Search Results
Results 1 - 50 of 2194
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Arthur Connie M CM The Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, - - 2015
Galectins are an evolutionarily ancient family of glycan-binding proteins (GBPs) and are found in all animals. Although they were discovered over 30 years ago, ideas about their biological functions continue to evolve. Current evidence indicates that galectins, which are the only known GBPs that occur free in the cytoplasm and ...
Franchi Silvia S Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Science, University of Milano, Via Vanvitelli 32, Milan, 20129, - - 2015
The discovery of opioid receptors expression on immune cells has originated a large research activity on the possible modulation by opioid drugs of immune system responses. In the present chapter we describe an easy methodology useful to obtain information about the potential immunomodulatory activity of opioid drugs. An in vivo ...
Castelli Mara M Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Science, University of Milano, Via Vanvitelli 32, Milan, 20129, - - 2015
The immune system is a complex and finely orchestrated system, and many soluble molecules and receptors contribute to its regulation.Recent studies have suggested that many of the modulatory effects induced by morphine on innate immunity, and in particular the effects on macrophage activation and function, can be due to the ...
Sioud Mouldy M Department of Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Radium Hospital, Montebello, Oslo, N-310, Norway, - - 2015
RNA interference has been of great interest not only as a research tool to suppress gene expression but also as an emerging therapeutic strategy to silence disease genes. However, the therapeutic use of siRNA faces the in vivo delivery challenge. An alternative method that could potentially be used for siRNA ...
Sioud Mouldy M Department of Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Radium Hospital, Norway, 0310, Montebello, Oslo, Norway, - - 2015
Over the past decade, immunotherapy has emerged as a promising new form of cancer treatment with the potential to eradicate tumor metastasis. However, its curative potential is in general limited by the existence of negative feedback mechanisms that control dendritic cells (DCs) and T-cell activation. For clinically effective immunity, there ...
Sioud Mouldy M Department of Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Ullernchausseen 70, Montebello, N-0310, Oslo, Norway, - - 2015
A subset of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) senses microbial nucleic acids in endosomal compartments. Furthermore, under certain conditions TLRs can recognize self-RNAs leading to the induction and/or perpetuation of inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have shown that the incorporation of modified nucleotides into small interfering RNA suppressed unwanted immunostimulation. Interestingly, RNA harboring ...
Yao Yong-Ming YM Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Burns Institute, First Hospital Affiliated to the Chinese PLA General Hospital, 51 Fu-cheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100048, People's Republic of - - 2015
Sepsis is defined as severe systemic inflammation in response to invading pathogens, or an uncontrolled hyperinflammatory response, as mediated by the release of various proinflammatory mediators. Although some patients may die rapidly from septic shock accompanied by an overwhelming systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) triggered by a highly virulent pathogen, ...
Lemarié Jérémie J Department of Medical Intensive Care, Hôpital Central, 29 avenue du Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, 54035, Nancy Cedex, - - 2015
The diagnosis of sepsis, and especially its differentiation from sterile inflammation, may be challenging. TREM-1, the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1, is an amplifier of the innate immune response. Its soluble form acts as a decoy for the natural TREM-1 ligand and dampens its activation. In this chapter, we ...
Yan Lisa L Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, - - 2015
Langerhans cells (LCs) are antigen-presenting cells responsible for initiating an immune response against human papillomaviruses (HPVs) entering the epithelial layer in vivo as they are the first immune cell that HPV comes into contact with. LCs become activated in response to foreign antigens, which causes internal signaling resulting in the ...
Relan Manisha M Division of Allergy/Immunology/Pediatric Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Women and Children's Hospital of Buffalo, SUNY at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, 219 Bryant Street, Buffalo, NY, 14222, - - 2014
The skin is the largest organ of our body; it consists of the epidermis, dermis, hair follicles, sweat glands, blood vessels, and connective tissue matrix. Its main function is to act as a barrier to the outside world and protect us from infections. Any component of the skin is subject ...
Ballow Mark M Division of Allergy and Immunology, University of South Florida, Morsani College of Medicine, Children's Research Institute, All Children's Hospital, St Petersburg, Florida, - - 2014
In the past few years there have been many advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) modulates immune function in autoimmune disorders. Previous investigations have focused on the Fc domain of the IgG molecule, and the role of the FcγRIIB receptor and the sialylated ...
Jay David C DC Institute of Immunity, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, Stanford University, 269 Campus Drive, CCSR Building, Room 3215, Stanford, CA, - - 2014
Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a well-established allergen-specific immunotherapy and a safe and effective strategy to reorient inappropriate immune responses in allergic patients. SLIT takes advantage of the tolerogenic environment of the oral mucosa to promote tolerance to the allergen. Several clinical studies have investigated the complex interplay of innate and ...
Fong Lawrence L University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA (LF, PC, VW, SC, JL, JS, EJS); Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA (JC); Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR (CLA); University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (RAS); Dendreon Corporation, Seattle, WA (NAS, RBS, MWF). - - 2014
Sipuleucel-T is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved immunotherapy for asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Its mechanism of action is not fully understood. This prospective trial evaluated the direct immune effects of systemically administered sipuleucel-T on prostatic cancer tissue in the preoperative setting. Patients with untreated ...
Page Emma E EE *Department of Medicine, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom; †Division of Biological Chemistry, Biocenter, Medical University, Innsbruk, Austria; ‡Department of Infection and Immunity, Imperial College NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom; and §Department of HIV and Sexual Health, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United - - 2014
Immune activation plays a key role in the immunopathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. Microbial translocation, secondary to loss of epithelial integrity and mucosal immune deficiency, is believed to contribute to systemic immune activation. Interleukin 22 maintains intestinal epithelial barrier integrity and stimulates the secretion of antimicrobial peptides that limit bacterial dissemination ...
Gentek Rebecca R Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy, Aix-Marseille Université, UM2, Marseille, France; Institute National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U1104, Marseille, France; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), UMR7280, Marseille, - - 2014
Macrophages are cellular components of the innate immune system that reside in virtually all tissues and contribute to immunity, repair, and homeostasis. The traditional view that all tissue-resident macrophages derive from the bone marrow through circulating monocyte intermediates has dramatically shifted recently with the observation that macrophages from embryonic progenitors ...
Hill Andrea A AA Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, - - 2014
One decade has passed since seminal publications described macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue (AT) as a key contributor to inflammation and obesity-related insulin resistance. Currently, a PubMed search for 'adipose tissue inflammation' reveals over 3500 entries since these original reports. We now know that resident macrophages in lean AT are ...
Wang Jun J Department of Immunobiology and Yale Cancer Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, - - 2014
An immune-suppressive role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in melanoma has long been speculated, whereas molecular mechanisms underlying this role are not well understood. Here, Chung and colleagues show that dendritic cell-associated, heparan sulfate proteoglycans-dependent integrin ligand (DC-HIL), a cell surface immune-modulatory molecule, is highly expressed on tumor-associated MDSCs. Genetic ...
Lindemann M M Institute for Transfusion Medicine, University Hospital Essen, Essen, 45147, - - 2014
Cellular ex vivo assays have a broad range of applications in patient care and clinical studies, especially when they are standardized and highly sensitive. As compared to analyses by molecular genetics such as the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) testing, they are usually more global. These assays partly mimic the in ...
Estes Myka L ML Center for Neuroscience, UC Davis, Davis, - - 2014
Neuroinflammation was once a clearly defined term denoting pathological immune processes within the central nervous system (CNS). Historically, this term was used to indicate the four hallmarks of peripheral inflammaton that occur following severe CNS injuries, such as stroke, injury or infection. Recently, however, the definition of neuroinflammation has relaxed ...
Kuethe Joshua W JW Joshua W. Kuethe, MD, is General Surgery Resident; Rachael Mintz-Cole, PhD, is MD Candidate; Bobby L. Johnson III, MD, is General Surgery Resident; and Emily F. Midura, MD, is General Surgery Resident, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Ohio. Charles C. Caldwell, PhD, is Associate Professor, College of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Division of Research, University of Cincinnati, Ohio. Barbara St. Pierre Schneider, DNSc, RN, is Associate Professor, School of Nursing, University of Nevada, Las - - 2014
Unintentional injury or trauma remains the leading cause of death among young adults. About one fifth of these trauma patients require care in an intensive care unit (ICU) because of severity of injuries and comorbidities. Patients hospitalized in an ICU are at increased risk for nosocomial infections, such as urinary ...
Hansell Chris Ah CA Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, - - 2014
Chemokine-directed leukocyte migration is a critical component of all innate and adaptive immune responses. The atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2 is expressed by lymphatic endothelial cells and scavenges pro-inflammatory CC chemokines to indirectly subdue leukocyte migration. This contributes to the resolution of acute inflammatory responses in vivo. ACKR2 is also universally ...
Jyonouchi Harumi - - 2014
BackgroundSome children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by fluctuating behavioral symptoms following immune insults, persistent gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and a lack of response to the first-line intervention measures. These children have been categorized as the ASD-inflammatory subtype (ASD-IS) for this study. We reported a high prevalence of non-IgE ...
Gordon William M - - 2014
Dermal infiltration of T cells is an important step in the onset and progression of immune-mediated skin diseases such as psoriasis; however, it is not known whether epidermal factors play a primary role in the development of these diseases. Here, we determined that the prodifferentiation transcription factor grainyhead-like 3 (GRHL3), ...
Brennan Amelia J AJ Cancer Immunology Program, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002, Australia; ilia.voskoboinik@petermac.org - - 2014
Cytotoxic lymphocytes destroy pathogen-infected and transformed cells through the cytotoxic granule exocytosis death pathway, which is dependent on the delivery of proapoptotic granzymes into the target cell cytosol by the pore-forming protein, perforin. Despite the importance of mouse models in understanding the role of cytotoxic lymphocytes in immune-mediated disease and ...
Brummelman Jolanda J Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The - - 2014
Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of whooping cough. Despite high vaccination coverage, outbreaks are being increasingly reported worldwide. Possible explanations include adaptation of this pathogen, which may interfere with recognition by the innate immune system. Here, we describe innate immune recognition and responses to different ...
Pauli Noel T NT Committee on Immunology; Department of Medicine, Section of Rheumatology, The Knapp Center for Lupus and Immunology Research; Department of Microbiology; and Department of Pathology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 Committee on Immunology; Department of Medicine, Section of Rheumatology, The Knapp Center for Lupus and Immunology Research; Department of Microbiology; and Department of Pathology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL - - 2014
Staphylococcus aureus bacterial infection commonly results in chronic or recurrent disease, suggesting that humoral memory responses are hampered. Understanding how S. aureus subverts the immune response is critical for the rescue of host natural humoral immunity and vaccine development. S. aureus expresses the virulence factor Protein A (SpA) on all ...
Johnson Jenny L JL Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106, - - 2014
Over the last four decades, increases in the incidence of immune-mediated diseases in the Western world have been linked to changes in microbial exposure. It is becoming increasingly clear that the normal microbiota in the gut can profoundly alter susceptibility to a wide range of diseases, such as asthma, in ...
Sistigu Antonella A 1] Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France. [2] INSERM, U1015, Villejuif, France. [3] Université Paris Saclay, Faculté de Médecine, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France. [4] Department of Hematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, - - 2014
Some of the anti-neoplastic effects of anthracyclines in mice originate from the induction of innate and T cell-mediated anticancer immune responses. Here we demonstrate that anthracyclines stimulate the rapid production of type I interferons (IFNs) by malignant cells after activation of the endosomal pattern recognition receptor Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3). ...
Shih Kent K Sarah Cannon Research Institute and Tennessee Oncology PLLC, Nashville, TN, 37203, USA, - - 2014
Immune responses are tightly regulated via signaling through numerous co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules. Exploitation of these immune checkpoint pathways is one of the mechanisms by which tumors evade and/or escape the immune system. A growing understanding of the biology of immune checkpoints and tumor immunology has led to the development ...
Malaspina Andrea A Neuroscience and Trauma Centre, Blizard Building, Institute of Cell and Molecular Medicine, Barts & the London School of Medicine & Dentistry, London, UK - - 2014
The immune system is inextricably linked with many neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a devastating neuromuscular disorder affecting motor cell function with an average survival of 3 years from symptoms onset. In ALS there is a dynamic interplay between the resident innate immune cells, i.e. microglia and astrocytes, ...
Chiurchiù Valerio V European Center for Brain Research (CERC), I.R.C.C.S. Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo, Teramo, Italy - - 2014
G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is activated by endogenous, plant-derived and synthetic cannabinoids. Recent studies reported a broad tissue distribution for GPR55 and found prominent roles for this receptor in inflammatory pain, gut and bone physiology, as well as cancer. However, little is known about the expression and function of ...
Michelini Zuleika Z 1 Department of Therapeutic Research and Medicines Evaluation, Istituto Superiore di Sanità , Rome, Italy - - 2014
Abstract As a prelude to immunization studies in nonhuman primates, we compared in mice the immunogenicity of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-based integrase (IN)-defective lentiviral vector (IDLV) encoding the model antigen-enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP) in the presence or absence of the murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) expressed from an ...
Lin Che - - 2014
BackgroundThe immune system is a key biological system present in vertebrates. Exposure to pathogens elicits various defensive immune mechanisms that protect the host from potential threats and harmful substances derived from pathogens such as parasites, bacteria, and viruses. The complex immune system of humans and many other vertebrates can be ...
Gehrke N N I. Department of Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, - - 2014
Apoptosis signaling is involved in both physiological tissue homeostasis and acute and chronic diseases. The role of regulatory apoptosis signaling molecules and their organ-specific functions are less defined. Therefore, we investigated the loss of the anti-apoptotic cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (cFLIP) and the mechanisms of the resulting lethal organ failure in ...
Barsoum Ivraym B IB Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's - - 2014
An important aspect of malignant progression is the acquired ability of tumor cells to avoid recognition and destruction by the immune system (immune escape). Clinical cancer progression is also associated with the development of tumor hypoxia, which is mechanistically linked to the acquisition of malignant phenotypes in cancer cells. Despite ...
Peterson Christine T CT The George Washington University, The Institute for Biomedical Sciences, The School of Medicine & Health Sciences, Ross Hall | 2300 Eye Street NW, Room 561 Washington, DC - - 2014
The distal gut harbors ∼10(13) bacteria, representing the most densely populated ecosystem known. The functional diversity expressed by these communities is enormous and relatively unexplored. The past decade of research has unveiled the profound influence the resident microbial populations bestow to host immunity and metabolism. The evolution of these communities ...
Chatzidaki-Livanis Maria M Division of Infectious Diseases, 181 Longwood Avenue, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA - - 2014
Bacteroidales are the most abundant Gram negative bacteria of the human intestinal microbiota comprising more than half of the bacteria in many individuals. Some of the factors that these bacteria use to establish and maintain themselves in this ecosystem are beginning to be identified. However, ecological competition, especially interference competition ...
Almahariq Muayad - - 2014
The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway plays an essential role in immune functions. In this study we examined the role of the cAMP/EPAC1 (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP) axis in regulatory T-cell (Treg)-mediated immune suppression using genetic and pharmacologic approaches. Genetic deletion of EPAC1 in Treg and effector ...
Antonia Scott J SJ Immunology, Moffitt Cancer Center - - 2014
Immuno-oncology is an evolving treatment modality that includes immunotherapies designed to harness the patient's own immune system. This approach is being studied for its potential to improve long-term survival across multiple tumor types. It is now important to determine how immunotherapies may be most effectively used to achieve the best ...
Oeser K K Department of Infection Biology, Institute of Microbiology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen and Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, - - 2014
Approximately one-third of the world population is infected with gastrointestinal helminths. Studies in mouse models have demonstrated that the cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 are essential for worm expulsion, but the critical cellular source of these cytokines is poorly defined. Here, we compared the immune response to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in ...
Noman Muhammad Zaeem MZ INSERM U753, Gustave Roussy Cancer campus, 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, 94805, Villejuif, - - 2014
Accumulating evidence indicate that the behavior of tumorigenic cells is highly influenced by their microenvironment. In this regard, microenvironmental hypoxia plays a determinant role in the emergence of CTC (circulating tumor cells) and CSC (cancer stem cells). CTCs are believed to be indicators of residual disease and thus pose an ...
Shrestha Gajendra G Department of Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602, USA; M. L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602, - - 2014
The immune system has capacity to suppress the development or progression of various malignancies including cancer. Research on the immunomodulating properties of polysaccharides obtained from plants, microorganisms, marine organisms, and fungi is growing rapidly. Among the various potential sources, lichens, symbiotic systems involving a fungus and an alga and/or a ...
Barrientos Lorena L INSERM, Unité Mixte de Recherche-S 996, "Cytokines, chimiokines et immunopathologie," Université Paris-Sud, 92296 Châtenay-Malabry and Clamart, France; Université Paris-Sud, Faculté de Pharmacie, 92296 Châtenay-Malabry, - - 2014
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) play a central role in inflammation and participate in its control, notably by modulating dendritic cell (DC) functions via soluble mediators or cell-cell contacts. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) released by PMN could play a role in this context. To evaluate NET effects on DC maturation, we developed ...
Chueh Fu-Shin FS Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan, - - 2014
Polygonum cuspidatum is a natural plant that is used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. The crude extract of Polygonum cuspidatum (CEPC) has numerous biological effects; however, there is a lack of studies on the effects of CEPC on immune responses in normal mice. The aim of the present study was to determine ...
Watanabe Mayuki M Division of Immunogenetics, Department of Immunobiology and Neuroscience, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, - - 2014
Neutrophils are highly motile leukocytes that play important roles in the innate immune response to invading pathogens. Neutrophils rapidly migrate to the site of infections and kill pathogens by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Neutrophil chemotaxis and ROS production require activation of Rac small GTPase. DOCK2, an atypical guanine nucleotide ...
Jensen Hanne H Nofima, Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries, and Aquaculture Research, P.O. Box 210, 1431, Ås, Norway, - - 2014
Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially bacteria belonging to the genus Lactobacillus, are recognized as common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract and have received considerable attention in the last decades due to their postulated health-promoting effects. LAB and probiotic bacteria can modulate the host immune response. However, much is ...
Collado Maria Carmen MC 1] 1.Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), Spanish National Research Council, Valencia, Spain [2] 2.Functional Foods Forum, University of Turku, Turku, - - 2014
Modern civilization is faced with a progressive increase in immune-mediated or inflammatory health problems such as allergic disease, autoimmune disorders and obesity. An extended version of the hygiene hypothesis has been introduced to emphasize the intimate interrelationship between diet, the immune system, microbiome and origins of human disease. the modern ...
Ao Ying Y State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, 510275, Guangzhou, People's Republic of - - 2014
Microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity plays critical roles in the basal resistance defense response in plants. Chitin and peptidoglycan (PGN) are major molecular patterns for fungi and bacteria, respectively. Two rice (Oryza sativa) lysin motif-containing proteins, OsLYP4 and OsLYP6, function as receptors that sense bacterial PGN and fungal chitin. These ...
Zemp Franz J FJ Department of Oncology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Southern Alberta Cancer Research Institute, University of - - 2014
Oncolytic virus therapy is being evaluated in clinical trials for human glioma. While it is widely assumed that the patient's immune response to the virus infection limits the therapy's utility, investigations into the specific cell type(s) involved in this response have been performed using non-specific pharmacological inhibitors or allogeneic models ...
Balmasova Irina P IP Irina P Balmasova, Nikolay D Yushchuk, Laboratory of Pathogenesis and Treatment Methods in Infection Diseases, Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, Moscow 127374, - - 2014
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a widespread infectious disease with unfavorable outcomes and life-threatening consequences for patients, in spite of modern vaccination and antiviral treatment modalities. Cutting-edge experimental approaches have demonstrated key pathways that involve cross-talk between viral particles and host immune cells. All events, including penetration of hepatitis B ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >