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Arthur Connie M CM The Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, - - 2015
Galectins are an evolutionarily ancient family of glycan-binding proteins (GBPs) and are found in all animals. Although they were discovered over 30 years ago, ideas about their biological functions continue to evolve. Current evidence indicates that galectins, which are the only known GBPs that occur free in the cytoplasm and ...
Franchi Silvia S Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Science, University of Milano, Via Vanvitelli 32, Milan, 20129, - - 2015
The discovery of opioid receptors expression on immune cells has originated a large research activity on the possible modulation by opioid drugs of immune system responses. In the present chapter we describe an easy methodology useful to obtain information about the potential immunomodulatory activity of opioid drugs. An in vivo ...
Castelli Mara M Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Science, University of Milano, Via Vanvitelli 32, Milan, 20129, - - 2015
The immune system is a complex and finely orchestrated system, and many soluble molecules and receptors contribute to its regulation.Recent studies have suggested that many of the modulatory effects induced by morphine on innate immunity, and in particular the effects on macrophage activation and function, can be due to the ...
Sioud Mouldy M Department of Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Radium Hospital, Montebello, Oslo, N-310, Norway, - - 2015
RNA interference has been of great interest not only as a research tool to suppress gene expression but also as an emerging therapeutic strategy to silence disease genes. However, the therapeutic use of siRNA faces the in vivo delivery challenge. An alternative method that could potentially be used for siRNA ...
Sioud Mouldy M Department of Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Radium Hospital, Norway, 0310, Montebello, Oslo, Norway, - - 2015
Over the past decade, immunotherapy has emerged as a promising new form of cancer treatment with the potential to eradicate tumor metastasis. However, its curative potential is in general limited by the existence of negative feedback mechanisms that control dendritic cells (DCs) and T-cell activation. For clinically effective immunity, there ...
Sioud Mouldy M Department of Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Ullernchausseen 70, Montebello, N-0310, Oslo, Norway, - - 2015
A subset of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) senses microbial nucleic acids in endosomal compartments. Furthermore, under certain conditions TLRs can recognize self-RNAs leading to the induction and/or perpetuation of inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have shown that the incorporation of modified nucleotides into small interfering RNA suppressed unwanted immunostimulation. Interestingly, RNA harboring ...
Yao Yong-Ming YM Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Burns Institute, First Hospital Affiliated to the Chinese PLA General Hospital, 51 Fu-cheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100048, People's Republic of - - 2015
Sepsis is defined as severe systemic inflammation in response to invading pathogens, or an uncontrolled hyperinflammatory response, as mediated by the release of various proinflammatory mediators. Although some patients may die rapidly from septic shock accompanied by an overwhelming systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) triggered by a highly virulent pathogen, ...
Lemarié Jérémie J Department of Medical Intensive Care, Hôpital Central, 29 avenue du Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, 54035, Nancy Cedex, - - 2015
The diagnosis of sepsis, and especially its differentiation from sterile inflammation, may be challenging. TREM-1, the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1, is an amplifier of the innate immune response. Its soluble form acts as a decoy for the natural TREM-1 ligand and dampens its activation. In this chapter, we ...
Relan Manisha M Division of Allergy/Immunology/Pediatric Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Women and Children's Hospital of Buffalo, SUNY at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, 219 Bryant Street, Buffalo, NY, 14222, - - 2014
The skin is the largest organ of our body; it consists of the epidermis, dermis, hair follicles, sweat glands, blood vessels, and connective tissue matrix. Its main function is to act as a barrier to the outside world and protect us from infections. Any component of the skin is subject ...
Ballow Mark M Division of Allergy and Immunology, University of South Florida, Morsani College of Medicine, Children's Research Institute, All Children's Hospital, St Petersburg, Florida, - - 2014
In the past few years there have been many advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) modulates immune function in autoimmune disorders. Previous investigations have focused on the Fc domain of the IgG molecule, and the role of the FcγRIIB receptor and the sialylated ...
Jay David C DC Institute of Immunity, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, Stanford University, 269 Campus Drive, CCSR Building, Room 3215, Stanford, CA, - - 2014
Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a well-established allergen-specific immunotherapy and a safe and effective strategy to reorient inappropriate immune responses in allergic patients. SLIT takes advantage of the tolerogenic environment of the oral mucosa to promote tolerance to the allergen. Several clinical studies have investigated the complex interplay of innate and ...
Fong Lawrence L University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA (LF, PC, VW, SC, JL, JS, EJS); Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA (JC); Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR (CLA); University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (RAS); Dendreon Corporation, Seattle, WA (NAS, RBS, MWF). - - 2014
Sipuleucel-T is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved immunotherapy for asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Its mechanism of action is not fully understood. This prospective trial evaluated the direct immune effects of systemically administered sipuleucel-T on prostatic cancer tissue in the preoperative setting. Patients with untreated ...
Page Emma E EE *Department of Medicine, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom; †Division of Biological Chemistry, Biocenter, Medical University, Innsbruk, Austria; ‡Department of Infection and Immunity, Imperial College NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom; and §Department of HIV and Sexual Health, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United - - 2014
Immune activation plays a key role in the immunopathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. Microbial translocation, secondary to loss of epithelial integrity and mucosal immune deficiency, is believed to contribute to systemic immune activation. Interleukin 22 maintains intestinal epithelial barrier integrity and stimulates the secretion of antimicrobial peptides that limit bacterial dissemination ...
Gentek Rebecca R Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy, Aix-Marseille Université, UM2, Marseille, France; Institute National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U1104, Marseille, France; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), UMR7280, Marseille, - - 2014
Macrophages are cellular components of the innate immune system that reside in virtually all tissues and contribute to immunity, repair, and homeostasis. The traditional view that all tissue-resident macrophages derive from the bone marrow through circulating monocyte intermediates has dramatically shifted recently with the observation that macrophages from embryonic progenitors ...
Hill Andrea A AA Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, - - 2014
One decade has passed since seminal publications described macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue (AT) as a key contributor to inflammation and obesity-related insulin resistance. Currently, a PubMed search for 'adipose tissue inflammation' reveals over 3500 entries since these original reports. We now know that resident macrophages in lean AT are ...
Wang Jun J Department of Immunobiology and Yale Cancer Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, - - 2014
An immune-suppressive role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in melanoma has long been speculated, whereas molecular mechanisms underlying this role are not well understood. Here, Chung and colleagues show that dendritic cell-associated, heparan sulfate proteoglycans-dependent integrin ligand (DC-HIL), a cell surface immune-modulatory molecule, is highly expressed on tumor-associated MDSCs. Genetic ...
Lindemann M M Institute for Transfusion Medicine, University Hospital Essen, Essen, 45147, - - 2014
Cellular ex vivo assays have a broad range of applications in patient care and clinical studies, especially when they are standardized and highly sensitive. As compared to analyses by molecular genetics such as the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) testing, they are usually more global. These assays partly mimic the in ...
Chatzidaki-Livanis Maria M Division of Infectious Diseases, 181 Longwood Avenue, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA - - 2014
Bacteroidales are the most abundant Gram negative bacteria of the human intestinal microbiota comprising more than half of the bacteria in many individuals. Some of the factors that these bacteria use to establish and maintain themselves in this ecosystem are beginning to be identified. However, ecological competition, especially interference competition ...
Almahariq Muayad - - 2014
The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway plays an essential role in immune functions. In this study we examined the role of the cAMP/EPAC1 (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP) axis in regulatory T-cell (Treg)-mediated immune suppression using genetic and pharmacologic approaches. Genetic deletion of EPAC1 in Treg and effector ...
Oeser K K Department of Infection Biology, Institute of Microbiology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen and Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, - - 2014
Approximately one-third of the world population is infected with gastrointestinal helminths. Studies in mouse models have demonstrated that the cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 are essential for worm expulsion, but the critical cellular source of these cytokines is poorly defined. Here, we compared the immune response to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in ...
Noman Muhammad Zaeem MZ INSERM U753, Gustave Roussy Cancer campus, 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, 94805, Villejuif, - - 2014
Accumulating evidence indicate that the behavior of tumorigenic cells is highly influenced by their microenvironment. In this regard, microenvironmental hypoxia plays a determinant role in the emergence of CTC (circulating tumor cells) and CSC (cancer stem cells). CTCs are believed to be indicators of residual disease and thus pose an ...
Shrestha Gajendra G Department of Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602, USA; M. L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602, - - 2014
The immune system has capacity to suppress the development or progression of various malignancies including cancer. Research on the immunomodulating properties of polysaccharides obtained from plants, microorganisms, marine organisms, and fungi is growing rapidly. Among the various potential sources, lichens, symbiotic systems involving a fungus and an alga and/or a ...
Barrientos Lorena L INSERM, Unité Mixte de Recherche-S 996, "Cytokines, chimiokines et immunopathologie," Université Paris-Sud, 92296 Châtenay-Malabry and Clamart, France; Université Paris-Sud, Faculté de Pharmacie, 92296 Châtenay-Malabry, - - 2014
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) play a central role in inflammation and participate in its control, notably by modulating dendritic cell (DC) functions via soluble mediators or cell-cell contacts. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) released by PMN could play a role in this context. To evaluate NET effects on DC maturation, we developed ...
Chueh Fu-Shin FS Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan, - - 2014
Polygonum cuspidatum is a natural plant that is used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. The crude extract of Polygonum cuspidatum (CEPC) has numerous biological effects; however, there is a lack of studies on the effects of CEPC on immune responses in normal mice. The aim of the present study was to determine ...
Watanabe Mayuki M Division of Immunogenetics, Department of Immunobiology and Neuroscience, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, - - 2014
Neutrophils are highly motile leukocytes that play important roles in the innate immune response to invading pathogens. Neutrophils rapidly migrate to the site of infections and kill pathogens by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Neutrophil chemotaxis and ROS production require activation of Rac small GTPase. DOCK2, an atypical guanine nucleotide ...
Collado Maria Carmen MC 1] 1.Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), Spanish National Research Council, Valencia, Spain [2] 2.Functional Foods Forum, University of Turku, Turku, - - 2014
Modern civilization is faced with a progressive increase in immune-mediated or inflammatory health problems such as allergic disease, autoimmune disorders and obesity. An extended version of the hygiene hypothesis has been introduced to emphasize the intimate interrelationship between diet, the immune system, microbiome and origins of human disease. the modern ...
Ao Ying Y State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, 510275, Guangzhou, People's Republic of - - 2014
Microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity plays critical roles in the basal resistance defense response in plants. Chitin and peptidoglycan (PGN) are major molecular patterns for fungi and bacteria, respectively. Two rice (Oryza sativa) lysin motif-containing proteins, OsLYP4 and OsLYP6, function as receptors that sense bacterial PGN and fungal chitin. These ...
Zemp Franz J FJ Department of Oncology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Southern Alberta Cancer Research Institute, University of - - 2014
Oncolytic virus therapy is being evaluated in clinical trials for human glioma. While it is widely assumed that the patient's immune response to the virus infection limits the therapy's utility, investigations into the specific cell type(s) involved in this response have been performed using non-specific pharmacological inhibitors or allogeneic models ...
Balmasova Irina P IP Irina P Balmasova, Nikolay D Yushchuk, Laboratory of Pathogenesis and Treatment Methods in Infection Diseases, Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, Moscow 127374, - - 2014
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a widespread infectious disease with unfavorable outcomes and life-threatening consequences for patients, in spite of modern vaccination and antiviral treatment modalities. Cutting-edge experimental approaches have demonstrated key pathways that involve cross-talk between viral particles and host immune cells. All events, including penetration of hepatitis B ...
Giovannoni Laurianne L 1 Cell Isolation and Transplantation Center, Department of Surgery, University of Geneva School of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland. 2 Department of Endocrinology-Metabolisme and Diabetology-Nutrition, Jean Minjoz University Hospital, Besançon, France. 3 Division of Transplantation and Visceral Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Geneva Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland. 4 NovImmune, Plan-les-Ouates, Switzerland. 5 Address correspondence to: Thierry Berney, M.D., M.Sc., Divisions of Visceral Surgery and Transplantation, Department of Surgery, University of Geneva Hospitals, 4, rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1211 Geneva 14, - - 2014
Toll-like receptors are key players in sterile inflammation phenomena and can link the innate and adaptive immune systems by enhancing graft immunogenicity. They are also considered mediators of types 1 and 2 diabetes development. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) in ...
Tobin Richard P - - 2014
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a significant cause of death and disability, causes, as in any injury, an acute, innate immune response. A key component in the transition between innate and adaptive immunity is the processing and presentation of antigen by professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). Whether an adaptive immune response ...
Walton M B MB Myles Benjamin Walton, Chestergates Animal Referral Hospital, Unit E Telford Court, Chestergates Road, Chester, Cheshire CH1 6LT, United Kingdom, Phone: +44 124 485 3823, Fax: +44 124 485 3824, E-mail: benwalton@live.co.uk or - - 2014
A four-year-old, male Cocker Spaniel was presented for investigation of pelvic limb stiffness. There was palpable effusion of both tarsi, and analysis of synovial fluid from these joints indicated previous haemorrhage. After further investigation a diagnosis of idiopathic immune-mediated thrombocytopenia was made. The dog responded to treatment with prednisolone and ...
Xavier Anna L AL Laboratório de Neuroanatomia Celular, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, Brazil Center for Translational Neuromedicine, University of Rochester Medical School, Rochester, NY 14642, USA - - 2014
Microglia constitute as much as 10-15% of all cells in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and are the only glial cells that do not arise from the neuroectoderm. As the principal CNS immune cells, microglial cells represent the first line of defence in response to exogenous threats. Past studies ...
Weinstock Joel V JV Division of Gastroenterology (Box 233), Tufts Medical Center, 800 Washington St., Boston, MA, 02111, USA, - - 2014
Many immune-mediated diseases like inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, asthma, and food allergy appeared to have increased in frequency in developed countries in the latter part of the twentieth century. Reports from less developed countries suggest that the "epidemic" of immune-mediated diseases now is spreading into these ...
Noh Kyung - - 2014
BackgroundThe application of vaccine adjuvants has been vigorously studied for a diverse range of diseases in order to improve immune responses and reduce toxicity. However, most adjuvants have limited uses in clinical practice due to their toxicity.MethodsTherefore, to reduce health risks associated with the use of such adjuvants, we developed ...
Gazzinelli Ricardo T RT 1] Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 01605-02324 Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. [2] Laboratório de Imunopatologia, Centro de Pesquisa René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, 30190-002 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. [3] Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, - - 2014
Innate immune receptors have a key role in immune surveillance by sensing microorganisms and initiating protective immune responses. However, the innate immune system is a classic 'double-edged sword' that can overreact to pathogens, which can have deleterious effects and lead to clinical manifestations. Recent studies have unveiled the complexity of ...
Pombo Marina A - - 2014
BackgroundPlants have two related immune systems to defend themselves against pathogen attack. Initially, pattern-triggered immunity is activated upon recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns by pattern recognition receptors. Pathogenic bacteria deliver effector proteins into the plant cell that interfere with this immune response and promote disease. However, some plants express resistance ...
Cyster Jason G JG 1] Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, California 94143-0414, USA. [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Francisco, California 94143-0414, - - 2014
Cholesterol and components of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway have fundamental roles in all mammalian cells. Hydroxylated forms of cholesterol are now emerging as important regulators of immune function. This involves effects on the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway and cell membrane properties, which can have antiviral and anti-inflammatory influences. In addition, a ...
Wang Li-Fong LF 1 Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital , Kaohsiung, Taiwan - - 2014
Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an antimalarial drug also used in treating autoimmune diseases. Its antiviral activity was demonstrated in restricting HIV infection in vitro; however, the clinical implications remain controversial. Infection with dengue virus (DENV) is a global public health problem, and we lack an antiviral drug for DENV. Here, we ...
Kansara Maya M 1] Research Division, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, 3002, Victoria, Australia. [2] Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, 3010, Victoria, - - 2014
For the past 30 years, improvements in the survival of patients with osteosarcoma have been mostly incremental. Despite evidence of genomic instability and a high frequency of chromothripsis and kataegis, osteosarcomas carry few recurrent targetable mutations, and trials of targeted agents have been generally disappointing. Bone has a highly specialized ...
McGovern Naomi N Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), 8A Biomedical Grove, IMMUNOS Building #3-4, BIOPOLIS, 138648, - - 2014
The human immune system evolves continuously during development from the embryo into the adult, reflecting the ever-changing environment and demands of our body. This ability of our immune system to sense external cues and adapt as we develop is just as important in the early tolerogenic environment of the fetus, ...
Malavez Yadira Y Department of Molecular Genetics, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep, Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, - - 2014
Monocytes, key components of the immune system, are a heterogeneous population comprised of classical monocytes (CD16(-) ) and non-classical monocytes (CD16(+) ). Monocytes are short lived and undergo spontaneous apoptosis, unless stimulated. Dysregulation of monocyte numbers contribute to the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases, yet the contribution of each subset remains ...
Bassi Giulio G Verona, Italy ; - - 2014
The aim of this study was to assess the immune modulatory properties of human mesenchymal stromal cells obtained from bone marrow (BM-MSCs), fat (ASCs) and cord blood (CB-MSCs) in presence of a hydroxyapatite and tricalcium-phosphate (HA/TCP) biomaterial as a scaffold for MSC delivery. In resting conditions, a short-term culture with ...
Ostrand-Rosenberg Suzanne S Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 - - 2014
Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1, also known as B7 homolog 1 or CD274) is a major obstacle to antitumor immunity because it tolerizes/anergizes tumor-reactive T cells by binding to its receptor programmed death-1 (CD279), renders tumor cells resistant to CD8(+) T cell- and FasL-mediated lysis, and tolerizes T cells by ...
Chen Xiaojuan X Division of Infection and Immunity, Department of Electromagnetic and Laser Biology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, 100850, - - 2014
Autophagy plays important roles in modulating viral replication and antiviral immune response. Coronavirus infection is associated with the autophagic process, however, little is known about the mechanisms of autophagy induction and its contribution to coronavirus regulation of host innate responses. Here, we show that the membrane-associated papain-like protease PLP2 (PLP2-TM) ...
Pap Péter László PL MTA-DE "Lendület" Behavioural Ecology Research Group, Department of Evolutionary Zoology and Human Biology, University of Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1, 4032, Debrecen, Hungary, - - 2014
Constitutive innate immunity is the first lined of defence against infections, but the causes determining its variability among species are poorly understood. The pace of life hypothesis predicts that species with a fast speed of life, characterized by high energy turnover and short developmental time, invest relatively little in defence ...
Levy Maayan M Immunology Department, Weizmann Institute of Science, 100 Herzl Street, 76100, Rehovot, - - 2014
Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that serve as signaling platforms initiating innate immune responses. These structures are assembled upon a large array of stimuli, sensing both microbial products and endogenous signals indicating loss of cellular homeostasis. As such, inflammasomes are regarded as sensors of cellular integrity and tissue health, which, upon ...
Park Su-Jin SJ College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Pusan, 609-735, Republic of - - 2014
In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, quorum sensing (QS) plays an essential role in pathogenesis and the QS response controls many virulence factors. Using a mealworm, Tenebrio molitor as a host model, we found that Protease IV, a QS-regulated exoprotease of P. aeruginosa functions as a key virulence effector causing the melanization and ...
Peng Ying Y a Laboratory of Pathology, Department of Pathology , West China Hospital, Sichuan University , Chengdu 610041 , - - 2014
Abstract The innate and adaptive immune response could be initiated by toll like receptors (TLRs) by recognizing the conserved components of microbes. Among human TLR family, TLR9 was critical in sensing DNA viruses and endogenous DNA. Previous researches confirmed that activation of TLR9 could initiate many important cytokines such as ...
Zhao Qinglan Q Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People's Republic of - - 2014
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human γ-herpesvirus with latent and lytic reactivation cycles. The mechanism by which KSHV evades the innate immune system to establish latency has not yet been precisely elucidated. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the first line of defense against viral infections. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) ...
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