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Hazlett Linda D LD Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, Wayne State University School of Medicine , Detroit, - - 2014
Abstract The immune system protects the host from pathogenic microbes, but tight regulation of the evoked response is requisite to limit bystander damage. The interleukin (IL)-10 family of cytokines, composed of 9 members: IL-10, IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26, and 3 distantly related members, IL-28A, IL-28B, and IL-29, plays a ...
Gálvez-Peralta Marina M Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, - - 2014
Mouse Slc39a8 and Slc39a14 genes encode ZIP8 and ZIP14, respectively, which are ubiquitous divalent cation/(HCO3 (-))2 symporters responsible for uptake of Zn(2+), Fe(2+), and Mn(2+) into cells. Cd(2+) and other toxic nonessential metals can displace essential cations, thereby entering vertebrate cells. Whereas Slc39a8 encodes a single protein, Slc39a14 has 2 ...
Savage Anna E AE Center for Conservation and Evolutionary Genetics, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013, United States; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Frogs are a diverse group of vertebrates for which limited genomic resources are available. Natural frog populations face a multitude of threats, including habitat degradation, infectious disease, and environmental change. Characterizing the functional genomics of anuran tissues in general - and the immune system in particular - will enhance our ...
Wira Charles R CR Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH, - - 2014
Despite extensive studies of the mucosal immune system in the female reproductive tract (FRT) and its regulation by sex hormones, relatively little attention has been paid to the tissue environment in the FRT that regulates immune cell function. Consisting of secretions from epithelial cells (EC), stromal fibroblasts, and immune cells ...
Prinz Marco M Institute of Neuropathology, University of Freiburg, Breisacher Str. 64, 79106, Freiburg, Germany, - - 2014
Microglia are highly specialized tissue macrophages of the brain with dedicated functions in neuronal development, homeostasis and recovery from pathology Despite their unique localization in the central nervous system (CNS), microglia are ontogenetically and functionally related to their peripheral counterparts of the mononuclear phagocytic system in the body, namely tissue ...
Yi Zuoan Z Departments of Microbiology - - 2014
Chronic inflammation in visceral adipose tissue is considered a key element for induction of insulin resistance in obesity. CD40 is required for efficient systemic adaptive immune responses, and is implicated in various inflammatory conditions. However, its role in modulating immunity in the microanatomical niches of adipose tissue remains largely undefined. ...
Goldszmid Romina S RS Cancer and Inflammation Program, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, - - 2014
Both microbes and tumors activate innate resistance, tissue repair, and adaptive immunity. Unlike acute infection, tumor growth is initially unapparent; however, inflammation and immunity affect all phases of tumor growth from initiation to progression and dissemination. Here, we discuss the shared features involved in the immune response to infection and ...
Ruppert S M SM Division of Infectious Diseases, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Rm. L-133, Stanford, CA, 94305-5107, - - 2014
The extracellular matrix polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) exerts size-dependent effects on leukocyte behavior. Low-molecular weight HA is abundant at sites of active tissue catabolism and promotes inflammation via effects on Toll-like receptor signaling. Conversely, high-molecular weight HA is prevalent in uninjured tissues and is anti-inflammatory. We propose that the ability of ...
Burkly Linda C LC Immunology Department, Biogen Idec, 12 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), a TNF family ligand, and its only known signaling receptor, FGF-inducible molecule-14 (Fn14), have emerged as a key molecular pathway regulating tissue responses after acute tissue injury and in contexts of chronic injury and disease, including autoimmunity, chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and malignancy. Usually dormant ...
Randall T D TD Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham Alabama, - - 2014
Mucosal surfaces are constantly exposed to environmental antigens, colonized by commensal organisms and used by pathogens as points of entry. As a result, the immune system has devoted the bulk of its resources to mucosal sites to maintain symbiosis with commensal organisms, prevent pathogen entry, and avoid unnecessary inflammatory responses ...
Martino Gianvito - - 2014
Neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) that reside within germinal niches of the adult CNS have more complex roles than previously expected. In addition to their well-documented neurogenic functions, emerging evidence indicates that NPCs exert non-neurogenic functions that contribute to the regulation and preservation of tissue homeostasis under both physiological and pathological ...
Ajuwon Kolapo M KM Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The pig has been domesticated for about 13,000 years in multiple centers in Europe, Eurasia and China. Chronic inflammation in pigs is a major mitigating factor against optimal health and growth performance. Therefore, strategies for improving health status of pigs must involve downregulation of inflammation. The recent revelation that the ...
Moya-Díaz José - - 2014
Tissue injury has been employed to study diverse biological processes such as regeneration and inflammation. In addition to physical or surgical based methods for tissue injury, current protocols for localized tissue damage include laser and two-photon wounding, which allow a high degree of accuracy, but are expensive and difficult to ...
Flies Andrew S AS Department of Zoology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824-1317, USA, - - 2014
Previous research has shown that spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) regularly survive exposure to deadly pathogens such as rabies, canine distemper virus, and anthrax, suggesting that they have robust immune defenses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize conserved molecular patterns and initiate a wide range of innate and adaptive immune responses. TLR genes ...
Cipolletta Daniela D Therapeutic Innovation Unit, Amgen Inc, Cambridge, MA, - - 2014
Foxp3(+) CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs ), recognized to be one of the most important defenses of the human body against an inappropriate immune response, have recently gained attention from those outside of immunology thanks to the compelling evidence for their capability to exert non-canonical immune functions in a variety ...
Borthwick Casey R CR Native and Pest Animal Unit, School of Science and Health, Hawkesbury, University of Western Sydney, Locked bag 1797, Penrith, New South Wales, 2751, - - 2014
Current knowledge of the development of the marsupial immune system, particularly in the context of lymphoid tissue development and the appearance of lymphocytes, has been examined and limitations identified. While primary lymphoid tissues like the thymus have been extensively studied, secondary lymphoid tissues such as the spleen and lymph nodes ...
Gradil Ana M AM Departments of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada C1A 4P3. Electronic address: - - 2014
Sturgeon aquaculture has increased considerably worldwide but little is known about their immunological development and competence in early life stages. Culture of larvae is one of the most critical stages in intensive sturgeon farming, often associated with high mortality rates. The objective of this study was to characterize the developmental ...
Jänig Wilfrid W Physiologisches Institut, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Olshausenstr. 40, D-24098 Kiel, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
The peripheral sympathetic nervous system is organized into function-specific pathways that transmit the activity from the central nervous system to its target tissues. The transmission of the impulse activity in the sympathetic ganglia and to the effector tissues is target cell specific and guarantees that the centrally generated command is ...
Anderson-Baucum Emily K EK Department of Medicine; Indiana University School of Medicine; Indianapolis, IN - - 2014
The field of immunometabolism is burgeoning, with hundreds of papers published on the topic each year. Our understanding of the contribution of immune cells to metabolic regulation has expanded from a simple idea of innate immune cells, such as macrophages, altering adipose tissue function in obesity, to an awareness of ...
Lee Yun-Hee YH Center for Integrative and Metabolic Endocrine Research; Wayne State University School of Medicine; Detroit, MI - - 2014
Adult adipose tissue contains a large supply of progenitors that can renew fat cells for homeostatic tissue maintenance and adaptive growth or regeneration in response to external challenges. However, the in vivo mechanisms that control adipocyte progenitor behavior are poorly characterized. We recently demonstrated that recruitment of adipocyte progenitors by ...
Kruis Tassilo T Department of Medicine I (Gastroenterology, Rheumatology, Infectious Diseases), Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin , Berlin , - - 2014
Over the last decade it became broadly recognized that adipokines and thus the fat tissue compartment exert a regulatory function on the immune system. Our own group described the pro-inflammatory function of the adipokine leptin within intestinal inflammation in a variety of animal models. Following-up on this initial work, the ...
Anderson Kristin G KG Department of Microbiology, Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, - - 2014
Characterization of the cellular participants in tissue immune responses is crucial to understanding infection, cancer, autoimmunity, allergy, graft rejection and other immunological processes. Previous reports indicate that leukocytes in lung vasculature fail to be completely removed by perfusion. Several studies suggest that intravascular staining may discriminate between tissue-localized and blood-borne ...
Kaushal Varsha V Biology Department, Hendrix College, Conway, AR, - - 2014
Members of the caspase family of proteases are evolutionarily conserved cysteine proteases that play a crucial role as the central executioners of the apoptotic pathway. Since the discovery of caspases, many methods have been developed to detect their activation and are widely used in basic and clinical studies. In a ...
Günther Claudia C Department of Medicine I, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, - - 2014
Besides its important role of digestion and absorption, esophageal tissue has an essential role as a major barrier against intraluminal pathogens like hostile microorganisms and toxins. This barrier function is achieved via various mechanical, chemical, and immunological mechanisms which are typically altered in inflammatory diseases, thereby causing subsequent damage of ...
Agarwal Anil K AK Division of Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, Center for Human Nutrition, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390, - - 2014
Cells of the immune system are now recognized in the adipose tissue which, in obesity, produces proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines. Several herbs and spices have been in use since ancient times which possess anti-inflammatory properties. In this perspective, I discuss and propose the usage of these culinary delights for the ...
Gregori Michela M Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pisa, Viale delle Piagge 2 56124, Pisa, - - 2014
Macrophage aggregates (MA) occur in various organs of fish as discrete aggregations of pigmented macrophages. The study presented herein investigates the quantitative modifications from normal anatomical condition, of interrenal gland (IG) and kidney MA in six treatment groups of adult rainbow trout submitted to either specific or aspecific immune stimulation ...
Pandiyan Pushpa P Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. - - 2014
Utilizing mouse models provides excellent immunological and experimental tools to study oral immune responses. However for functional assays, isolating T lymphocytes from the oral tissues has proved to be challenging due to the absence of reliable methods that yield viable cells with consistency. To study adaptive immune cell interactions in ...
Shibly S S Department for Small Animals and Horses, Clinic of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, A-1210 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address: - - 2013
An increase in the number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) is a hallmark of feline asthma; however, a wide range in the percentage of eosinophils in BALF has been documented in healthy cats. In this study, BALF and lung tissue were collected from 15 cats without respiratory disease, ...
Sheng Lingling L Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, P.R. - - 2013
The foreign body response (FBR) is described as the host's response to implanted biomaterials, which involves a complex cascade of immune modulators. The dynamic changes of immune cells, inflammatory cytokines and the formation of a fibrous capsule remain to be elucidated. In the present study, a model of subcutaneous implantation ...
Cress Brady F BF Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, - - 2013
The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria portends an impending post-antibiotic age, characterized by diminishing efficacy of common antibiotics and routine application of multifaceted, complementary therapeutic approaches to treat bacterial infections, particularly multidrug-resistant organisms. The first line of defense for most bacterial pathogens consists of a physical and immunological barrier ...
Cox Stewart S - - 2013
Exposure to an intense, acute stressor, in the absence of a pathogen, alters immune function. Exposure to a single bout of inescapable tail shock increases plasma and tissue concentrations of cytokines, chemokines, and the danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) Hsp72. Although previous studies have demonstrated that adrenergic receptor (ADR) and ...
Mokarram Nassir - - 2013
An immune response involves the action of all types of macrophages, classically activated subtype (M1) in the early inflammatory phase and regulatory and wound-healing subtypes (M2) in the resolution phase. The remarkable plasticity of macrophages makes them an interesting target in the context of immunomodulation. Here, we reviewed the current ...
Odegaard Justin I - - 2013
Chronic overnutrition drives complex adaptations within both professional metabolic and bystander tissues that, despite intense investigation, are still poorly understood. Xu et al. (2013) now describe the unexpected ability of adipose tissue macrophages to buffer lipids released from obese adipocytes in a manner independent of inflammatory macrophage activation.
Zaleska Marzanna M 1 Department of Surgical Research, Transplantation and Epigenetics, Medical Research Center , Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland - - 2013
Abstract Background: The mobile intercellular fluid flowing to and in the lymphatics contains filtered plasma products and substances synthesized and excreted by tissue cells. Among them are signaling proteins such as cytokines, chemokines, enzymes, and growth factors. They act locally in autocrine and paracrine systems regulating cell metabolism, proliferation, and ...
Kang Young Sun YS Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical College of Korea University, Ansan Hospital, Ansan-city, Gyeonggi, - - 2013
With excess nutrition, the burden of obesity is a growing problem worldwide. The imbalance between energy intake and expenditure leads to variable disorders as all major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. There are many hypothetical mechanisms to explain obesity-associated hypertension. Activation of the RAAS is a key contributing factor in ...
Clarke Deborah L - - 2013
Repairing damaged tissues is an essential homeostatic mechanism that enables clearance of dead or damaged cells after injury, and the maintenance of tissue integrity. However, exaggeration of this process in the lung can lead to the development of fibrotic scar tissue. This is characterized by excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix ...
Katara Gajendra Kumar - - 2013
Purpose: The interaction between the Leishmania parasite and the host cell involves complex, multifaceted processes. The disease severity in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is largely dependent on the causative species. Most of the information on immune responses in human CL is available with respect to L. major infection and is lacking ...
Gerner Romana R - - 2013
The innate immune system and its major mediators, i.e., cytokines, are increasingly recognized as being of crucial importance in metabolic inflammation as observed in morbid obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Morbid obesity is commonly associated with adipose tissue inflammation. Adipose tissue inflammation is characterized by an increased expression of ...
Toubal Amine - - 2013
Chronic inflammation of adipose tissue is viewed as a hallmark of obesity and contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. According to current models, nutrient excess causes metabolic and structural changes in adipocytes, which initiate transcriptional programs leading to the expression of inflammatory molecules and the ...
Belkaid Yasmine - - 2013
Maintenance of barrier defense is an essential component of mammalian host health and survival. Most antigens encountered by the immune system enter the body through the skin or mucosal surfaces of the respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI) and urogenital tract. The vast majority of infectious microorganisms use these tissues as portals of ...
Ondrackova Petra - - 2013
Monocytes play an essential role in the defense against bacterial pathogens. Bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) monocytes in pigs consist of the main "steady-state" subpopulations: CD14hi/CD163-/SLA-DR- and CD14low/CD163+/SLA-DR+. During inflammation, the subpopulation of "inflammatory" monocytes expressing very high levels of CD163, but lacking the SLA-DR molecule (being CD14low/CD163+/SLA-DR-) ...
Varga Tamas - - 2013
There are several open questions regarding the origin, development, and differentiation of subpopulations of monocytes, macrophages (MFs), and dendritic cells. It is a particularly intriguing question how circulating monocyte subsets develop and contribute to the generation of steady-state and inflammatory tissue MF pools and which transcriptional mechanisms contribute to these ...
Ramirez Giuseppe A - - 2013
Vascular inflammation contributes to the defense against invading microbes and to the repair of injured tissues. In most cases it resolves before becoming apparent. Vasculitis comprises heterogeneous clinical entities that are characterized by the persistence of vascular inflammation after it has served its homeostatic function. Most underlying mechanisms have so ...
Morita Daisuke - - 2013
Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) is a major glycolipid of the cell wall of mycobacteria with remarkable adjuvant functions. To avoid detection by the host innate immune system, invading mycobacteria down-regulate the expression of TDM by utilizing host-derived glucose as a competitive substrate for their mycolyltransferases; however, this enzymatic reaction results in ...
Jenkins Stephen J SJ Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, School of Biological Sciences; and 2 Medical Research Council Centre for Inflammation Research and 3 The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine; University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, Scotland, - - 2013
Macrophages (MΦs) colonize tissues during inflammation in two distinct ways: recruitment of monocyte precursors and proliferation of resident cells. We recently revealed a major role for IL-4 in the proliferative expansion of resident MΦs during a Th2-biased tissue nematode infection. We now show that proliferation of MΦs during intestinal as ...
Stiegler Philipp - - 2013
As organ shortage is increasing, the acceptance of marginal donors increases, which might result in poor organ function and patient survival. Mostly, organ damage is caused during brain death (BD), cold ischemic time (CIT) or after reperfusion due to oxidative stress or the induction of apoptosis. The aim of this ...
Rodrigues T - - 2013
Abstract In the last years, several studies unravelled many aspects of adipose tissue pathophysiology in metabolic diseases. Some studies suggested hypoxia as one of such aspects, despite the exact mechanisms and pathophysiological significance is still partially unknown. Adipose tissue was shown to be hypoxic in obesity, mainly resulting from adipocyte ...
Carvalheira Jose Barreto Campello JB Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, - - 2013
The rise of obesity and its attendant pathological sequelae, including type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease, constitute an ongoing public health catastrophe in both the developed and, more recently, the developing world. Although the underlying pathophysiology is complex, chronic low-grade inflammation has emerged as a central driver of both ...
Davies Luke C LC Cardiff Institute of Infection and Immunity, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, - - 2013
Tissue-resident macrophages are a heterogeneous population of immune cells that fulfill tissue-specific and niche-specific functions. These range from dedicated homeostatic functions, such as clearance of cellular debris and iron processing, to central roles in tissue immune surveillance, response to infection and the resolution of inflammation. Recent studies highlight marked heterogeneity ...
Ledon Jennifer A - - 2013
Nodule development is a common complication following the use of fillers for soft tissue augmentation and is commonly categorized as inflammatory or non-inflammatory in nature. Inflammatory nodules may appear anywhere from days to years after treatment, whereas non-inflammatory nodules are typically seen immediately following implantation and are usually secondary to ...
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