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Bick Johanna J Child Study Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, - - 2014
The study examined Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis and inflammatory signaling in 206 youth with histories of prenatal drug exposure and self-reported histories of maltreatment. Youth with histories of severe neglect showed elevated levels of cortisol, the end product of the HPA axis, in comparison to youth with lower or minimal levels ...
Kenna T J TJ The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, The University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, - - 2014
The mechanism by which human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27) contributes to ankylosing spondylitis (AS) remains unclear. Genetic studies demonstrate that association with and interaction between polymorphisms of endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) and HLA-B27 influence the risk of AS. It has been hypothesised that ERAP1-mediated HLA-B27 misfolding increases endoplasmic reticulum ...
Han Yeming Y Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Public Health, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250012, P.R. - - 2014
Inflammation is a key component of atherosclerosis. Genes coding for inflammatory or anti-inflammatory molecules are considered good candidates for estimating the risk of developing atherosclerosis. Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), the kinase of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), is crucial in the cell cycle and apoptosis. Previous studies have focused ...
Saha D - - 2014
Tissue factor (TF) is known to be the key element in the initiation of the extrinsic pathway of the coagulation cascade and appears to be a critical determinant of atherosclerotic plaque thrombogenicity. TF is needed to produce thrombin from prothrombin. In the extrinsic pathway , TF activates factor Vll. TF ...
Torricelli Andre A M AA Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, - - 2014
Stromal transparency is a critical factor contributing to normal function of the visual system. Corneal injury, surgery, disease and infection elicit complex wound healing responses that serve to protect against insults and maintain the integrity of the cornea, and subsequently to restore corneal structure and transparency. However, in some cases ...
Taleb Soraya S From the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (Inserm), Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, and Université Paris-Descartes, Paris, France (S.T., A.T., Z.M.); and Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK - - 2014
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory arterial disease driven by both innate and adaptive immune responses to modified lipoproteins and components of the injured vascular wall. Specific T lymphocyte responses driven by T helper-1 or T regulatory cells play distinct and opposing roles in atherosclerosis. More recently, T helper-17 cells, which ...
Hedl Matija M Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT - - 2014
Inflammatory diseases are characterized by dysregulated cytokine production. Altered functions for most risk loci, including the inflammatory bowel disease and leprosy-associated tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 15 (TNFSF15) region, are unclear. Regulation of pattern-recognition-receptor (PRR)-induced signaling and cytokines is crucial for immune homeostasis; TNFSF15:death receptor 3 (DR3) contributions to ...
Koob Thomas J TJ MiMedx Group, Inc., 1775 West Oak Commons Court NE, Marietta, - - 2014
Human amniotic membrane allografts have proven effective at improving healing of cutaneous wounds. The mechanism of action for these therapeutic effects is poorly understood but is thought to involve the resident growth factors present in near term amniotic tissue. To determine the relative cytokine contribution of the amnion and chorion ...
Huang Shih-Han - - 2014
Abstract 6-dehydrogingerdione (6-DG), one important component of ginger, has reported with some medical effects, such as anti-tumor and anti-atherosclerosis. Herein, the anti-inflammatory effects from 6-DG against lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced peo-inflammation mediators in RAW264.7 cell was investigated. Results show that 6-DG significantly attenuated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, NOS2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), ...
Klassert Tilman E TE Septomics Research Center, Jena University Hospital, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 10, 07745, Jena, - - 2014
Beyond its well-documented role in reproduction, embryogenesis and maintenance of body tissues, vitamin A has attracted considerable attention due to its immunomodulatory effects on both the innate and the adaptive immune responses. In infectious diseases, vitamin A has been shown to have a host-protective effect in infections of bacterial, viral ...
Fettucciari Katia K Department of Experimental Medicine, Perugia University, Perugia, - - 2014
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) has evolved several strategies to avoid host defences. We have shown that interaction of macrophages with GBS causes macrophage calpain activation, cytoskeletal disruption and apoptosis, consequences of intracellular calcium increase induced by membrane permeability alterations provoked by GBS-β-haemolysin. Open question remains about what effect calcium influx ...
Szczesny Ewa E Department of Experimental Neuroendocrinology, Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 12 Smetna St., 31-343 Krakow, - - 2014
Stress, inflammation and the reduced expression of neurotrophic factors are risk factors for depression. The objective of this study was to determine if prenatal stress affects IGF-1 - cytokine interactions by influencing suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) in the brains of adult rats, in basal conditions and after acute lipopolysaccharide ...
Raqib Rubhana R Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory, Centre for Vaccine Sciences, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), - - 2014
Vitamin D has regulatory effects on innate immunity. In the present study, we aimed to assess the effect of prenatal vitamin D3 (vitD3) supplementation on neonatal innate immunity in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial by evaluating cathelicidin (LL-37) expression and the killing capacity of macrophages. Healthy pregnant women (n 129) attending ...
De Vita Francesca F Section of Geriatrics, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Endocrinology of Aging Unit, University of Parma, via Gramsci 14, Parma, 43126, - - 2014
In older persons, vitamin D insufficiency and a subclinical chronic inflammatory status frequently coexist. Vitamin D has immune-modulatory and in vitro anti-inflammatory properties. However, there is inconclusive evidence about the anti-inflammatory role of vitamin D in older subjects. Thus, we investigated the hypothesis of an inverse relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D ...
Gysler Stefan M SM Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, - - 2014
Women with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) are at increased risk of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and preeclampsia. Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) directly alter trophoblast function. Treatment with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) reduces the risk of RPL but not preeclampsia. Moreover, LMWH stimulates trophoblast sFlt-1 release, an anti-angiogenic factor associated with preeclampsia. ...
Zhang Xianghong X Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA - - 2014
Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved homeostasis process regulating biomass quantity and quality, plays a critical role in the host response to sepsis. Recent studies show its calcium dependence, but the calcium-sensitive regulatory cascades have not been defined. In this study, we describe a novel mechanism in which calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV ...
Greineisen William E WE Laboratory of Immunology and Signal Transduction, Chaminade University, Honolulu, HI, United - - 2014
There is well-established variability in the numbers of lipid bodies (LB) in macrophages, eosinophils, and neutrophils. Similarly to the steatosis observed in adipocytes and hepatocytes during hyperinsulinemia and nutrient overload, immune cell LB hyper-accumulate in response to bacterial and parasitic infection and inflammatory presentations. Recently we described that hyperinsulinemia, both ...
Tian Ayong A Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, No. 155 Nanjing North Street, Heping, Shenyang, 110001, Liaoning, - - 2014
It is known that surgery-induced tissue damage activates the peripheral immune system resulting in the release of inflammatory mediators and cognitive impairment in aged mice. Vitamin D has been shown to have immunomodulatory function, but the molecular basis for it has not been well understood. In this study, we mainly ...
Molina Nathalia N Postgraduate Program, Health Sciences, CBS, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, São Paulo, SP, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of FUCO alone or combined with vitamin C on different features of lymphocyte function related to ROS/RNS (reactive oxygen/nitrogen species) production. For this purpose we have evaluated the cytotoxicity of increasing concentrations of FUCO and vitamin C, the proliferative capacity ...
Nakamura Ikuo I Ikuo Nakamura, Department of Gastroenterology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo 160-0023, - - 2014
It has been reported that host defense responses, such as phagocytic function of neutrophils and natural killer (NK) cell activity of lymphocytes, are impaired in cirrhotic patients. This review will concentrate on the impairment of innate immune responses in decompensated cirrhotic patients and the effect of the treatment by branched-chain ...
Heine Guido G Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, Allergy-Center-Charité, Charité Campus Mitte, Charité - Universitätsmedizin, D-10117 Berlin, - - 2014
Calcitriol (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) is the active vitamin D metabolite and mediates immunological functions, which are relevant in allergy. Its therapeutic use is limited by hypercalcaemic toxicity. We have previously shown that the activation of the vitamin D receptor inhibits IgE production and that B cells can synthesize calcitriol from its ...
Xu Guanghua G CAS key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, - - 2014
As the first line of immune defense for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), macrophages also provide a major habitat for Mtb to reside in the host for years. The battles between Mtb and macrophages have been constant since ancient times. Triggered upon Mtb infection, multiple cellular pathways in macrophages are activated to ...
Sintov Amnon C AC Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, - - 2014
Calcitriol, the hormonally active form of vitamin D, is well known for its diverse pharmacological activities, including modulation of cell growth, neuromuscular and immune function and reduction of inflammation. Calcitriol and its analogs exert potent effects on cellular differentiation and proliferation, regulate apoptosis and produce immunomodulatory effects. The purpose of ...
Nehra Sarita S *Department of Experimental Biology, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Science.Defence Research and Development Organization, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, New Delhi-54, - - 2014
Hypoxia induced rise in intracellular calcium concentration is a causative agent of apoptosis and oxidative damage in cardiomyocytes. We examined the efficacy of calcium channel blocker amlodipine in preventing hypoxia-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells and restoring oxidative balance. H9c2 cells were exposed to hypoxia (0.5% oxygen) to evaluate efficacy of ...
Naon Deborah D Dulbecco-Telethon Institute, Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, Via Orus 2, 35129 Padua, Italy; Department of Biology, University of Padua, Via G. Colombo 3, 35121 Padua, - - 2014
The interface between mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum is emerging as a crucial hub for calcium signalling, apoptosis, autophagy and lipid biosynthesis, with far reaching implications in cell life and death and in the regulation of mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum function. Here we review our current knowledge on the structural ...
Cheng Sam X SX Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32607, - - 2014
The intestinal epithelium is equipped with sensing receptor mechanisms that interact with luminal microorganisms and nutrients to regulate barrier function and gut immune responses, thereby maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Herein, we clarify the role of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) using intestinal epithelium-specific Casr(-/-) mice. Epithelial CaSR deficiency diminished intestinal barrier ...
Beijer Marieke R - - 2014
Vitamin A and its active metabolite retinoic acid are essential for the development and function of many tissues including the immune system. The induction of mucosal homing receptors on T and B cells by mucosal dendritic cells (DC) depends on the presence of vitamin A. Recent studies indicate that also ...
Choi Ji-Young - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with rice bran fermented with Lentinus edodes (rice bran exo-biopolymer, RBEP), a substance known to contain arabinoxylan, enhances natural killer (NK) cell activity and modulates cytokine production in healthy adults. This study was designed in a randomized, ...
Assa Amit A Cell Biology Program, Research - - 2014
Background. Vitamin D, an important modulator of the immune system, has been shown to protect mucosal barrier homeostasis. This study investigates the effects of vitamin D deficiency on infection-induced changes in intestinal epithelial barrier function in-vitro and on Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis in mice.Methods. Polarized epithelial Caco2-bbe cells were grown in medium with ...
Cutolo Maurizio M Research Laboratories and Academic Division of Clinical Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genova, Genova, - - 2014
The endogenous serum metabolite of vitamin D (calcitriol, 1,25(OH)2 D3 ) is considered a true steroid hormone (D hormone), and like glucocorticoids (GCs) and gonadal hormones, may exert several immunomodulatory activities. Serum vitamin D deficiency (25(OH) D), and therefore reduced 1,25(OH)2 D3 availability, is considered a risk factor for several ...
Mann Elizabeth H EH Medical Research Council (MRC) and Asthma U.K. Center for Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, King's College London, London, United - - 2014
Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among people with various immune-mediated conditions, including autoimmune diseases and asthma. Serum 25(OH)D levels inversely correlate with asthma severity, glucocorticoid responsiveness/dosage, and markers of pathogenesis, such as airway remodeling, IgE, and eosinophilia. Trials involving supplementation with active vitamin D or a precursor are beginning to ...
Kalman Bernadette B Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pecs, Center for Research and Education, Markusovszky University Teaching Hospital, Markusovszky Street 5, 9700, Szombathely, Hungary, - - 2014
Environmental factors greatly contribute to the development of complex trait disorders. With the rapid developments in the fields of biotechnology and informatics, the investigations of molecular interactions between host and environmental factors became very detailed and comprehensive. The effects of ultraviolet irradiation, vitamin D synthesis, and receptor binding, and then ...
Khan Nahid A NA Molecular Neurology, Research Programs Unit, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, - - 2014
Nutrient availability is the major regulator of life and reproduction, and a complex cellular signaling network has evolved to adapt organisms to fasting. These sensor pathways monitor cellular energy metabolism, especially mitochondrial ATP production and NAD(+)/NADH ratio, as major signals for nutritional state. We hypothesized that these signals would be ...
Djukic Marija M Department of Geriatrics, Evangelisches Krankenhaus Göttingen-Weende, Göttingen, - - 2014
Meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Escherichia coli are associated with high rates of mortality and neurological sequelae. A high prevalence of neurological disorders has been observed in geriatric populations at risk of hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D has potent effects on human immunity including induction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and suppression ...
Capuron Lucile - - 2014
Immune activation not only accompanies inflammation in various disorders including infections, autoimmune syndromes and cancer, but it also represents a characteristic feature of ageing. Immune deviations which are most widely expressed in the elderly include increased neopterin production and tryptophan breakdown. These biochemical events result from the activation of the ...
Sato Takao T The Second Department of Internal Medicine, University of Toyama, Toyama, - - 2014
The present study aimed to determine characteristics of macrophage accumulation and predictors of CD163 positive macrophages by ultrasonic tissue characterization. Intraplaque hemorrhage is associated with plaque instability and induces macrophage accumulation with a scavenger receptor, CD163. These CD163 positive macrophages have anti-atherogenic property. In 50 patients with acute coronary syndrome, ...
Wang Qingsong Q Hainan Medical College, - - 2014
Inadequate vitamin D status has been linked to increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Inducible cyclooxygenase (COX) isoform-COX-2 has been involved in the pathogenesis of such chronic inflammatory diseases. We found that the active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D produces dose-dependent inhibition of COX-2 expression in murine ...
U Kin Pong KP Developmental Biology Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, - - 2014
PADs (peptidylarginine deiminases) are calcium-dependent enzymes that change protein-bound arginine to citrulline (citrullination/deimination) affecting protein conformation and function. PAD up-regulation following chick spinal cord injury has been linked to extensive tissue damage and loss of regenerative capability. Having found that human neural stem cells (hNSCs) expressed PAD2 and PAD3, we ...
McCarty Mark F MF Catalytic Longevity, Carlsbad, CA. - - 2014
Vascular calcification (VC), commonly encountered in renal failure, diabetes, and aging, is associated with a large increase in the risk for cardiovascular events and mortality. Calcification of the arterial media and of heart valves clearly plays a mediating role in this regard, whereas it is less clear how calcification of ...
Fragoso Yara Dadalti YD Department of Neurology, MS Reference Center, Medical School, Universidade Metropolitana de Santos, Rua da Constituicao 374, Santos, SP, CEP 11015-470, Brazil, - - 2014
Vitamin A is an essential nutrient with important roles in immunological responses and in brain development. Its main metabolite is retinoic acid (RA), which is responsible for the neuroimmunological functions related to vitamin A. In the brain, RA is known to have interactions with other nuclear receptor-mediated signalling pathways. RA ...
Mazokopakis Elias E EE Iroon Polytechniu 38A, Chania, 73 132, Crete, Greece. - - 2014
Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is a chronic autoimmune thyroid disease caused by an interaction between genetic factors and environmental conditions, both of which are not yet completely understood. The significant association between vitamin D deficiency and HT has been investigated regarding the immune role of this hormone. In HT, an immunologic ...
Kundu Rhiannon R Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London, - - 2014
The active vitamin D metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2 D) potently inhibits dendritic cell (DC) priming of T-cell activation, suggesting that it mediates a homeostatic role in this context. Therefore, careful regulation of 1,25[OH]2 D levels is necessary to avoid inappropriate inhibition of T-cell activation. Cell-autonomous control of vitamin D activity ...
Fukumoto Suguru S Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi, - - 2014
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) recognizes environmental xenobiotics and is originally thought to be involved in the metabolism (detoxification) of the substances. Recently, AhR is highlighted as an important regulator of inflammation. Notably, accumulating evidence suggests that activation of the AhR suppresses inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Therefore, non-toxic AhR activators ...
Harrirchian Mohammad Hassan MH Iranian Center for Neurological Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. - - 2014
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to degeneration of the brain and spinal tissue. Imbalances of CD4+ T cells including Thelper1 (Th1)/Thelper2 (Th2) and Thelper17 (Th17)/Tregulatory (Treg), their secreted cytokines and gene expressions, are important aspects of in immunopathogenesis of MS. Vitamin A and its metabolites ...
Giardina Silvana S Farcoderm Srl, Via Angelini, 21-27028, San Martino Siccomario (PV), - - 2014
Oxalate (Ox) is a very common component of the human diet, capable to collect in the renal tissue and bind calcium to form calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. A supersaturation of CaOx crystal may cause nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The inflammation derived from the CaOx crystal accumulation, together with innate or secondary ...
Spencer S P SP Immunity at Barrier Sites Initiative, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, NIH, Bethesda 20892, - - 2014
How the immune system adapts to malnutrition to sustain immunity at barrier surfaces, such as the intestine, remains unclear. Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies and is associated with profound defects in adaptive immunity. Here, we found that type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are ...
Parekh R R Faculty of Science, The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
To elucidate the role of integrin α1β1 in chondrocyte responses to inflammatory interleukin-1α (IL-1) and anabolic transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in the knee. Intracellular calcium transient responses to IL-1 and TGF-β1 were measured in wild type and integrin α1-null chondrocytes using real time ex vivo confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry was ...
Pamer E G EG Infectious Diseases Service and Lucille Castori Center for Microbes, Inflammation and Cancer, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, - - 2014
The mammalian colon is home to a microbial ecosystem that enhances resistance to infection, stimulates mucosal immune defenses, synthesizes essential vitamins, and promotes caloric uptake by hydrolyzing complex carbohydrates. The bacterial populations inhabiting the gut are complex and vary between different individuals. Clinical and experimental studies reveal that the colonic ...
Daly Kristian K Epithelial Function and Development Group, Department of Functional and Comparative Genomics, Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, - - 2014
The commensal bacteria Lactobacillus are widely used as probiotic organisms conferring a heath benefit on the host. They have been implicated in promoting gut health via the stimulation of host immunity and anti-inflammatory responses, as well as protecting the intestinalmucosa against pathogen invasion. Lactobacilli grow by fermenting sugars and starches ...
Höck Anna Dorothea AD Mariawaldstraße 7, 50935 Cologne, Germany. - - 2014
Recent immune data on vitamin D3 deficiency help to more clearly understand chronic fatiguing illnesses, such as autoimmune disorders, cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The vitamin D3 pathway is activated by stress and requires sufficient stores of precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 for proper cell and immune functions. In vitamin D3 ...
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