Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 858
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Gross W L - - 2002
Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a form of primary vasculitis characterized by allergy and angiitis. In the organ systems involved (lung, heart, peripheral nervous system, and so forth), eosinophilic infiltration can be found. Eosinophilia and normochromic normocytic anemia are leading laboratory findings together with elevated IgE. New seromarkers for the activation ...
Dunzendorfer Stefan - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Eosinophils are prominent inflammatory cells that respond to peripheral neuropeptides in vitro and in vivo. At inflammatory sites, cytokines activate distinct cellular and biochemical pathways that act in a coordinated fashion. We investigated whether peripheral neuropeptides can act as immunomodulators by influencing cytokine release from eosinophils. METHODS: Human eosinophils ...
Gouon-Evans Valérie - - 2002
Epithelial/mesenchymal cell interactions are necessary for proper ductal morphogenesis throughout all stages of mammary gland development. Besides the well-established stromal components, such as adipocytes and fibroblasts, the mammary stroma is also infiltrated with migrating blood cells, mostly macrophages and eosinophils. The focus of this review is on the role of ...
MacLaren A - - 2002
Tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii are ingested by neutrophils and eosinophils through a process which can be significantly inhibited by previous incubation of the host cells with cytochalasin D. Although dividing zoites within the leukocytes could be observed, after 3 h of infection, killing of parasites within the parasitophorous vacuole was ...
Esnault Stéphane - - 2002
Allergic asthma is characterized by a temporally and quantitatively inappropriate immunologic response. One of the hallmarks of this response is the accumulation of eosinophils in the airway and lung parenchyma, which results in broncho-constriction, lung damage and, ultimately, fibrosis. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) plays a pivotal role in this process ...
Sexton D W - - 2001
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated receptor-mediated apoptotic-eosinophil engulfment by human small airway epithelial cells, which may represent a potentially important mechanism in the resolution of allergic and asthmatic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: A549 cells were selected as being representative of alveolar epithelial cells, and their ability to ingest human apoptotic eosinophils was examined ...
Dombrowicz D - - 2001
Recently, known eosinophil functions have been extended considerably: previously the cells were thought to have an exclusive role in the release of cytotoxic mediators; now they are known to have roles in antigen presentation and immunoregulation through the release of cytokines. Although questionable, animal models indicate a rather beneficial role ...
Miike S - - 2001
Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are a unique class of G protein-coupled receptors, which are activated by proteolytic cleavage of the amino terminus of the receptor itself. PARs are most likely involved in various biological responses, such as hemostasis and regulation of muscle tone; however, the roles of PARs in the functions ...
Straumann A - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic eosinophilic esophagitis (IEE) is a chronic-inflammatory disorder of the esophagus of unknown origin. The established cornerstone of diagnosis is a dense infiltration of the esophagus with eosinophils, but neither the precise pattern of inflammatory cell infiltration nor the mechanisms that likely contribute to induction and maintenance of the ...
Penido C - - 2001
Mounting evidence suggests that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) modulates bronchoconstriction and eosinophil function in asthma. We have investigated the role of different chemokines in the eosinophil influx to the pleural cavity after LPS stimulation. Expression of mRNA for eotaxin, regulated on activation, normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES), macrophage inflammatory protein ...
Uller L - - 2001
Spontaneous or steroid-induced eosinophil apoptosis occurring in vitro has not been demonstrated in lung tissues in vivo. This study examines cell apoptosis in rat lungs using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). After establishing sustained lung edema and eosinophilia ...
Falcone F H - - 2001
Infections with the helminth parasite Brugia malayi share many key features with Th2-mediated allergic diseases, including recruitment of eosinophils. We have investigated the dynamics of inflammatory cell recruitment under type 2 cytokine conditions in mice infected with B. malayi. Among the cells recruited to the site of infection is a ...
Létuvé S - - 2001
In this study, we examined the relative importance of caspases and mitochondria in Fas-mediated eosinophil apoptosis. Stimulation of human peripheral blood eosinophils with an agonistic anti-human Fas monoclonal antibody, but not with control IgM, induced a time-dependent increase in their apoptosis, which was associated with a loss in mitochondrial transmembrane ...
Dewson G - - 2001
The apoptosis and subsequent clearance of eosinophils without histotoxic mediator release is thought to be crucial in the resolution of airway inflammation in asthma. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is a potent suppressor of eosinophil apoptosis. The mechanism by which IL-5 inhibits spontaneous eosinophil apoptosis was investigated. Freshly isolated eosinophils constitutively expressed the ...
MacKenzie J R - - 2001
Eosinophils are primarily thought of as terminal effectors of allergic responses and of parasite elimination. However, limited studies suggest a more discrete immunomodulatory role for this leukocyte during these inflammatory responses. In this investigation, we highlight the potential of eosinophils to act as APCs and thus modulators of allergic responses ...
Kim J - - 2001
Asthma represents a serious health problem particularly for inner city children, and recent studies have identified that cockroach allergens trigger many of these asthmatic attacks. This study tested the concept that asthma-like pulmonary inflammation may be induced by house dust containing cockroach allergens. An aqueous extract was prepared from a ...
Denzler K L - - 2001
Paradigms of eosinophil effector function in the lungs of asthma patients invariably depend on activities mediated by cationic proteins released from secondary granules during a process collectively referred to as degranulation. In this study, we generated knockout mice deficient for eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) to assess the role(s) of this abundant ...
Costain D J - - 2001
PURPOSE: Eosinophils have been shown to potentiate anti-tumour cytotoxicity in both clinical and animal studies. The mechanism by which eosinophils induce tumour cell damage, however, has largely been speculative. The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanisms involved in eosinophil-induced tumour cell cytotoxicity. METHODS: To investigate eosinophil cytotoxicity, ...
Kayaba H - - 2001
FcepsilonRI expressed by human eosinophils is involved in IgE-mediated cytotoxicity reactions toward the parasite Schistosoma mansoni in vitro. However, because receptor expression is low on these cells, its functional role is still controversial. In this study, we have measured surface and intracellular expression of FcepsilonRI by blood eosinophils from hypereosinophilic ...
Nutku E - - 2001
In murine models of allergic inflammation, IL-12 has been shown to decrease tissue eosinophilia, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We evaluated the expression of IL-12R and the effect of IL-12 on eosinophil survival. In situ hybridization demonstrated the presence of mRNA and immunoreactivity for IL-12Rbeta1 and -beta2 subunits ...
Heinisch I V - - 2001
BACKGROUND: CD137 (ILA/4-1BB), a member of the TNF/nerve growth factor receptor superfamily, has previously been suggested to be involved in T-cell activation and differentiation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate expression and potential function of CD137 in eosinophils. METHODS: Eosinophils were isolated from normal control subjects as ...
Toyozaki T - - 2001
In experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) there is a characteristic initial focal inflammatory response in the myocardium, induced mainly by CD4(+) T cells and macrophages, which leads to massive myocardial damage. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) induces chemotaxis in lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and macrophages. We assessed the potential role of MIP-1alpha in ...
Gonzalo J A - - 2001
We examined the requirement for and cooperation between CD28 and inducible costimulator (ICOS) in effective T helper (TH) cell responses in vivo. We found that both CD28 and ICOS were critical in determining the outcome of an immune response; cytolytic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4-immunoglobulin (CTLA-4-Ig), ICOS-Ig and/or a neutralizing ICOS ...
Husby S - - 2001
The mechanisms responsible for sensitization, in particular within the gastrointestinal tract, are IgE-mediated as well as of a non-IgE-mediated, immunological origin. The phenomenon that is the opposite of sensitization is the maintenance of tolerance and is exemplified by the phenomenon 'oral tolerance'. The cytokines transforming growth factor beta and interferon ...
Trifilieff A - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Lung remodelling is a recognized feature of chronic asthma. In the present study, we have used IL-5-deficient mice to evaluate the role of this cytokine and eosinophilic inflammation in the initial stages of the structural changes occurring in the lung after antigen challenge. METHODS: Ovalbumin-sensitized wild type ...
Amerio P - - 2001
The pathogenesis of AIDS-associated eosinophilic folliculitis is still unknown. The expression of chemokines and Th2-type cytokines is increased in other conditions associated with tissue eosinophilia and in allergic reactions. We evaluated the mRNA expression by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of two Th2 cytokines (interleukin-4 and interleukin-5) and of two ...
Blümchen K - - 2001
Eosinophilic airway inflammation is the main histologic correlate of airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and tissue injury in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. There is strong evidence for a central role of CD4+ T-cells secreting pro-allergic Th2-cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-5, in the induction of airway eosinophilia and AHR. IL-5 appears ...
Iino Y - - 2001
To clarify the basis of macrolide therapy for improvement of chronic sinusitis, we investigated the effect of macrolides on the expression of HLA-DR and costimulatory molecules such as CD54 and CD80 on macrophages in nasal polyps. Nasal polyps taken from 54 patients who had or had not been treated with ...
Tateno H - - 2001
Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is characterized by chronic or recurrent pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophils, but the precise mechanism of eosinophil accumulation has not been fully elucidated. Eotaxin is one of the CC chemokines that selectively recruits eosinophils and contributes to the pathogenesis of allergic airway diseases including asthma, but its ...
Webb D C - - 2001
T helper (Th)-2-derived cytokines and their involvement in the recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells crucially orchestrate asthma pathogenesis. A notable cellular component of this allergy-induced inflammation is the eosinophil. However, whether the eosinophil is an obligatory mediator for enhancing airways hyperreactivity (AHR) to cholinergic stimuli, a watershed of the ...
Keller E T - - 2001
A large clinical literature suggests that estradiol (E(2)) plays a critical role in immune function. To further explore the relationship between E(2) and immune function, we examined a variety of immunological parameters in a rhesus monkey model of menopause and hormone replacement therapy. Rhesus monkeys (Age, 13.7+/-2.6 years) were ovariectomized ...
Ramshaw H S - - 2001
Asthma is a common and complex inflammatory disease of the airways that remains incurable. Current forms of therapy are long term and may exhibit associated side-effect problems. Major participants in the development of an asthma phenotype include the triggering stimuli such as the allergens themselves, cells such as T cells, ...
Kips J C - - 2001
Asthma is currently defined as a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways. The central role of allergen-specific Th2 cells in the regulation of this mucosal airway inflammation has been highlighted. Hence, there is large interest in the therapeutic potential of an anti-Th2 cell approach. One of the strategies which has ...
Louahed J - - 2001
The interleukin 9 (IL-9) pathway has recently been associated with the asthmatic phenotype including an eosinophilic tissue inflammation. The mechanism by which IL-9 affects eosinophils (eos) is not known. To investigate whether this cytokine has a direct activity on the development of eos and eosinophilic inflammation, a model of thioglycolate-induced ...
Rothenberg M E - - 2001
The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is composed of lymphocytes residing in Peyer's patches, lamina propria, and intraepithelial compartments. In addition to these features which distinguish GALT from other peripheral sites of the immune system, the gastrointestinal immune system is also composed of resident eosinophils. Eosinophils are generally considered to be ...
Broide D - - 2001
Eosinophils play a prominent pro-inflammatory role in allergic inflammation. Studies utilizing flow chambers, intravital video-microscopy, and cytokine and adhesion molecule-deficient mice have provided important insight into the mechanisms of eosinophil trafficking in inflamed blood vessels and into tissues in vivo. While the bone marrow generation of eosinophils is finely regulated ...
Foster P S - - 2001
In this review we identify the elemental signals that regulate eosinophil accumulation in the allergic lung. We show that there are two interwoven mechanisms for the accumulation of eosinophils in pulmonary tissues and that these mechanisms are linked to the development of airways hyperreactivity (AHR). Interleukin-(IL)-5 plays a critical role ...
Sato E - - 2001
Recent studies suggest that erythromycin can suppress the production of some cytokines and may be an effective treatment for asthma. Eosinophil chemotactic cytokines have been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma by the recruitment of eosinophils. We hypothesized that erythromycin modulates eosinophil chemotactic cytokine production. To test the ...
Simon H U - - 2001
Apoptosis is the most common form of physiologic cell death and a necessary process to maintain cell numbers in multicellular organisms. In many chronic inflammatory diseases, reduced cell death of different types of granulocytes is one important mechanism for cell accumulation. Granulocytes are constantly produced in large amounts in the ...
Tonnel A B - - 2001
Status asthmaticus (SA) is a sudden respiratory failure characterized by an acute bronchospasm with a severe inflammation, requiring in some cases mechanical ventilation (MV). Initial postmortem studies emphasized the presence of eosinophils in the bronchial wall and of mucus plugs filling the bronchi. More recently a prominent neutrophil influx was ...
Walsh G M - - 2001
The eosinophil has a potent armory of proinflammatory mediators with considerable potential to initiate and sustain an inflammatory response. These include cytotoxic granule proteins, cytokines, chemokines, and lipid mediators. Eosinophils are considered important in the immune response to infection with helminthic parasitic worms. Incrementally increasing evidence supports a critical role ...
Conroy D M - - 2001
Eosinophilic leukocytes accumulate in high numbers in the lungs of asthmatic patients, and are believed to be important in the pathogenesis of asthma. A potent eosinophil chemoattractant is produced in the asthmatic lung. This small protein, the chemokine eotaxin, is synthesized by a number of different cell types, and is ...
Elsner J - - 2000
Increased numbers of eosinophils in the peripheral blood and inflammatory tissue are characteristic features of allergic diseases such as allergic asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic dermatitis. Tissue damage and propagation of inflammation is thought to be mediated by the interaction among Th2-like T cells, antigen-presenting cells, and eosinophils. In this process ...
Kaifi J T - - 2000
PURPOSE: A murine model of helminth-induced keratitis (river blindness) that is characterized by a biphasic recruitment of neutrophils (days 1-3) and eosinophils (days 3+) to the cornea has been developed. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative contribution of P- and E-selectin in recruitment of these inflammatory ...
Wang J S - - 2000
AIMS: The histopathology of the Sauropus androgynus (SA)-constrictive bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is still controversial. A recent report using pneumonectomy specimens showed that the major histopathology was obliterative arteriopathy with segmental necrosis of small bronchi instead of constrictive BO as previously described. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed semiquantitatively and immunohistochemically the ...
Etter E - - 2000
Culled dry dairy goats, which differed in their level of production in previous lactations, received a single infection with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. The objectives of the study were twofold. First, the study aimed at examining the ability of dairy goats to develop an immune response to trichostrongyle infection and the associated ...
Shi M Q - - 2000
The aim of the study was the characterization of the local immune response of Lewis rats to Eimeria separata, a caecum-dwelling coccidium. Rats infected twice at 10-day intervals with 5,000 oocysts developed a high degree of immunity to a heavy challenge with 100,000 oocysts, reducing the oocyst production by > ...
Sato E - - 2000
The presence of eosinophils in the lungs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis correlates with poor prognosis or resistance to therapy. Furthermore, eosinophils localize to areas undergoing active fibrosis. It was hypothesized that a human lung fibroblast (HFL-1) and a human lung epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) might release eosinophil chemotactic activity ...
Zhang X - - 2000
Beclomethasone, budesonide, dexamethasone, and fluticasone propionate enhanced human eosinophil apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro as assessed by flow cytometric analysis and morphological analysis. The order of potency was fluticasone propionate (EC(50) 3.7+/-1.8 nM) approximately budesonide (EC(50) 5.0+/-1.7 nM)>beclomethasone (EC(50) 51+/-19 nM)>dexamethasone (EC(50) 303+/-40 nM). Hydrocortisone, prednisolone, and prednisone ...
Herbert D R - - 2000
Protective immunity to Strongyloides stercoralis infective larvae in mice has been shown to be dependent on IL-5 based on mAb depletion studies. The goal of this study was to determine the functional role of IL-5 during the innate and adaptive immune response to larval S. stercoralis in mice. In these ...
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