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Chen Yi-Guang YG The Max McGee National Research Center for Juvenile Diabetes, Children's Research Institute of Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, and Department of Pediatrics at the Medical College of Wisconsin Milwaukee, WI 53226, - - 2014
Mechanisms associated with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) development remain incompletely defined. Employing a sensitive array-based bioassay where patient plasma is used to induce transcriptional responses in healthy leukocytes, we previously reported disease-specific, partially IL-1 dependent, signatures associated with pre and recent onset (RO) T1D relative to unrelated healthy controls (uHC). ...
de Rivero Vaccari Juan Pablo - - 2014
Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and involves activation of the innate immune response via recognition of diverse stimuli by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). The inflammatory inducers and precise innate signaling pathway contributing to AD pathology remain largely undefined. In the present study we ...
Aalbers M W MW School for Mental Health & Neuroscience, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands; Department of Neurology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
It is unclear to what extent neuropathological changes contribute to brain inflammation observed in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Here, we compared cytokine levels between histopathologically-confirmed sclerotic hippocampi and histopathologically-confirmed normal hippocampi from TLE patients. We analyzed a similar cytokine panel in the hippocampi of amygdala-kindled rats and we evaluated neuropathological ...
Nakao Atsuhito A Department of Immunology, University of Yamanashi, Faculty of Medicine, 1110 Shimokato, Chuo, Yamanashi 409-3898, Japan ; Atopy Research Center, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, - - 2014
Several parameters of the immune system exhibit oscillations with a period of approximately 24 hours that refers to "circadian rhythms." Such daily variations in host immune system status might evolve to maximize immune reactions at times when encounters with pathogens are most likely to occur. However, the mechanisms behind circadian ...
Grignolio Andrea A Interdepartmental Center "Luigi Galvani" for Bioinformatics, Biophysics and Biocomplexity, University of Bologna , Bologna , - - 2014
The conceptualization of immunological self is amongst the most important theories of modern biology, representing a sort of theoretical guideline for experimental immunologists, in order to understand how host constituents are ignored by the immune system (IS). A consistent advancement in this field has been represented by the danger/damage theory ...
Wilson Elizabeth B - - 2013
Type I interferons (IFN-I) are a broad family of cytokines that are central to the innate immune response. These proteins have long been appreciated for the critical roles they play in restraining viral infections and shaping antiviral immune responses. However, in recent years there has been increased awareness of the ...
Grønberg Nina Vindegaard - - 2013
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. At present, the only available treatment is thrombolysis, which should be initiated no later than 4.5 hours after onset of symptoms. Several studies have shown that an attenuation of the inflammatory response in relation to stroke could widen the therapeutic ...
Gan Na - - 2013
The role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the activation of innate immunity has been extensively studied in the past several years. Here, we are the first to report that myeloid-related protein 8 (MRP8), an endogenous TLR4 ligand, is involved in the epileptogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). We ...
Liimatainen Suvi S Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation, Tampere University Hospital, P.O. Box 2000, 33521, Tampere, Finland; Emergency Department Acuta, Tampere University Hospital, P.O. Box 2000, 33521, Tampere, Finland. Electronic address: - - 2013
The temporal lobes are affected in many different neurological disorders, such as neurodegenerative diseases, viral and immunological encephalitides, and epilepsy. Both experimental and clinical evidence suggests a different inflammatory response to seizures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in comparison to those with extra-TLE (XTLE). Proinflammatory cytokines and several ...
Iyer Divya D Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, - - 2013
In the present study, early stage apoptosis is explored with high temporal resolution. In addition to monitoring early apoptosis induction in single cells by ultrasensitive confocal fluorescence microscopy (UCFM), the mitochondrial protein release kinetics was explored. The current study shows development and optimization of a novel, rapid apoptosis assay to ...
Louw L - - 2013
Background: Cholesteatoma is considered a benign, gradually expanding and destructive epithelial lesion of the temporal bone. The pathogenesis of different classifications of cholesteatoma is marked by similar underlying cellular and molecular processes. Stepwise explanations of the histopathogenesis have been described previously. The current paper focuses on expounding the molecular events ...
King Jonas G - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes respond to infection by mounting immune responses. The primary regulators of these immune responses are cells called hemocytes, which kill pathogens via phagocytosis and via the production of soluble antimicrobial factors. Mosquito hemocytes are circulated throughout the hemocoel (body cavity) by the swift flow of hemolymph (blood), and ...
Pedre Lourdes Lorigados - - 2013
All common contributing factors to epilepsy such as trauma, malignancies and infections are accompanied by different levels of central nervous system inflammation that in turn have been associated with the occurrence of seizure. Emerging data from human brain tissue and experimental models of epilepsy support the proposed involvement of inflammation ...
Garnier Romain R Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, UMR CNRS 5175, Montpellier, France. - - 2013
The evolution of resistance to parasites has been the focus of numerous theoretical studies and several mechanisms, ranging from innate to acquired immune responses, have been considered. Life-history theory predicts that long-lived species should invest more resources into maintenance and immunity than short-lived species. Here, we provide further theoretical and ...
Gibbs Julie E - - 2013
ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis exhibits diurnal variation in symptoms, with patients suffering with increased painful joint stiffness in the early morning. This correlates with an early morning rise in circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6. This temporal variation in disease pathology is directed by the circadian clock, both at ...
Gätschenberger Heike - - 2013
The development of all honey bee castes proceeds through three different life stages all of which encounter microbial infections to a various extent. We have examined the immune strength of honey bees across all developmental stages with emphasis on the temporal expression of cellular and humoral immune responses upon artificial ...
Gaweda-Walerych Katarzyna - - 2013
Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are considered among the main molecular mechanisms implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. Here, we focus on the deficiency of PARK2 and its product parkin, which is relevant to both familial and sporadic PD pathogenesis. Parkin emerges as an important regulator of processes that maintain ...
Hardman Clare S CS MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge, - - 2013
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is an IL-1 family cytokine that signals via its receptor T1/ST2, and is a key regulator of inflammation, notably the type-2 response implicated in allergic asthma. Critical to our understanding of the role of IL-33 is the identification of the cellular sources of IL-33. Although progress has been ...
Kendra Paul E - - 2012
The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors the mycopathogen responsible for laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae, including avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Effective semiochemical-based detection and control programs for X. glabratus will require an understanding of the chemical ...
Dronca Roxana S RS Department of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. - - 2012
There is ample evidence that immune-related processes in humans are under temporal regulation. The circadian variation of humoral and cellular immunity is well documented and appears to be hormonally modulated via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In advanced melanoma, it has recently been demonstrated that systemic immunity is repolarized toward a global ...
Quirico-Santos Thereza - - 2012
Persistent neuroinflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of seizures and neuronal degeneration of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Circulating level of inflammatory cytokines was determined during inter-ictal period of 25 non-operated and 10 patients (OP) submitted to anterior temporal lobectomy. OP patients showed marked reduction of IL-1β, TNFα, MIP-1α, but not ...
Wang Tuanlao - - 2012
Rab7 plays an important role in regulating endocytic traffic. In view of an emerging role of membrane traffic in signaling and diseases, we have examined the possible role of Rab7 in oncogenesis. The role of Rab7 was investigated using shRNA-mediated knockdown in A431 and MCF7 cancer cells. To our surprise, ...
Fang Yi-Ting - - 2012
Annexin A2 (p36) is usually present together with its natural ligand p11 as a heterotetramer complex, which has multiple biological functions depending on its cellular localization. However, the detailed mechanism of annexin A2 translocation and its physiological role in inflammation remain unclear. Here, we show that IFN-γ stimulation enhances surface ...
Colombo E E Neuroimmunology and Neuromuscular Disorders, Foundation IRCCS Neurological Institute Carlo Besta, Milan, - - 2012
Recent studies propose the neurotrophin receptor p75NTR as a marker for muscle satellite cells and a key regulator of regenerative processes after injury. Here, we investigated the contribution of cellular compartments other than satellite cells and regenerating myofibres to p75NTR signal in diseased skeletal muscle. We checked regulation of p75NTR ...
Saxena H H Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201-1075, - - 2012
Previous studies have linked a reduction in pH in airway, caused by either environmental factors, microaspiration of gastric acid or inflammation, with airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction and increased airway resistance. Neural mechanisms have been shown to mediate airway contraction in response to reductions in airway pH to < 6.5; ...
Yan Wei W Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, - - 2012
Hypoxia is often found in solid tumors and is associated with tumor progression and poor clinical outcomes. The exact mechanisms related to hypoxia-induced invasion and metastasis remain unclear. We elucidated the mechanism by which the nuclear-damage-associated molecular pattern molecule, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), released under hypoxic stress, can induce ...
Winter Trevor A - - 2012
See article in J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2012; 27: 857-861.
Ferreira Karine Sá - - 2012
The TNF-R1 like receptor Fas is highly expressed on the plasma membrane of hepatocytes and plays an essential role in liver homeostasis. We recently showed that in collagen-cultured primary mouse hepatocytes, Fas stimulation triggers apoptosis via the so-called type I extrinsic signaling pathway. Central to this pathway is the direct ...
Wang Yetao - - 2012
The cellular innate immune response is essential for recognizing and defending against viral infection. Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and virus-induced signaling adaptor (VISA) mediated immune signalling is critically involved in RNA-virus-induced innate immune responses. Here we demonstrate that the complement C1qA interacts with different RIG-I pathway components and enhances RIG-I-VISA-mediated ...
Li Shuping - - 2012
Loss-of-function mutations in angiogenin (ANG) gene were discovered in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and ANG has been shown to prevent neuronal death both in vitro and in vivo. The neuro-protective activity of ANG was brought about partially by inhibiting stress-induced apoptosis. ANG attenuates both the extrinsic and the intrinsic ...
Bertolotti Milena M Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, - - 2012
On the one hand, redox emerges as a key mechanism in regulating intra- and intercellular signaling and homeostatic systems. On the other hand, cells of the B lineage provide powerful systems to unravel the intra- and intercellular mechanisms that coordinate the processes of development and terminal differentiation. This essay summarizes ...
Zeng Wei-Zheng - - 2012
The recent demonstration of proton signaling in C. elegans muscle contraction suggests a novel mechanism for proton-based intercellular communication and has stimulated enthusiasm for exploring proton signaling in higher organ-isms. Emerging evidence indicates that protons are produced and regulated in localized space and time. Furthermore, identification of proton regulators and ...
Pöling Jochen - - 2012
Dedifferentiation is a common phenomenon among plants but has only been found rarely in vertebrates where it is mostly associated with regenerative responses such as formation of blastemae in amphibians to initiate replacement of lost body parts. Relatively little attention has been paid to dedifferentiation processes in mammals although a ...
Clarke David C - - 2012
Inflammation is a key physiological response to infection and injury and, although usually beneficial, it can also be damaging to the host. The liver is a prototypical example in this regard because inflammation helps to resolve liver injury, but it also underlies the aetiology of pathologies such as fibrosis and ...
Gringhuis Sonja I - - 2012
Production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β) by dendritic cells is crucial in host defense. Here we identify a previously unknown role for dectin-1 in the activation of a noncanonical caspase-8 inflammasome in response to fungi and mycobacteria. Dectin-1 induced both the production and maturation of IL-1β through signaling ...
Zhang Yu - - 2012
Apoptosis in irradiated normal lung tissue has been observed several weeks after radiation. However, the signaling pathway propagating cell death after radiation remains unknown. C57BL/6J mice were irradiated with 15 Gy to the whole thorax. Pro-apoptotic signaling was evaluated 6 weeks after radiation with or without administration of AEOL10150, a ...
Mansilla Sylvia - - 2012
Cell death plays an important role in cancer growth and progression, as well as in the efficiency of chemotherapy. Although apoptosis is commonly regarded as the principal mechanism of programmed cell death, it has been increasingly reported that several anti-cancer agents do not only induce apoptosis but other forms of ...
Shin Da-Yong - - 2012
The circulating peptide hormone hepcidin maintains systemic iron homeostasis. Hepcidin production increases during inflammation and as a result of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Elevated hepcidin levels decrease dietary iron absorption and promote iron sequestration in reticuloendothelial macrophages. Furthermore, increased plasma hepcidin levels cause hypoferremia and the anemia associated with chronic ...
Zhou FangFang - - 2012
The Toll-like receptor (TLR)/IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling pathway is essential for innate immune responses and immune homeostasis. Lys-63-polyubiquitinated TRAF6 mediates its downstream signaling activation. In a gain-of-expression screen of 66 different deubiquitinating enzymes, we identified USP4 as a potent negative regulator of TLR/IL-1R signaling and TRAF6-interacting protein. USP4 deubiquitinates TRAF6 ...
Pemu Priscilla E PE Clinical Research Center, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, - - 2012
Progenitor cells (PCs) are key components of vasculogenic remodeling and hematopoietic development. Decreases in the number and function of angiogenic progenitors have been observed in coronary artery disease, hypertension, and diabetic vasculopathy. Several recent studies have also demonstrated a close relationship between increased visceral fat and cardiovascular disease, implying an ...
Strowig Till - - 2012
Inflammasomes are a group of protein complexes built around several proteins, including NLRP3, NLRC4, AIM2 and NLRP6. Recognition of a diverse range of microbial, stress and damage signals by inflammasomes results in direct activation of caspase-1, which subsequently induces secretion of potent pro-inflammatory cytokines and a form of cell death ...
Anson Marie - - 2012
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Its pathogenesis is frequently linked to liver inflammation. Gain-of-function mutations in the gene encoding β-catenin are frequent genetic modifications found in human HCCs. Thus, we investigated whether inflammation was a component of β-catenin-induced tumorigenesis using genetically modified mouse ...
Rahm Nadia - - 2012
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights new roles of the large family of tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins in antiviral defense. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research explores the participation of several TRIM family members in regulating the innate immune response. A large number of TRIM genes are upregulated upon treatment by interferon ...
Min Lin - - 2012
A simultaneous engagement of different pathogen recognition receptors provides a tailor-made adaptive immunity for an efficient defense against distinct pathogens. For example, cross-talk of TLR and C-type lectin signaling effectively shapes distinct gene expression patterns by integrating the signals at the level of NF-κB. In this study, we extend this ...
Vilmont Valérie - - 2012
Inflammation is the principal hallmark of RA. Different pathways are implicated in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the bona fide mediators of this inflammation. Among them are the TNF pathway and the IL-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1R/TLR4) pathway. One of the potential negative regulators of IL-1R/TLR4 signalling is the Fas-associated death ...
Kingeter Lara M LM Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2012
The C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) belong to a large family of proteins that contain a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) and calcium binding sites on their extracellular domains. Recent studies indicate that many CLRs, such as Dectin-1, Dectin-2 and Mincle, function as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognizing carbohydrate ligands from infected ...
Roberts David D - - 2012
Matricellular proteins play diverse roles in modulating cell behavior by engaging specific cell surface receptors and interacting with extracellular matrix proteins, secreted enzymes, and growth factors. Studies of such interactions involving thrombospondin-1 have revealed several physiological functions and roles in the pathogenesis of injury responses and cancer, but the relatively ...
Yoon Eun-Kyung - - 2012
Glyceollins, produced to induce disease resistance responses against specific species, such as an incompatible pathogen Phytophthora sojae in soybeans, have the potential to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 cells. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of elicited glyceollins via a signaling pathway, we studied the glyceollin signaling pathway using several ...
Lin Fuquan - - 2012
Niacin and its related derivatives have been shown to have effects on cellular activities. However, the molecular mechanism of its reduced immunosuppressive effects and photoprotective effects remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the photoprotective effect of niacin in ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). ...
Leight Jennifer L - - 2012
The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway is often misregulated during cancer progression. In early stages of tumorigenesis, TGF-β acts as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis. However, as the disease progresses, TGF-β switches to promote tumorigenic cell functions, such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and increased cell ...
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