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Results 351 - 400 of 863
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Noga O - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that neurotrophins are produced by and can act on several immune-inflammatory cells. The origin of circulating as well as local neurotrophins is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess whether eosinophils of allergic and non-allergic donors produce, store and release the neurotrophic ...
Bandeira-Melo Christianne - - 2003
Eosinophils contain several preformed cytokines within their specific granules. Therefore, without requiring them in de novo synthesis of cytokines, eosinophils can release quantities of granule-derived cytokines by highly regulated mechanisms. However, eosinophil "degranulation" is poorly understood, in part, because available methodologies did not appear appropriate for analyzing vesicular mobilization and ...
Murray Joanna - - 2003
1 Since most inflammatory mediators that stimulate granulocyte responsiveness also delay apoptosis, it is often assumed that activation and longevity are causally related. Using isolated human peripheral blood neutrophils and eosinophils, we examined this association by exploiting the proinflammatory lipid mediators, the leukotrienes (LTs), and investigated granulocyte function and apoptosis. ...
Ahrén Irini Lazou - - 2003
Eosinophils are a characteristic component of the inflammatory response seen in several diseases, including allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. After activation, eosinophil-derived products may exert proinflammatory effects and cause considerable tissue damage. In the present study, we investigated innate interactions between the respiratory tract pathogen nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae ...
Mastaglia Frank L - - 2003
The three major forms of immune-mediated inflammatory myopathy are dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), and inclusion-body myositis (IBM). They each have distinctive clinical and histopathologic features that allow the clinician to reach a specific diagnosis in most cases. Magnetic resonance imaging is sometimes helpful, particularly if the diagnosis of IBM is ...
Taylor E L - - 2003
Apoptosis of inflammatory cells is a critical event in the resolution of inflammation, as failure to undergo this form of cell death leads to increased tissue damage and exacerbation of the inflammatory response. Many factors are able to influence the rate of apoptosis in neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and macrophages. Among ...
Erjefalt Jonas S - - 2003
Traditionally, traffic and activation of eosinophils in asthmatic airways are thought to take place during the late-phase allergic reaction. The present study tests the hypothesis that when eosinophils are present in the tissue before allergen exposure, as in chronically inflamed asthmatic airways, acute anaphylactic reactions initiate an eosinophil response. Using ...
Domae Mariko - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Eosinophils accumulated in sites of allergic inflammation are thought to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders including asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis, and tissue eosinophilia is attributable to increased eosinophil survival or decreased eosinophil apoptosis. OBJECTIVE: Effects of the antiallergic, histamine H1 blocker oxatomide ...
Braun Ruedi K - - 2003
Aminopeptidase N (CD13) is a cell surface metalloprotease involved in growth regulation, tumor invasion, and down-regulation of regulatory peptides. CD13 expression on eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of asthmatics 10 minutes and 18 hours after segmental allergen provocation was significantly increased (+225% to +294%) compared to blood eosinophils. In vitro ...
Nutku Esra - - 2003
Sialic acid binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 8 (Siglec-8), which exists in 2 isoforms including one possessing cytoplasmic tyrosine motifs, is expressed only on human eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells. Until now, its function was unknown. Here we define a novel function of Siglec-8 on eosinophils. Siglec-8 cross-linking with antibodies rapidly generated ...
Goya Iñigo - - 2003
Interaction of chemokines with their specific receptors results in tight control of leukocyte migration and positioning. CCR8 is a chemokine receptor expressed mainly in CD4(+) single-positive thymocytes and Th2 cells. We generated CCR8-deficient mice (CCR8(-/-)) to study the in vivo role of this receptor, and describe in this study the ...
Pawankar Ruby - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nasal polyposis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the upper airway characterized histologically by the infiltration of inflammatory cells like eosinophils or neutrophils. Several hypotheses have been put forward regarding the underlying mechanisms including chronic infection, aspirin intolerance, alteration in aerodynamics with trapping of pollutants, epithelial disruptions, ...
Leckie Maggie J - - 2003
Descriptive studies have shown an association between eosinophils, interleukin (IL)-5 and pathophysiological processes in patients with atopic asthma. These observations have led to an interest in the eosinophil as the pathogenic cell responsible for many of the clinical features of asthma including symptoms of wheeze, shortness of breath and cough, ...
Kweon Mi-Na - - 2003
The gastrointestinal immune system is a major component of the mucosal barrier, which provides an appropriate immunologic homeostasis between host and numerous foreign antigens, including microbial and dietary antigens. However, under certain pathological circumstances created by disturbance of the immunologic balance, allergic responses associated with the gastrointestinal tract can be ...
Langdon Carrie - - 2003
Oncostatin M (OSM) is a member of the IL-6/LIF (or gp130) cytokine family, and its potential role in inflammation is supported by a number of activities identified in vitro. In this study, we investigate the action of murine OSM on expression of the CC chemokine eotaxin by fibroblasts in vitro ...
Singh Harcharan - - 2003
Chronic hyperplastic sinusitis and nasal polyposis (CHS/NP) is associated with significant morbidity. The response to medical treatment is often unsatisfactory, and surgery often provides only temporary relief. The genesis and pathophysiology of polyps are poorly understood. There has been increasing interest in the role of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines ...
Schottelius Arndt J - - 2002
Lipoxins and 15-epi-lipoxins are counter-regulatory lipid mediators that modulate leukocyte trafficking and promote the resolution of inflammation. To assess the potential of lipoxins as novel anti-inflammatory agents, a stable 15-epi-lipoxin A(4) analog, 15-epi-16-p-fluorophenoxy-lipoxin A(4) methyl ester (ATLa), was synthesized by total organic synthesis and examined for efficacy relative to a ...
Oliveira Sandra H P - - 2002
Eosinophils are effector cells that play an important role in the damage induced by the allergic process by releasing inflammatory mediators and proteolytic factors after activation. Stem cell factor (SCF) is a primary cytokine involved in hematopoiesis and mast cell differentiation, proliferation, and activation. Studies have also indicated that SCF ...
Finsnes F - - 2002
The cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) and the peptide hormone endothelin (ET)-1 are potent bronchoconstrictor substances, and these mediators are also claimed to be implicated in the development of eosinophilic airway inflammation. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of the cysLT1 receptor antagonist montelukaston the development of an eosinophilic ...
Bachert Claus - - 2002
Nasal polyposis (NP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the sinuses often associated with asthma. Although we have not yet achieved a full understanding of the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of NP, recent insights have been acquired into the regulation of eosinophil chemotaxis, activation, and survival, in addition to ...
Zheng Xueyan - - 2002
Basophils are key effector cells of allergic reactions. Although proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-3, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-5, inhibit eosinophil apoptosis in vitro, little is known about basophil apoptosis, and the signalling mechanisms required for basophil survival remain undefined. To address this issue, we used a novel ...
Bacci Elena - - 2002
To evaluate the reproducibility of induced sputum analysis, and to estimate the sample size required to obtained reliable results, sputum was induced by hypertonic saline inhalation in 29 asthmatic subjects on two different days. The whole sample method was used for analysis, and inflammatory cells were counted on cytospin slides. ...
Foerster M - - 2002
Elimination of the eosinophils from the airways by selective induction of apoptosis represents a therapeutic approach for asthma. Here we report on a possible target molecule, the surface receptor CD69. To simulate an asthmatic response, segmental allergen challenge in mild asthmatics was performed. Eosinophil numbers increased in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) ...
Daneshjoo Rahim - - 2002
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare gastrointestinal (GI) disorder of undetermined cause characterized by infiltration of eosinophils in the GI tract. Eosinophils accumulate in tissues and may release highly cytotoxic granular proteins, which cause severe tissue damage characteristic of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. Eotaxin may play a role in the recruitment of eosinophils ...
Saeed Waseem - - 2002
Eosinophils are known to be an indirect marker of airway inflammation in asthma. It is known since long that the total eosinophil count reflects asthmatic activity and is useful for regulating steroid dosage and for early detection of exacerbations. Eosinophils are currently regarded as the effector cells responsible for much ...
Justice J Paul - - 2003
A strategy to deplete eosinophils from the lungs of ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized/challenged mice was developed using antibody-mediated depletion. Concurrent administration [viz. the peritoneal cavity (systemic) and as an aerosol to the lung (local)] of a rat anti-mouse CCR3 monoclonal antibody resulted in the abolition of eosinophils from the lung such that ...
Badewa A P - - 2002
Eosinophilic leukocytes have been implicated as primary effector cells in inflammatory and allergic diseases. When activated by cytokines, human eosinophils secrete and produce a variety of proinflammatory or tissue damaging substances. Although well known for their chemoattractant effects, little is known about the precise contribution of the eosinophil-selective chemokines, eotaxin, ...
Sheller James - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin E2 is a potent immunomodulator that inhibits the early and late bronchoconstriction to inhaled allergen, as well as inhibiting the acute allergen-induced release of mediators into the human airway. To determine if the stable prostaglandin E agonist misoprostol could alter the late allergic formation of mediators we measured ...
Underwood Stephen L - - 2002
1. The antigen-induced inflammatory response in the Brown Norway rat is a model commonly used to assess the impact of novel compounds on airway eosinophilia. A detailed functional, cellular and molecular characterization of this model has not yet been performed within a single study. This information together with the temporal ...
Fakhri Samer - - 2002
The development of chronic sinusitis is a multifactorial process primarily related to allergen exposure, genetic predisposition, and persistent infections. Like allergic rhinitis, the inflammatory substrate in chronic sinusitis is highlighted by the abundance of mononuclear inflammatory cells, eosinophils, and T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines. Corticosteroids are the most potent ...
Lanone Sophie - - 2002
IL-13 potently stimulates eosinophilic and lymphocytic inflammation and alveolar remodeling in the lung, effects that depend on the induction of various matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Here, we compared the remodeling and inflammatory effects of an IL-13 transgene in lungs of wild-type, MMP-9-deficient, or MMP-12-deficient mice. IL-13-induced alveolar enlargement, lung enlargement, compliance ...
Schmid-Grendelmeier Peter - - 2002
IL-13 is an immunoregulatory and effector cytokine in allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma. A variety of immune and non-immune cells are known as IL-13 producers. In this study we investigated whether and under what conditions human eosinophils generate IL-13. Freshly isolated highly purified peripheral blood eosinophils from patients with ...
Benarafa Charaf - - 2002
The chemokine eotaxin (CCL11) is a key player in the trafficking of eosinophils to normal tissues and in the tissue eosinophilia associated with human allergic disease. We have recently cloned equine eotaxin and here we report the production of rEq eotaxin, with and without a C-terminal fusion peptide, in a ...
Proust Barbara - - 2002
IL-5 is present in the lung and in the circulation following allergenic challenges in humans and in animals, but its role in bronchopulmonary hyperreactivity (BHR) and lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) eosinophilia remains unclear. Because compartmentalization of IL-5 is recognized, the anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibody TRFK-5 or its isotype control ...
Church M K - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Cysteinyl leukotrienes have been suggested to be involved in producing the symptoms of both the early and late phases of the allergic response in the lung and other tissues. OBJECTIVE: To use scanning laser Doppler imaging, microdialysis and immunocytochemistry to explore the mediator and cellular mechanisms of the dermal ...
Hirasawa Ryutaro - - 2002
GATA transcription factors are major regulators of hematopoietic and immune system. Among GATA factors, GATA-1, GATA-2, and GATA-3 play crucial roles in the development of erythroid cells, hematopoietic stem, and progenitor cells, and T helper type 2 (Th2) cells, respectively. A high level of GATA-1 and GATA-2 expression has been ...
Mattes Joerg - - 2002
Interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 are thought to play key roles in the pathogenesis of asthma. Although both cytokines use eotaxin to regulate eosinophilia, IL-13 is thought to operate a separate pathway to IL-5 to induce airways hyperreactivity (AHR) in the allergic lung. However, identification of the key pathway(s) used by ...
Wagner James G - - 2002
Repeated exposures to ozone cause inflammation and mucous cell metaplasia (MCM) in the nasal mucosa of laboratory animals. Similar cellular responses occur in humans during allergic rhinitis. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to ozone will enhance the inflammatory and epithelial responses associated with allergic rhinitis. Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized Brown Norway ...
Chiu Bo-Chin - - 2002
Host immune systems have evolved specialized responses to multicellular parasites. This is well represented by the type 2 granulomatous response to Schistosoma mansoni egg antigens, which is an eosinophil-rich inflammatory response mediated by Th2-associated cytokines. Using Ag-bead models of pulmonary granuloma formation in mice, we defined characteristic chemokine (CK) profiles ...
Sieben Sonja - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis to paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is a frequent cause of morbidity and occupational disability. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to characterize T-cell responses to PPD and Bandrowski's base (BB), an autoxidation product of PPD, by using polyclonal and monoclonal T-lymphocyte cultures. METHODS: PPD- and BB-driven proliferation ...
Wong Chun Kwok - - 2002
The incidence and prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis have recently been increasing worldwide. Eosinophils are the principal effector cells for the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation via the secretion of highly cytotoxic granular proteins including eosinophil cationic protein, major basic protein and eosinophil protein X. Blood ...
Létuvé Séverine - - 2002
Glucocorticosteroids are potent anti-inflammatory drugs used in the treatment of eosinophilic disorders. These molecules directly promote eosinophil apoptosis, yet the molecular mechanisms regulating this process remain ill-defined. We show here that stimulation of human peripheral blood eosinophils with dexamethasone induced DNA fragmentation, chromatin and cytoplasm condensation, and caspase-3 activation, as ...
Culley Fiona J - - 2002
Passage of helminth larvae through the lungs can cause pulmonary eosinophilia that may have evolved as a means of parasite attrition. If allergic responses represent a misdirected activation of this arm of the immune system, then mechanisms governing eosinophil recruitment during infection would be expected to be closely related to ...
Borchers Michael T - - 2002
The complexity and magnitude of interactions leading to the selective infiltration of eosinophils in response to inhaled allergens are formidable obstacles to a larger understanding of the pulmonary pathology associated with allergic asthma. This study uses knockout mice to demonstrate a novel function for the heterotrimeric G protein, G(q), in ...
Necchi Daniela - - 2002
Due to its regular cytoarchitecture and the relatively low number of cell types, the development of the cerebellar cortex is a model of election for studies of morphogenetic processes. To unravel the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate cell development, migration and differentiation and the settling of local circuits, pertubation ...
Kobayashi Hitoshi - - 2002
Neurotrophins, such as nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), are essential for development, function, and survival of peripheral sympathetic and sensory neurons. Most eosinophilic leukocytes in the human body are localized in mucosal tissues; however, the roles of eosinophils in human diseases are not fully understood. We found that ...
Ma Weilie - - 2002
The CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) is expressed by eosinophils, mast cells, and Th2 cells. We used CCR3(-/-) mice to assess the role of CCR3 in a murine model of allergic skin inflammation induced by repeated epicutaneous sensitization with ovalbumin (OVA), and characterized by eosinophil skin infiltration, local expression of ...
Adamko Darryl - - 2002
The role of the eosinophil in the pathophysiology of allergy and asthma has been the focus of intense interest during the last two decades. While the presence of eosinophils in humans with allergy and asthma is well established, the precise role of this cell in humans and in animal models ...
Wedi Bettina - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus colonization of the skin represents a potent trigger factor of atopic dermatitis. Our previous studies demonstrated that in atopic dermatitis eosinophil apoptosis is significantly delayed. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the effect of staphylococcal exotoxins (SETs) on eosinophil apoptosis and functional activities. METHODS: Apoptotic eosinophils were investigated ...
Trautmann Axel - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Asthma is an inflammatory airway disease associated with an infiltration of T cells and eosinophils, increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and shedding of bronchial epithelial cells (ECs). OBJECTIVE: Shedding of bronchial ECs is characterized by loss of the normal bronchial pseudostratified epithelium and the maintenance of a few basal ...
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