is necessary for adequate intestinal immune development. An environmental determinant of adequate colonization is breast milk. Although the full term infant is developmentally capable of mounting an immune response, the effector immune component requires bacterial ...
Orekhov Alexander N AN Laboratory of Angiopathology, Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 8 Baltiyskaya Street, 125315 Moscow, Russia. - - 2014
Immunopathology plays important roles in the development of different life-threatening diseases, such as atherosclerosis and its consequences (acute myocardial infarction and stroke), cancer, chronic inflammatory diseases. Effective modulation of the immune system may significantly increase the efficacy of prevention and therapy efforts. Currently there are no marketed drugs capable of ...
Mendel Itzhak - - 2014
Atherosclerosis is a smoldering disease of the vasculature that can lead to the occlusion of the arteries, resulting in ischemia of the heart and brain. For many years, the asserted underlying mechanism of atherosclerosis, supported by its epidemiology, was based on the "cholesterol hypothesis" that people with high blood cholesterol ...
Sasaki Naoto N Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1, Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, 650-0017, Japan. - - 2014
Innate and adaptive immunity has been shown to be critically involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In particular, immune suppression mediated by regulatory T cells (Tregs) or tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) serves as a vital mechanism for regulating pathogenic chronic inflammation in atherogensis, suggesting that promotion of endogenous regulatory immune ...
Khatri Asma A Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA Department of Medicine, Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, - - 2014
Immune reconstitution syndrome has rarely been reported in the context of syphilis infection. We report a patient with AIDS (CD4 42 cells/mm(3), viral load 344,000 cp/ml), treated previously for secondary syphilis and started on an integrase inhibitor-based single-tablet antiretroviral treatment regimen. After four weeks of antiretroviral treatment, he presented with ...
Zhang Xianqin X Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, - - 2014
Intracellular ISG15 is an interferon (IFN)-α/β-inducible ubiquitin-like modifier which can covalently bind other proteins in a process called ISGylation; it is an effector of IFN-α/β-dependent antiviral immunity in mice. We previously published a study describing humans with inherited ISG15 deficiency but without unusually severe viral diseases. We showed that these ...
Gulati Nicholas N Laboratory for Investigative Dermatology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, - - 2014
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules have been found in nevus nests and previously ascribed to a subset of melanocytes which have been suggested to participate in anti-melanocyte immunity (Smit et al., 1993; Ting and Trowsdale, 2002). We histologically characterized the immune infiltrates of 20 common melanocytic nevi (CMN) and ...
Simon K K Adaptation Physiology Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, De Elst 1, 6708 WD Wageningen, the Netherlands - - 2014
Provision of feed in the immediate posthatch period may influence interaction between intestinal microbiota and immune system, and consequently immunological development of the chick. This study addressed ileal immune development in response to early feeding in 2 chicken breeds selected for different production traits: broilers and layers. Chicks of both ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >