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Greineisen William E WE Laboratory of Immunology and Signal Transduction, Chaminade University, Honolulu, HI, United - - 2014
There is well-established variability in the numbers of lipid bodies (LB) in macrophages, eosinophils, and neutrophils. Similarly to the steatosis observed in adipocytes and hepatocytes during hyperinsulinemia and nutrient overload, immune cell LB hyper-accumulate in response to bacterial and parasitic infection and inflammatory presentations. Recently we described that hyperinsulinemia, both ...
Tian Ayong A Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, No. 155 Nanjing North Street, Heping, Shenyang, 110001, Liaoning, - - 2014
It is known that surgery-induced tissue damage activates the peripheral immune system resulting in the release of inflammatory mediators and cognitive impairment in aged mice. Vitamin D has been shown to have immunomodulatory function, but the molecular basis for it has not been well understood. In this study, we mainly ...
Molina Nathalia N Postgraduate Program, Health Sciences, CBS, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, São Paulo, SP, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of FUCO alone or combined with vitamin C on different features of lymphocyte function related to ROS/RNS (reactive oxygen/nitrogen species) production. For this purpose we have evaluated the cytotoxicity of increasing concentrations of FUCO and vitamin C, the proliferative capacity ...
Nakamura Ikuo I Ikuo Nakamura, Department of Gastroenterology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo 160-0023, - - 2014
It has been reported that host defense responses, such as phagocytic function of neutrophils and natural killer (NK) cell activity of lymphocytes, are impaired in cirrhotic patients. This review will concentrate on the impairment of innate immune responses in decompensated cirrhotic patients and the effect of the treatment by branched-chain ...
Heine Guido G Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, Allergy-Center-Charité, Charité Campus Mitte, Charité - Universitätsmedizin, D-10117 Berlin, - - 2014
Calcitriol (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) is the active vitamin D metabolite and mediates immunological functions, which are relevant in allergy. Its therapeutic use is limited by hypercalcaemic toxicity. We have previously shown that the activation of the vitamin D receptor inhibits IgE production and that B cells can synthesize calcitriol from its ...
Xu Guanghua G CAS key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, - - 2014
As the first line of immune defense for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), macrophages also provide a major habitat for Mtb to reside in the host for years. The battles between Mtb and macrophages have been constant since ancient times. Triggered upon Mtb infection, multiple cellular pathways in macrophages are activated to ...
Sintov Amnon C AC Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, - - 2014
Calcitriol, the hormonally active form of vitamin D, is well known for its diverse pharmacological activities, including modulation of cell growth, neuromuscular and immune function and reduction of inflammation. Calcitriol and its analogs exert potent effects on cellular differentiation and proliferation, regulate apoptosis and produce immunomodulatory effects. The purpose of ...
Nehra Sarita S *Department of Experimental Biology, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Science.Defence Research and Development Organization, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, New Delhi-54, - - 2014
Hypoxia induced rise in intracellular calcium concentration is a causative agent of apoptosis and oxidative damage in cardiomyocytes. We examined the efficacy of calcium channel blocker amlodipine in preventing hypoxia-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells and restoring oxidative balance. H9c2 cells were exposed to hypoxia (0.5% oxygen) to evaluate efficacy of ...
Naon Deborah D Dulbecco-Telethon Institute, Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, Via Orus 2, 35129 Padua, Italy; Department of Biology, University of Padua, Via G. Colombo 3, 35121 Padua, - - 2014
The interface between mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum is emerging as a crucial hub for calcium signalling, apoptosis, autophagy and lipid biosynthesis, with far reaching implications in cell life and death and in the regulation of mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum function. Here we review our current knowledge on the structural ...
Cheng Sam X SX Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32607, - - 2014
The intestinal epithelium is equipped with sensing receptor mechanisms that interact with luminal microorganisms and nutrients to regulate barrier function and gut immune responses, thereby maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Herein, we clarify the role of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) using intestinal epithelium-specific Casr(-/-) mice. Epithelial CaSR deficiency diminished intestinal barrier ...
Beijer Marieke R - - 2014
Vitamin A and its active metabolite retinoic acid are essential for the development and function of many tissues including the immune system. The induction of mucosal homing receptors on T and B cells by mucosal dendritic cells (DC) depends on the presence of vitamin A. Recent studies indicate that also ...
Choi Ji-Young - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with rice bran fermented with Lentinus edodes (rice bran exo-biopolymer, RBEP), a substance known to contain arabinoxylan, enhances natural killer (NK) cell activity and modulates cytokine production in healthy adults. This study was designed in a randomized, ...
Assa Amit A Cell Biology Program, Research - - 2014
Background. Vitamin D, an important modulator of the immune system, has been shown to protect mucosal barrier homeostasis. This study investigates the effects of vitamin D deficiency on infection-induced changes in intestinal epithelial barrier function in-vitro and on Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis in mice.Methods. Polarized epithelial Caco2-bbe cells were grown in medium with ...
Cutolo Maurizio M Research Laboratories and Academic Division of Clinical Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genova, Genova, - - 2014
The endogenous serum metabolite of vitamin D (calcitriol, 1,25(OH)2 D3 ) is considered a true steroid hormone (D hormone), and like glucocorticoids (GCs) and gonadal hormones, may exert several immunomodulatory activities. Serum vitamin D deficiency (25(OH) D), and therefore reduced 1,25(OH)2 D3 availability, is considered a risk factor for several ...
Mann Elizabeth H EH Medical Research Council (MRC) and Asthma U.K. Center for Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, King's College London, London, United - - 2014
Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among people with various immune-mediated conditions, including autoimmune diseases and asthma. Serum 25(OH)D levels inversely correlate with asthma severity, glucocorticoid responsiveness/dosage, and markers of pathogenesis, such as airway remodeling, IgE, and eosinophilia. Trials involving supplementation with active vitamin D or a precursor are beginning to ...
Kalman Bernadette B Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pecs, Center for Research and Education, Markusovszky University Teaching Hospital, Markusovszky Street 5, 9700, Szombathely, Hungary, - - 2014
Environmental factors greatly contribute to the development of complex trait disorders. With the rapid developments in the fields of biotechnology and informatics, the investigations of molecular interactions between host and environmental factors became very detailed and comprehensive. The effects of ultraviolet irradiation, vitamin D synthesis, and receptor binding, and then ...
Khan Nahid A NA Molecular Neurology, Research Programs Unit, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, - - 2014
Nutrient availability is the major regulator of life and reproduction, and a complex cellular signaling network has evolved to adapt organisms to fasting. These sensor pathways monitor cellular energy metabolism, especially mitochondrial ATP production and NAD(+)/NADH ratio, as major signals for nutritional state. We hypothesized that these signals would be ...
Djukic Marija M Department of Geriatrics, Evangelisches Krankenhaus Göttingen-Weende, Göttingen, - - 2014
Meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Escherichia coli are associated with high rates of mortality and neurological sequelae. A high prevalence of neurological disorders has been observed in geriatric populations at risk of hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D has potent effects on human immunity including induction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and suppression ...
Capuron Lucile - - 2014
Immune activation not only accompanies inflammation in various disorders including infections, autoimmune syndromes and cancer, but it also represents a characteristic feature of ageing. Immune deviations which are most widely expressed in the elderly include increased neopterin production and tryptophan breakdown. These biochemical events result from the activation of the ...
Sato Takao T The Second Department of Internal Medicine, University of Toyama, Toyama, - - 2014
The present study aimed to determine characteristics of macrophage accumulation and predictors of CD163 positive macrophages by ultrasonic tissue characterization. Intraplaque hemorrhage is associated with plaque instability and induces macrophage accumulation with a scavenger receptor, CD163. These CD163 positive macrophages have anti-atherogenic property. In 50 patients with acute coronary syndrome, ...
Wang Qingsong Q Hainan Medical College, - - 2014
Inadequate vitamin D status has been linked to increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Inducible cyclooxygenase (COX) isoform-COX-2 has been involved in the pathogenesis of such chronic inflammatory diseases. We found that the active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D produces dose-dependent inhibition of COX-2 expression in murine ...
U Kin Pong KP Developmental Biology Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, - - 2014
PADs (peptidylarginine deiminases) are calcium-dependent enzymes that change protein-bound arginine to citrulline (citrullination/deimination) affecting protein conformation and function. PAD up-regulation following chick spinal cord injury has been linked to extensive tissue damage and loss of regenerative capability. Having found that human neural stem cells (hNSCs) expressed PAD2 and PAD3, we ...
McCarty Mark F MF Catalytic Longevity, Carlsbad, CA. - - 2014
Vascular calcification (VC), commonly encountered in renal failure, diabetes, and aging, is associated with a large increase in the risk for cardiovascular events and mortality. Calcification of the arterial media and of heart valves clearly plays a mediating role in this regard, whereas it is less clear how calcification of ...
Fragoso Yara Dadalti YD Department of Neurology, MS Reference Center, Medical School, Universidade Metropolitana de Santos, Rua da Constituicao 374, Santos, SP, CEP 11015-470, Brazil, - - 2014
Vitamin A is an essential nutrient with important roles in immunological responses and in brain development. Its main metabolite is retinoic acid (RA), which is responsible for the neuroimmunological functions related to vitamin A. In the brain, RA is known to have interactions with other nuclear receptor-mediated signalling pathways. RA ...
Mazokopakis Elias E EE Iroon Polytechniu 38A, Chania, 73 132, Crete, Greece. - - 2014
Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is a chronic autoimmune thyroid disease caused by an interaction between genetic factors and environmental conditions, both of which are not yet completely understood. The significant association between vitamin D deficiency and HT has been investigated regarding the immune role of this hormone. In HT, an immunologic ...
Kundu Rhiannon R Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London, - - 2014
The active vitamin D metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2 D) potently inhibits dendritic cell (DC) priming of T-cell activation, suggesting that it mediates a homeostatic role in this context. Therefore, careful regulation of 1,25[OH]2 D levels is necessary to avoid inappropriate inhibition of T-cell activation. Cell-autonomous control of vitamin D activity ...
Fukumoto Suguru S Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi, - - 2014
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) recognizes environmental xenobiotics and is originally thought to be involved in the metabolism (detoxification) of the substances. Recently, AhR is highlighted as an important regulator of inflammation. Notably, accumulating evidence suggests that activation of the AhR suppresses inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Therefore, non-toxic AhR activators ...
Harrirchian Mohammad Hassan MH Iranian Center for Neurological Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. - - 2014
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to degeneration of the brain and spinal tissue. Imbalances of CD4+ T cells including Thelper1 (Th1)/Thelper2 (Th2) and Thelper17 (Th17)/Tregulatory (Treg), their secreted cytokines and gene expressions, are important aspects of in immunopathogenesis of MS. Vitamin A and its metabolites ...
Giardina Silvana S Farcoderm Srl, Via Angelini, 21-27028, San Martino Siccomario (PV), - - 2014
Oxalate (Ox) is a very common component of the human diet, capable to collect in the renal tissue and bind calcium to form calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. A supersaturation of CaOx crystal may cause nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The inflammation derived from the CaOx crystal accumulation, together with innate or secondary ...
Spencer S P SP Immunity at Barrier Sites Initiative, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, NIH, Bethesda 20892, - - 2014
How the immune system adapts to malnutrition to sustain immunity at barrier surfaces, such as the intestine, remains unclear. Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies and is associated with profound defects in adaptive immunity. Here, we found that type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are ...
Parekh R R Faculty of Science, The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
To elucidate the role of integrin α1β1 in chondrocyte responses to inflammatory interleukin-1α (IL-1) and anabolic transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in the knee. Intracellular calcium transient responses to IL-1 and TGF-β1 were measured in wild type and integrin α1-null chondrocytes using real time ex vivo confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry was ...
Pamer E G EG Infectious Diseases Service and Lucille Castori Center for Microbes, Inflammation and Cancer, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, - - 2014
The mammalian colon is home to a microbial ecosystem that enhances resistance to infection, stimulates mucosal immune defenses, synthesizes essential vitamins, and promotes caloric uptake by hydrolyzing complex carbohydrates. The bacterial populations inhabiting the gut are complex and vary between different individuals. Clinical and experimental studies reveal that the colonic ...
Daly Kristian K Epithelial Function and Development Group, Department of Functional and Comparative Genomics, Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, - - 2014
The commensal bacteria Lactobacillus are widely used as probiotic organisms conferring a heath benefit on the host. They have been implicated in promoting gut health via the stimulation of host immunity and anti-inflammatory responses, as well as protecting the intestinalmucosa against pathogen invasion. Lactobacilli grow by fermenting sugars and starches ...
Höck Anna Dorothea AD Mariawaldstraße 7, 50935 Cologne, Germany. - - 2014
Recent immune data on vitamin D3 deficiency help to more clearly understand chronic fatiguing illnesses, such as autoimmune disorders, cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The vitamin D3 pathway is activated by stress and requires sufficient stores of precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 for proper cell and immune functions. In vitamin D3 ...
Passos Vázquez Cecília Maria CM Laboratório de Biologia Molecular. Hospital Universitário. Departamento de Medicine. Universidade Federal de Sergipe.. - - 2014
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, an intracellular bacillus of airborne transmission. The disease affects the skin and peripheral nerves and can cause neurological sequelae. The bacillus multiplies slowly in the host and the disease probably occurs due to malfunctioning in host immune response. This review ...
Ritterhouse Lauren L LL Arthritis and Clinical Immunology, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America; Departments of Medicine and Pathology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of - - 2014
In recent years, vitamin D has been shown to possess a wide range of immunomodulatory effects. Although there is extensive amount of research on vitamin D, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or the mechanism by which vitamin D regulates the human immune system. ...
McCartney Kristen L - - 2014
Nutrient availability, assimilation, and allocation can have important and lasting effects on the immune system development of growing animals. Though carotenoid pigments have immunostimulatory properties in many animals, relatively little is known regarding how they influence the immune system during development. Moreover, studies linking carotenoids to health at any life ...
McCalley Audrey E AE Vision Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 2411 Holmes St., Kansas City, MO 64108, USA. - - 2014
Resveratrol is a naturally occurring compound contributing to cellular defense mechanisms in plants. Its use as a nutritional component and/or supplement in a number of diseases, disorders, and syndromes such as chronic diseases of the central nervous system, cancer, inflammatory diseases, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases has prompted great interest in ...
Lang Cheng-Lin CL 0000-0002-3212-9218 Department of Internal Medicine, Cardinal Tien Hospital, Yonghe Branch, New Taipei 23445, - - 2014
Vitamin D and its analogues are widely used as treatments by clinical nephrologists, especially when treating chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. As CKD progresses, the ability to compensate for elevations in parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor-23 and for decreases in 1,25(OH)2D3 becomes inadequate, which results ...
Chun Rene F RF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Orthopedic Hospital Research Center, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA, - - 2014
Immunomodulatory responses to the active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 1,25D) have been recognized for many years, but it is only in the last 5 years that the potential role of this in normal human immune function has been recognized. Genome-wide analyses have played a pivotal role in redefining ...
Harandi Asghar Amini AA Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, - - 2014
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease and also is one of the most common disabling neurological disorders in young and middle-aged adults. The main pathogenesis of MS has long been thought to be an immune mediated disorder of the central nervous system. The function of the immune system ...
Berraies Anissa A Pediatric Respiratory Diseases Department, Abderrahmen Mami Hospital, Ariana, and Research Unit 12SP15 Tunis El Manar University, Tunis, - - 2014
In the last decade, many epidemiologic studies have investigated the link between vitamin D deficiency and asthma. Most studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of asthma and allergies. Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with asthma severity and loss of control, together with recurrent ...
Roy Susmita S SSCU, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka, - - 2014
Motivated by several recent experimental observations that vitamin-D could interact with antigen presenting cells (APCs) and T-lymphocyte cells (T-cells) to promote and to regulate different stages of immune response, we developed a coarse grained but general kinetic model in an attempt to capture the role of vitamin-D in immunomodulatory responses. ...
Mutt Shivaprakash J SJ Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu Oulu, Finland ; Biocenter of Oulu, University of Oulu Oulu, - - 2014
The pandemic increase in obesity is inversely associated with vitamin D levels. While a higher BMI was causally related to lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), no evidence was obtained for a BMI lowering effect by higher 25(OH)D. Some of the physiological functions of 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or calcitriol) via its receptor within ...
Krizanova Olga O Institute of Molecular Physiology and Genetics, Center of Excellence for Studying Metabolic Aspects of Development, Diagnostics and Treatment of the Oncologic Diseases, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovak Republic. - - 2014
Diterpenoid triepoxide - Triptolide (TTL) - increased protein levels of the noradrenaline transporter in three pheochromocytoma cell lines. This transporter is involved in the apoptosis induction through the inhibition of a transcription factor NF-kappa B. Nevertheless, calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum can also induce inner mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis ...
Wöbke Thea K TK Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Goethe University Frankfurt Frankfurt, - - 2014
Changes in vitamin D serum levels have been associated with inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis (MS), atherosclerosis, or asthma. Genome- and transcriptome-wide studies indicate that vitamin D signaling modulates many inflammatory responses on several levels. This includes (i) the regulation ...
Bartels Lars E LE Gastro-Immuno Research Laboratory (GIRL), Department of Medicine V (Hepatology and Gastroenterology), Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, 8000, Aarhus, Denmark, - - 2013
Low serum vitamin D levels may provoke or aggravate Crohn's disease (CrD). Vitamin D3 is a well-known immune modulator that affects immune functions in vitro and may prevent CrD flares. Dendritic cells (DC) are key mediators of vitamin D3 effects. In this study, we describe changes in monocyte-derived DC (mo-DC) ...
Kozlova Diana D Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, 45117, - - 2013
For subunit vaccines, adjuvants play a key role in shaping the magnitude, persistence and form of targeted antigen-specific immune response. Flagellin is a potent immune activator by bridging innate inflammatory responses and adaptive immunity and an adjuvant candidate for clinical application. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles are efficient carriers for different biomolecules ...
Gupta Atul A MRC & Asthma UK Centre for Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, King's College London, Guy's Hospital, , London, - - 2013
Understanding of immune mechanisms underpinning asthma has emerged from studies in adults. It is increasingly recognised, both immunologically and in the development of novel therapies, that adult responses cannot be used accurately to predict those of children. Using a well-defined paediatric cohort of severe therapy-resistant asthma (STRA) patients, we investigated ...
Tan Jianzhuang J State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, People's Republic of - - 2013
In the present study, two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary l-arginine (Arg) supplementation on the inflammatory response and innate immunity of broiler chickens. Expt 1 was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n 8 cages/treatment; n 6 birds/cage) with three dietary Arg concentrations (1·05, 1·42 and ...
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