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Calvani Riccardo R *Institute of Crystallography, National Research Council (CNR), Bari †Department of Chemistry, "Sapienza" University of Rome ‡Research Center on Food and Nutrition, Agricultural Research Council, Rome §Department of Geriatrics, Neurosciences and Orthopedics, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart School of Medicine, Rome, - - 2014
Lifestyle habits, host gene repertoire, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota concur to the development of obesity. A great deal of research has recently been focused on investigating the role gut microbiota plays in the pathogenesis of metabolic dysfunctions and increased adiposity. Altered microbiota can affect host physiology through several ...
Bosmann Markus M Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University Medical Center Mainz, 55131 Mainz, Germany; Department of Hematology, Oncology, and Pneumology, University Medical Center Mainz, 55131 Mainz, Germany; - - 2014
Severe sepsis and septic shock are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Infection-associated inflammation promotes the development and progression of adverse outcomes in sepsis. The effects of heterodimeric IL-27 (p28/EBI3) have been implicated in the natural course of sepsis, whereas the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of gene expression ...
Forbes Stuart J SJ MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, - - 2014
Chronic diseases confer tissue and organ damage that reduce quality of life and are largely refractory to therapy. Although stem cells hold promise for treating degenerative diseases by 'seeding' injured tissues, the regenerative capacity of stem cells is influenced by regulatory networks orchestrated by local immune responses to tissue damage, ...
Deftereos Spyridon S Department of Cardiology, Athens General Hospital "G. Gennimatas" Mesogeion 154, 11527, Athens, Greece. - - 2014
The "holy grail" of modern interventional cardiology is the salvage of viable myocardial tissue in the distribution of an acutely occluded coronary artery. Thrombolysis and percutaneous coronary interventions, provided they can be delivered on time, can interrupt the occlusion and save tissue. At the same time restoring the patency of ...
Peiris T Harshani TH Department of Molecular Cell Biology, School of Natural Sciences, University of California at Merced, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, CA 95343, USA; Quantitative and Systems Biology Graduate Program, University of California at Merced, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, CA 95343, - - 2014
The immune system has been implicated as an important modulator of tissue regeneration. However, the mechanisms driving injury-induced immune response and tissue repair remain poorly understood. For over 200 years, planarians have been a classical model for studies on tissue regeneration, but the planarian immune system and its potential role ...
Epelman Slava S Center for Cardiovascular Research, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Macrophages are distributed in tissues throughout the body and contribute to both homeostasis and disease. Recently, it has become evident that most adult tissue macrophages originate during embryonic development and not from circulating monocytes. Each tissue has its own composition of embryonically derived and adult-derived macrophages, but it is unclear ...
Poirier Aurore C AC University of Montpellier 1, University of Montpellier 2 and IRD. ECOSYM, - - 2014
While antimicrobial histones have been isolated from multiple metazoan species, their role in host defense has long remained unanswered. We found here that the hemocytes of the oyster Crassostrea gigas release antimicrobial H1-like and H5-like histones in response to tissue damage and infection. These antimicrobial histones were shown to be ...
Mart Gemma Pidelaserra GP Broegelmann Research Laboratory, Dept. of Clinical Sciences, University of - - 2014
Tonsillectomy, the surgical removal of the palatine tonsils, is recommended for patients with recurrent tonsillitis or tonsillar hypertrophia since these medical conditions can cause chronic pain, repeated antibiotic use and airway obstruction such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and secondary otitis media or speech impairment [1,2,3]. The palatine tonsils ...
Stienstra Rinke R Nutrition, Metabolism and Genomics Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen 6703 HD, The NetherlandsDepartment of Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen 6525 GA, The NetherlandsNijmegen Institute for Infection, Inflammation and Immunity (N4I), Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen 6525 GA, The Netherlands - - 2014
Obesity is accompanied by the presence of chronic low grade inflammation manifested by infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a soluble mediator of innate immunity, promotes phagocytosis and alters macrophage function. To assess the function of MBL in the development of obesity, we studied WT and MBL-/- ...
Mraz Milos M M Mraz, 3rd Department of Medicine - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, General University Hospital of Charles University 1st School of Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic - - 2014
Adipose tissue lies at the crossroad of nutrition, metabolism and immunity and adipose tissue inflammation was proposed as a central mechanism connecting obesity with its metabolic and vascular complications. Resident immune cells constitute the second largest adipose tissue cellular component after adipocytes and as such play important roles in maintaining ...
Jorge Soledad S CRTP Scholars, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, - - 2014
The organs of the female reproductive system are among the most dynamic tissues in the human body, undergoing repeated cycles of growth and involution from puberty through menopause. To achieve such impressive plasticity, reproductive tissues must respond not only to soluble signals (hormones, growth factors, and cytokines) but also to ...
Fung Thomas C TC Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Institute for Immunology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, - - 2014
The mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract is colonized by trillions of beneficial commensal bacteria that are essential for promoting normal intestinal physiology. While the majority of commensal bacteria are found in the intestinal lumen, many species have also adapted to colonize different anatomical locations in the intestine, including the surface of ...
Thornley Thomas B - - 2014
Macrophages characterized as M2 and M2-like regulate immune responses associated with immune suppression and healing; however, the relationship of this macrophage subset to CD169+ tissue-resident macrophages and their contribution to shaping alloimmune responses is unknown. Here we identified a population of M2-like tissue-resident macrophages that express high levels of the ...
Choe Sung Sik SS Department of Biological Sciences, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Adipose Tissue Remodeling, Seoul National University, Seoul, - - 2014
In obesity, adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) play a key role in mediating proinflammatory responses in the adipose tissue, which are associated with obesity-related metabolic complications. Recently, adipose tissue hypoxia has been implicated in the regulation of ATMs in obesity. However, the role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α, one of the major ...
Ye Xiaojing X The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, PR - - 2014
Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) are chronic inflammatory diseases in which cells suffer hypoxia referring to deprivation of adequate oxygen supply. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBO), which can increase oxygen tension and delivery to oxygen-deficient tissue, is a supplementary therapy to improve or cure disorders involving hypoxia. Although the applications of ...
Wang Xinying X Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin Department of Surgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing, - - 2014
Background: Patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) are at increased risk of infectious complications compared with enteral feeding, which is in part explained by impaired mucosal immune function during PN. Adding glutamine (GLN) to PN has improved outcome in some clinical patient groups. Although GLN improves acquired mucosal immunity, its effect ...
Ghigliotti Giorgio G Division of Cardiology, IRCCS University Hospital San Martino, Research Centre of Cardiovascular Biology, University of Genoa, Genoa, - - 2014
Adipose tissue inflammation mediates the association between excessive body fat accumulation and several chronic inflammatory diseases. A high prevalence of obesity-associated adipose tissue inflammation was observed not only in patients with cardiovascular conditions but also in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, abdominal aortic aneurysm, or cardiorenal syndrome. In addition to ...
Becker Russell E N RE Department of Microbiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., - - 2014
Immunomodulatory cytotoxins are prominent virulence factors produced by Staphylococcus aureus, a leading cause of bacterial sepsis, skin infection, and pneumonia. S. aureus α-toxin is a pore-forming toxin that utilizes a widely expressed receptor, ADAM10, to injure the host epithelium, endothelium, and immune cells. As each host tissue is characterized by ...
Spronk Henri M H HM Laboratory for Clinical Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
It has been suggested that the main physiological trigger of coagulation, tissue factor, possesses limited procoagulant activity and occurs in an inactive or so-called encrypted state. For the conversion of encrypted into decrypted tissue factor with sufficient procoagulant activity, four distinct models have been proposed: 1; dimer formation, 2; lipid ...
Okabe Yasutaka Y Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, - - 2014
Tissue-resident macrophages are highly heterogeneous in terms of their functions and phenotypes as a consequence of adaptation to different tissue environments. Local tissue-derived signals are thought to control functional polarization of resident macrophages; however, the identity of these signals remains largely unknown. It is also unknown whether functional heterogeneity is ...
Huh Jin Young JY School of Biological Science, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, - - 2014
Recent findings, notably on adipokines and adipose tissue inflammation, have revised the concept of adipose tissues being a mere storage depot for body energy. Instead, adipose tissues are emerging as endocrine and immunologically active organs with multiple effects on the regulation of systemic energy homeostasis. Notably, compared with other metabolic ...
Milićević Novica M NM Institute of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, - - 2014
Metallophilic macrophages hold a strategic position within the thymic tissue and play a considerable function in thymic physiology. The development and positioning of these cells within thymic tissue are regulated by complex molecular mechanisms involving different cytokine/chemokine axes. Herein, we studied the role of XCL1 signaling in these processes. We ...
Raposo Catarina C Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, - - 2014
Inadequate axonal regeneration is a common phenomenon occurring following acute injury to the central nervous system (CNS), and is often associated with permanent neurological deficits. The injured axons attempting to regenerate face the inhospitable environment of the CNS scar, which can hinder axonal growth and sprouting. In addition, in response ...
Ho Yuen Yee YY Shriners Hospital for Children, Division of Surgical Research, McGill University, 1529 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, QC H3G1A6, - - 2014
Fibrosis is a pathological process characterized by excessive accumulation of connective tissue components in an organ or tissue. Fibrosis is produced by deregulated wound healing in response to chronic tissue injury or chronic inflammation, the hallmarks of rheumatic diseases. Progressive fibrosis, which distorts tissue architecture and results in progressive loss ...
Hazlett Linda D LD Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, Wayne State University School of Medicine , Detroit, - - 2014
Abstract The immune system protects the host from pathogenic microbes, but tight regulation of the evoked response is requisite to limit bystander damage. The interleukin (IL)-10 family of cytokines, composed of 9 members: IL-10, IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26, and 3 distantly related members, IL-28A, IL-28B, and IL-29, plays a ...
Kadomatsu Tsuyoshi T Department of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8556, - - 2014
Stresses based on aging and lifestyle can cause tissue damage. Repair of damage by tissue remodeling is often meditated by communications between parenchymal and stromal cells via cell-cell contact or humoral factors. However, loss of tissue homeostasis leads to chronic inflammation and pathological tissue remodeling. Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) maintains ...
Gálvez-Peralta Marina M Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, - - 2014
Mouse Slc39a8 and Slc39a14 genes encode ZIP8 and ZIP14, respectively, which are ubiquitous divalent cation/(HCO3 (-))2 symporters responsible for uptake of Zn(2+), Fe(2+), and Mn(2+) into cells. Cd(2+) and other toxic nonessential metals can displace essential cations, thereby entering vertebrate cells. Whereas Slc39a8 encodes a single protein, Slc39a14 has 2 ...
Savage Anna E AE Center for Conservation and Evolutionary Genetics, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013, United States; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Frogs are a diverse group of vertebrates for which limited genomic resources are available. Natural frog populations face a multitude of threats, including habitat degradation, infectious disease, and environmental change. Characterizing the functional genomics of anuran tissues in general - and the immune system in particular - will enhance our ...
Wira Charles R CR Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH, - - 2014
Despite extensive studies of the mucosal immune system in the female reproductive tract (FRT) and its regulation by sex hormones, relatively little attention has been paid to the tissue environment in the FRT that regulates immune cell function. Consisting of secretions from epithelial cells (EC), stromal fibroblasts, and immune cells ...
Prinz Marco M Institute of Neuropathology, University of Freiburg, Breisacher Str. 64, 79106, Freiburg, Germany, - - 2014
Microglia are highly specialized tissue macrophages of the brain with dedicated functions in neuronal development, homeostasis and recovery from pathology Despite their unique localization in the central nervous system (CNS), microglia are ontogenetically and functionally related to their peripheral counterparts of the mononuclear phagocytic system in the body, namely tissue ...
Yi Zuoan Z Departments of Microbiology - - 2014
Chronic inflammation in visceral adipose tissue is considered a key element for induction of insulin resistance in obesity. CD40 is required for efficient systemic adaptive immune responses, and is implicated in various inflammatory conditions. However, its role in modulating immunity in the microanatomical niches of adipose tissue remains largely undefined. ...
Goldszmid Romina S RS Cancer and Inflammation Program, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, - - 2014
Both microbes and tumors activate innate resistance, tissue repair, and adaptive immunity. Unlike acute infection, tumor growth is initially unapparent; however, inflammation and immunity affect all phases of tumor growth from initiation to progression and dissemination. Here, we discuss the shared features involved in the immune response to infection and ...
Ruppert S M SM Division of Infectious Diseases, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Rm. L-133, Stanford, CA, 94305-5107, - - 2014
The extracellular matrix polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) exerts size-dependent effects on leukocyte behavior. Low-molecular weight HA is abundant at sites of active tissue catabolism and promotes inflammation via effects on Toll-like receptor signaling. Conversely, high-molecular weight HA is prevalent in uninjured tissues and is anti-inflammatory. We propose that the ability of ...
Burkly Linda C LC Immunology Department, Biogen Idec, 12 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), a TNF family ligand, and its only known signaling receptor, FGF-inducible molecule-14 (Fn14), have emerged as a key molecular pathway regulating tissue responses after acute tissue injury and in contexts of chronic injury and disease, including autoimmunity, chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and malignancy. Usually dormant ...
Randall T D TD Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham Alabama, - - 2014
Mucosal surfaces are constantly exposed to environmental antigens, colonized by commensal organisms and used by pathogens as points of entry. As a result, the immune system has devoted the bulk of its resources to mucosal sites to maintain symbiosis with commensal organisms, prevent pathogen entry, and avoid unnecessary inflammatory responses ...
Martino Gianvito - - 2014
Neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) that reside within germinal niches of the adult CNS have more complex roles than previously expected. In addition to their well-documented neurogenic functions, emerging evidence indicates that NPCs exert non-neurogenic functions that contribute to the regulation and preservation of tissue homeostasis under both physiological and pathological ...
Ajuwon Kolapo M KM Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The pig has been domesticated for about 13,000 years in multiple centers in Europe, Eurasia and China. Chronic inflammation in pigs is a major mitigating factor against optimal health and growth performance. Therefore, strategies for improving health status of pigs must involve downregulation of inflammation. The recent revelation that the ...
Moya-Díaz José - - 2014
Tissue injury has been employed to study diverse biological processes such as regeneration and inflammation. In addition to physical or surgical based methods for tissue injury, current protocols for localized tissue damage include laser and two-photon wounding, which allow a high degree of accuracy, but are expensive and difficult to ...
Flies Andrew S AS Department of Zoology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824-1317, USA, - - 2014
Previous research has shown that spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) regularly survive exposure to deadly pathogens such as rabies, canine distemper virus, and anthrax, suggesting that they have robust immune defenses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize conserved molecular patterns and initiate a wide range of innate and adaptive immune responses. TLR genes ...
Cipolletta Daniela D Therapeutic Innovation Unit, Amgen Inc, Cambridge, MA, - - 2014
Foxp3(+) CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs ), recognized to be one of the most important defenses of the human body against an inappropriate immune response, have recently gained attention from those outside of immunology thanks to the compelling evidence for their capability to exert non-canonical immune functions in a variety ...
Borthwick Casey R CR Native and Pest Animal Unit, School of Science and Health, Hawkesbury, University of Western Sydney, Locked bag 1797, Penrith, New South Wales, 2751, - - 2014
Current knowledge of the development of the marsupial immune system, particularly in the context of lymphoid tissue development and the appearance of lymphocytes, has been examined and limitations identified. While primary lymphoid tissues like the thymus have been extensively studied, secondary lymphoid tissues such as the spleen and lymph nodes ...
Gradil Ana M AM Departments of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada C1A 4P3. Electronic address: - - 2014
Sturgeon aquaculture has increased considerably worldwide but little is known about their immunological development and competence in early life stages. Culture of larvae is one of the most critical stages in intensive sturgeon farming, often associated with high mortality rates. The objective of this study was to characterize the developmental ...
Jänig Wilfrid W Physiologisches Institut, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Olshausenstr. 40, D-24098 Kiel, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
The peripheral sympathetic nervous system is organized into function-specific pathways that transmit the activity from the central nervous system to its target tissues. The transmission of the impulse activity in the sympathetic ganglia and to the effector tissues is target cell specific and guarantees that the centrally generated command is ...
Anderson-Baucum Emily K EK Department of Medicine; Indiana University School of Medicine; Indianapolis, IN - - 2014
The field of immunometabolism is burgeoning, with hundreds of papers published on the topic each year. Our understanding of the contribution of immune cells to metabolic regulation has expanded from a simple idea of innate immune cells, such as macrophages, altering adipose tissue function in obesity, to an awareness of ...
Lee Yun-Hee YH Center for Integrative and Metabolic Endocrine Research; Wayne State University School of Medicine; Detroit, MI - - 2014
Adult adipose tissue contains a large supply of progenitors that can renew fat cells for homeostatic tissue maintenance and adaptive growth or regeneration in response to external challenges. However, the in vivo mechanisms that control adipocyte progenitor behavior are poorly characterized. We recently demonstrated that recruitment of adipocyte progenitors by ...
Kruis Tassilo T Department of Medicine I (Gastroenterology, Rheumatology, Infectious Diseases), Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin , Berlin , - - 2014
Over the last decade it became broadly recognized that adipokines and thus the fat tissue compartment exert a regulatory function on the immune system. Our own group described the pro-inflammatory function of the adipokine leptin within intestinal inflammation in a variety of animal models. Following-up on this initial work, the ...
Anderson Kristin G KG Department of Microbiology, Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, - - 2014
Characterization of the cellular participants in tissue immune responses is crucial to understanding infection, cancer, autoimmunity, allergy, graft rejection and other immunological processes. Previous reports indicate that leukocytes in lung vasculature fail to be completely removed by perfusion. Several studies suggest that intravascular staining may discriminate between tissue-localized and blood-borne ...
Kaushal Varsha V Biology Department, Hendrix College, Conway, AR, - - 2014
Members of the caspase family of proteases are evolutionarily conserved cysteine proteases that play a crucial role as the central executioners of the apoptotic pathway. Since the discovery of caspases, many methods have been developed to detect their activation and are widely used in basic and clinical studies. In a ...
Günther Claudia C Department of Medicine I, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, - - 2014
Besides its important role of digestion and absorption, esophageal tissue has an essential role as a major barrier against intraluminal pathogens like hostile microorganisms and toxins. This barrier function is achieved via various mechanical, chemical, and immunological mechanisms which are typically altered in inflammatory diseases, thereby causing subsequent damage of ...
Gregori Michela M Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pisa, Viale delle Piagge 2 56124, Pisa, - - 2014
Macrophage aggregates (MA) occur in various organs of fish as discrete aggregations of pigmented macrophages. The study presented herein investigates the quantitative modifications from normal anatomical condition, of interrenal gland (IG) and kidney MA in six treatment groups of adult rainbow trout submitted to either specific or aspecific immune stimulation ...
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