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Mortaz Esmaeil E Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. - - 2014
The immunopathology of sarcoidosis remains elusive despite years of research into this multiorgan disease.However, recent studies have provided new insights into the genetics and immune components involved in the clinical manifestation of the disease. Granulomatous inflammation is due to the host immune response to a persistent poorly degradable unknown antigen.Mycobacterium ...
Ogłodek Ewa E Department of Psychiatry, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Development of depression is associated with the body's response to prolonged stress, which adversely affects the functioning of the nervous, endocrine and immune systems. Prolonged stress can lead to the development of a so-called allostatic load and reduction of concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. These changes result in impairment of ...
Lo Schiavo Ada A Department of Dermatology, Second University of Naples, via Sergio Pansini, 5, 80131 Naples, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Granulomatous disorders are chronic cell-mediated immune responses histologically characterized by collections of macrophages, epithelioid cells, and multinucleated giant cells. This disease spectrum often has an infectious origin, but sometimes neither an infective agent nor an inciting antigenic stimulus can be identified. The skin may be a preferential target for these ...
Piccolo Vincenzo V Department of Dermatology, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
The immunocompromised cutaneous district (ICD) is a novel pathogenic concept that refers to the occurrence of opportunistic skin disorders (such as infections, malignancies, and immune diseases) at a cutaneous site previously marked by a damaging event, usually involving the local lymph network or peripheral sensory nerves. In addition to herpetic ...
Carlson J Andrew JA Divisions of Dermatopathology and Dermatology, Department of Pathology, Albany Medical College, MC-81, Albany, NY 12208. Electronic address: - - 2014
Whether primary or secondary, lymphedema is caused by failure to drain protein-rich interstitial fluid. Typically affecting a whole limb, it has become apparent that lymphedema can also affect localized regions of the skin, or it can be clinically silent but histologically evident, denoted by dilated lymphangiectases (latent lymphedema). Chronic lymph ...
Baroni Adone A Department of Dermatology, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Lymphedematous areas are sites of regional immune destabilization depicting a typical example of an immunocompromised cutaneous district (ICD). This study evaluates the expression of some components of the skin innate immunity on lymphedematous limbs with the aim to clarify some facets of the ICD. Patients selected underwent two skin biopsies: ...
Ruocco Vincenzo V Department of Dermatology, Second University of Naples, via Sergio Pansini, 5, 80131 Naples, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Besides the systemic immune deficiency, a sectorial default in immune control may occur in immunocompetent subjects. This regional immune defect can appear and remain confined to differently damaged skin areas, lately labeled immunocompromised districts (ICDs). An ICD is a skin area more vulnerable than the rest of the body for ...
Kang Kai K Department of Nutrition, East Hospital, Tong Ji University School of Medicine, No 150, Jimo Road, Pudong District, Shanghai, 200120, China. - - 2014
L-arginine plays an important role in immune regulation by affecting the immune response and inflammation. This meta-analysis was performed to assess whether L-arginine supplementation could improve the outcomes of immune function, and to evaluate the safety of L-arginine supplementation. Four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library) for ...
Salisbury Dereck D Dereck Salisbury, MS, is Doctoral Candidate School of Kinesiology and Laboratory Manager, School of Nursing Laboratory of Clinical Physiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Ulf G. Bronas, PhD, FSVM, FAHA, is Assistant Professor, School of Nursing, and Director, School of Nursing Laboratory of Clinical Physiology, University of Minnesota, - - 2014
Immune system activation and inflammation are intricately involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The purposes of this review are to (a) discuss effects of inflammation and the immune system across the lifespan of atherosclerotic plaque, (b) review current recommended testing techniques for assessing inflammation using blood and within ...
Bartemes Kathleen R KR Division of Allergic Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn; Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, - - 2014
In mice, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) likely mediate helminth immunity, inflammation, and tissue repair and remodeling. However, the involvement of ILC2s in human diseases, such as asthma, is not well understood. The goals of this study were to investigate whether peripheral blood specimens can be used to monitor ...
Di Lorenzo Flaviana F Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Napoli "Federico II", Complesso Universitario Monte S.Angelo, Via Cintia 4, 80126 Napoli - - 2014
Thermomonas hydrothermalis is a Gram-negative thermophilic bacterium that is able to live at 50 °C. This ability is attributed to chemical modifications, involving those to bacterial cell-wall components, such as proteins and (glyco)lipids. As the main component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are exposed to the environment, ...
Lei Yunlong Y State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy/Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, P.R. China; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, P.R. - - 2014
Inflammation is an essential immune response characterized by pain, swelling, redness, heat, and impaired function. A controlled acute inflammatory response is necessary to fight off infection and overcome injury. However, if the inflammatory process persists and enters into the chronic state, it can lead to local and systemic deleterious effects ...
Liu Xiao-Dong XD Division of Key Lab of Animal Disease Diagnosis and Immunology of China's Department of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, People's Republic of - - 2014
The bursa of Fabricius (BF) is the key humoral immune organ unique to birds, and is critical for early B-lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation. However, the molecular basis and mechanisms through which the BF regulates B cell development are not fully understood. In this study, we isolated and identified a new ...
Quintana F J FJ Department of Neurology, Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, - - 2014
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that control the generation of adaptive immunity. Consequently, DCs have a central role in the induction of protective immunity to pathogens and also in the pathogenic immune response responsible for the development and progression of autoimmune disorders. Thus the study of the molecular ...
Tang Huifang H Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative, and Pain Medicine, Center for Experimental Therapeutics and Reperfusion Injury, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115; Zhejiang Respiratory Drugs Research Laboratory of the State Food and Drug Administration of China, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, - - 2014
Increasing evidence suggests that the novel anti-inflammatory and proresolving mediators such as the resolvins play an important role during inflammation. However, the functions of these lipid mediators in immune complex-induced lung injury remain unknown. In this study, we determined the role of aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) and its metabolically stable ...
Tomlinson Gillian G Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United - - 2014
Streptococcus pneumoniae infections induce inflammatory responses that contribute toward both disease pathogenesis and immunity, but the host-pathogen interactions that mediate these effects are poorly defined. We used the surface lipoprotein-deficient ∆lgt pneumococcal mutant strain to test the hypothesis that lipoproteins are key determinants of TLR-mediated immune responses to S. pneumoniae. ...
Schwartz Christian C Department of Infection Biology at the Institute of Microbiology-Clinical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen at the Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen 91054, - - 2014
Schistosomiasis is a severe and chronic disease caused by the parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni after deposition of eggs in the liver and intestines. The immune response to S. mansoni eggs is characterized by increased Th2 cells, eosinophilia, and high serum IgE levels. Granulomas are formed around the eggs to protect ...
Salazar-González R R Laboratorio de Biofarmacia y Farmacocinética, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, UASLP, San Luis Potosí, SLP, - - 2014
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) metabolizes isoniazid (INH) and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) responsible for its activity has been reported. The aim of this study in the Mexican mestizo population was to evaluate NAT2 expression at the protein level in immune cells, as well as the distribution and frequency of six ...
Chassaing Benoit - - 2014
The mammalian intestinal tract is a largest immune organ in the body and comprises cells from non-hemopoietic (epithelia, Paneth cells, goblet cells) and hemopoietic (macrophages, dendritic cells, T-cells) origin, and is also a dwelling for trillions of microbes collectively known as the microbiota. The homeostasis of this large microbial biomass ...
Inman Kristin S KS Kristin S Inman, Amanda A Francis, Nicole R Murray, Department of Cancer Biology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL 32224, United - - 2014
The immune system plays a complex role in the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. Inflammation can promote the formation of premalignant lesions and accelerate pancreatic cancer development. Conversely, pancreatic cancer is characterized by an immunosuppressive environment, which is thought to promote tumor progression and invasion. Here we review the ...
Schenkel Jason M JM Department of Microbiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis MN, 55455, USA. Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis MN, 55455, - - 2014
The pathogen recognition theory dictates that upon viral infection, the innate immune system first detects microbial products, and then responds by providing instructions to adaptive CD8 T cells. Here, we show in mice that resident memory CD8 T cells (TRM), non-recirculating cells located at common sites of infection, can achieve ...
Wilhelms Daniel Björk DB Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, 58185 Linköping, - - 2014
Fever is a hallmark of inflammatory and infectious diseases. The febrile response is triggered by prostaglandin E2 synthesis mediated by induced expression of the enzymes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1). The cellular source for pyrogenic PGE2 remains a subject of debate; several hypotheses have been forwarded, ...
Quick Eamon D ED Neuroscience - - 2014
West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that causes significant neuroinvasive disease involving the brain and/or spinal cord. Experimental mouse models of WNV infection have established the importance of innate and adaptive immune responses in controlling the extent and severity of central nervous system (CNS) disease. However, differentiating between ...
Hosoya Tadashi T Department of Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), Tokyo, Japan Japan Science and Technology Agency-CREST Program, Tokyo, - - 2014
Biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) that inhibit aberrant immune reactions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cannot induce complete remission in all patients. Combination therapies using two biological DMARDs have failed to exert additive effects and increased serious infections. We have found that cell cycle inhibition of synovial fibroblasts with cyclin-dependent kinase ...
Parker Katherine K Dept. Biological Sciences, U. of Maryland Baltimore - - 2014
Chronic inflammation often precedes malignant transformation and later drives tumor progression. Likewise, subversion of the immune system plays a role in tumor progression, with tumoral immune escape now well recognized as a crucial hallmark of cancer. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are elevated in most individuals with cancer, where their accumulation ...
Morel Penelope A PA Departments of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh, 200 Lothrop Street, BST E1055, Pittsburgh, PA, 15261, USA, - - 2014
The immune system is designed to protect the organism from infection and to repair damaged tissue. An effective response requires recognition of the threat, the appropriate effector mechanism to clear the pathogen and a return to homeostasis with minimal damage to self-tissues. T cells play a central role in orchestrating ...
Yeon Sang Hyeon SH Integrated Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, 420-743, Bucheon, - - 2014
Retinoic acid-inducible gene I(RIG-I) is a cytosolic pattern-recognition receptor that recognizes viruses and triggers antiviral immune responses. Activation of intracellular RIG-I signaling is mediated through interferon (IFN)-β promoter stimulator-1(IPS-1), an adaptor of RIG-I, which induces interferon regulatory factor(IRF) 3 activation and type I IFN expression. The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase(PI3K) and Akt pathway ...
Li Xiaoman X Key Laboratory of Medical Cell Biology, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, 110001, - - 2014
Purpose: Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the signature protein of caveolae, modulates inflammatory responses and innate immunity. However, Cav-1's role in retinal inflammation has not been rigorously tested. In this study, we examined the effect of Cav-1 ablation on the sensitivity of the retina to inflammation. Methods: Cav-1 knockout (KO) mice were challenged ...
Banks W A WA Geriatrics Research Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care Center, Seattle Washington; Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Washington. Electronic address: - - 2014
Neuroimmunology is concerned with the relations between the central nervous and immune systems and with the mechanisms that drive those relations. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) employs mechanisms that both separate and connect these two systems. In fact, the relative immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) is largely attributable ...
Cunha Larissa D LD Department of Cell Biology. Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo (FMRP/USP). Ribeirão Preto, SP 14049-900. - - 2014
Innate immune receptors evolved to sense conserved molecules that are present in microbes or are released during non-physiological conditions. Activation of these receptors is essential for early restriction of microbial infections and generation of adaptive immunity. Among the conserved molecules sensed by innate immune receptors are the nucleic acid, which ...
Kabat Agnieszka M AM Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, - - 2014
The immune system must constantly monitor the gastrointestinal tract for the presence of pathogens while tolerating trillions of commensal microbiota. It is clear that intestinal microbiota actively modulate the immune system to maintain a mutually beneficial relation, but the mechanisms that maintain homeostasis are not fully understood. Recent advances have ...
Lao Xiangda X Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, - - 2014
Innate immunity as the first line of the immune system, provides initial protection against various pathogens and infections. Recent studies suggest a link between cell stress response and immune response upon exogenous insults in the lung. The key proteins in cellular stress responses were demonstrated to be involved in the ...
Danieli Maria Giovanna MG Clinica Medica, Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Molecolari, Università Politecnica delle Marche & Ospedali Riuniti, Ancona, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) constitutes a relevant treatment option in various immune-mediated disorders, such as chronic inflammatory neuropathies and idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). Several advantages are linked to IVIg immunomodulatory and steroid sparing effects and to the possibility to withdraw the immunosuppressant therapy. However, the use of IVIg is not always ...
Wang Xia X School of Medical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Anhui Province, Hefei, 230009, China. Electronic address: - - 2014
The circadian clock regulates many physiological parameters involving immune response to infectious agents, which is mediated by activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. Thus, understanding the NF-κB dynamics regulated by circadian clocks will help in developing better therapeutics. To this end, we proposed a detailed model in the present work ...
Kuo Chao-Lin CL Department of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chinese Medicine Resources, China Medical University , Taichung, Taiwan , ROC - - 2014
Abstract Green tea is a widely consumed beverage known for its beneficial anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-mutagenic, anti-carcinogenic, and cardioprotective properties. Here, we administered epigallocatechin gallate fraction of green tea extract (EGTE) to mice for 6 weeks and examined the effects on the innate and adaptive immune responses by measuring phagocytic and ...
Becker Marc M Institute for Immunology, Research Center for Immunotherapy (FZI) at the University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, - - 2014
The succinct metaphor, 'the immune system's loaded gun', has been used to describe the role of mast cells (MCs) due to their storage of a wide range of potent pro-inflammatory and antimicrobial mediators in secretory granules that can be released almost instantly on demand to fight invaders. Located at host-environment ...
Ramirez L A LA Department of Pathology and AIDS Clinical Trials Unit, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, - - 2014
HIV-1-infected subjects, despite control of viral replication with ART, have an altered immune cytokine/chemokine milieu. Changes in systemic cytokines and chemokines can alter immune responses. IP-10, in particular, has been associated with pathogenesis in a number of conditions, and we found that IP-10 is increased in serum in subjects who ...
Fites J Scott JS Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, - - 2014
Amphibians are suffering unprecedented global declines. A leading cause is the infectious disease chytridiomycosis caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Chytridiomycosis is a skin disease which disrupts transport of essential ions leading to death. Soluble factors produced by B. dendrobatidis impair amphibian and mammalian lymphocytes in vitro, but previous ...
Schäffler Holger H Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine II, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany - - 2014
Mutations in the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) play an important role in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. NOD2 is an intracellular PRR that senses bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) structures, e.g. muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Here we focused on the effect of higher-cross-linked, polymeric PGN fragments (PGNpol) in the activation of ...
Royle Caroline M CM Immunology Section, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London SW10 9NH, United - - 2014
HIV-1 causes a progressive impairment of immune function. HIV-2 is a naturally attenuated form of HIV, and HIV-2 patients display a slow-progressing disease. The leading hypothesis for the difference in disease phenotype between HIV-1 and HIV-2 is that more efficient T cell-mediated immunity allows for immune-mediated control of HIV-2 infection, ...
Dey Ranadhir R Division of Emerging and Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD - - 2014
Previously, we showed that genetically modified live-attenuated Leishmania donovani parasite cell lines (LdCen(-/-) and Ldp27(-/-)) induce a strong cellular immunity and provide protection against visceral leishmaniasis in mice. In this study, we explored the mechanism of cross-protection against cutaneous lesion-causing Leishmania mexicana. Upon challenge with wild-type L. mexicana, mice immunized ...
Camossi Lucilene Granuzzio LG Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, UNESP Univ Estadual Paulista, Campus de Botucatu, Departamento de Higiene Veterinária e Saúde Pública, Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Electronic address: - - 2014
Toxoplasmosis, caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, is an worldwide parasitic disease, with significant importance for animal production and considerable impact to the public health. This study was aimed to evaluate the dynamic of the distribution of T.gondii in tissues of female Wistar rats and their puppies ...
Rodríguez-Iturbe Bernardo B Hospital Universitario y Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela; Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas-Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela; - - 2014
A large number of investigations have demonstrated the participation of the immune system in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Studies focusing on macrophages and Toll-like receptors have documented involvement of the innate immunity. The requirements of antigen presentation and co-stimulation, the critical importance of T cell-driven inflammation, and the demonstration, in ...
O'Connell Elise E Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, NIAID, NIH, CRC B3-4141, MSC 1684, Bethesda, MD, 20892-1684, - - 2014
Anti-interferon-γ (IFNγ) autoantibodies have been associated with disseminated mycobacterial infections, mostly in patients from Southeast Asia. We studied an American-born, Caucasian female with M. avium complex infection of the subglottic mucosa and brain for underlying etiologies of infection. Plasma was screened for anticytokine autoantibodies using a Luminex-based approach. The ability ...
Siebenhaar Frank F Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, - - 2014
Mast cells (MC) and basophils (BAS) have long been recognized for their detrimental role in the elicitation of allergic diseases. In recent years, scientific results revealed both cell types as versatile effector cells that exhibit far more complex functions beyond their role in allergy. MC and BAS have been shown ...
Gorp Hanne Van HV Department of Medical Protein Research, VIB, Ghent, B-9000, Belgium; Department of Biochemistry, Ghent University, Ghent, B-9000, - - 2014
NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are intracellular proteins that are chiefly known for their critical functions in inflammatory responses and host defense against microbial pathogens. Several NLRs have been demonstrated to assemble inflammasomes or to engage transcriptional signaling cascades that result in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and bactericidal factors. In recent ...
Santos Joana J Cell Proliferation Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, London W12 0NN, - - 2014
Senescence is a highly stable cell cycle arrest which limits the replication of cells with damaged genomes. The senescence program is activated during aging or in response to insults like DNA damage or oncogenic signalling. Upon induction of senescence, cells undergo profound changes on their transcription programme, chromatin organization, and ...
Suh Sung-Suk SS South Sea Environment Research Department, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Geoje 656-830, Republic of - - 2014
Hypoxia is an issue that affects ocean coastal waters worldwide. It has severe consequences for marine organisms, including death and rapid adaptive changes in metabolic organization. Although some aquatic animals are routinely exposed and resistant to severe environmental hypoxia, others such as sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus nudus) have a limited capacity ...
Gaffen Sarah L SL Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, S702 BST, 3500 Terrace Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, - - 2014
Following the discovery of T helper 17 (TH17) cells, the past decade has witnessed a major revision of the TH subset paradigm and substantial progress has been made in deciphering the molecular mechanisms of T cell lineage commitment and function. In this Review, we focus on the recent advances that ...
Aka Peter V PV Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, - - 2014
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) risk is affected by perturbed immunity. Herein, we compared plasma from 15 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative classic KS cases to plasma from 29 matched controls, using a multiplex panel of immunity markers. Of 70 markers, CXCL10 (IP-10), sIL-1RII, sIL-2RA, and CCL3 (MIP-1A) were strongly and significantly associated ...
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