Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 863
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Kawauchi Shimako - - 2005
In vertebrate olfactory epithelium (OE), neurogenesis proceeds continuously, suggesting that endogenous signals support survival and proliferation of stem and progenitor cells. We used a genetic approach to test the hypothesis that Fgf8 plays such a role in developing OE. In young embryos, Fgf8 RNA is expressed in the rim of ...
Pawliczak Rafal - - 2005
The cause of nasal polyp formation is still unknown. Genetic predisposition has been suggested, but there are scanty data to support such theories. Activated epithelial cells may be the major source of mediators inducing influx of inflammatory cells (mostly eosinophils) and proliferation and activation of fibroblasts leading to nasal polyp ...
Wang C B - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Prominent infiltration of eosinophils into the airway mucosa and release of inflammatory mediators upon their adhesion onto airway epithelial cells are the immunopathogical mechanisms of allergic asthma. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of normal and paraformaldyhyde-fixed human eosinophils on BEAS-2B cells, a human bronchial epithelial cell line, for the ...
Peruhype-Magalhães V - - 2005
We investigated the cytokine profile of cells of the innate immune response and its association with active (ACT), asymptomatic (AS) and cured (CUR) human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), as well as noninfected (NI) subjects. The frequency of cytokine-producing cells was determined after short-term in vitro incubation of whole peripheral blood samples ...
Conus S?bastien - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Leptin regulates food intake, as well as metabolic, endocrine, and immune functions. It exerts proliferative and antiapoptotic activities in a variety of cell types, including T cells. Leptin also stimulates macrophages and neutrophils, and its production is increased during inflammation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the expression of leptin ...
Ferrari Davide - - 2006
A growing body of information indicates that release of intracellular nucleotides represents an important way to modulate several cell pathways in physiological or pathological conditions. Nucleotides released as a consequence of cell damage, cell stress, bacterial infection, or other noxious stimuli signal at a class of plasma membrane receptors--P2 receptors--activating ...
Crawley Angela M - - 2005
Immunoglobulin (Ig) function varies by isotype and antibody activity is best mediated by isotypes most able to control the inciting infection. In pigs, a high ratio of IgG1:IgG2 is associated with resistance to disease caused by the extra-cellular bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. This ratio is controlled by type 1/type 2 cytokines ...
Inoue Yoshinari - - 2005
Eosinophils and their products are probably important in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, such as bronchial asthma, and in host immunity to certain organisms. An association between environmental fungal exposure and asthma has been long recognized clinically. Although products of microorganisms (e.g., lipopolysaccharides) directly activate certain inflammatory cells (e.g., macrophages), ...
Lee S K W - - 2006
Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide. Western medications such as glucocorticoids are effective therapeutic agents but may be associated with side effects. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for treating allergic diseases with observable clinical benefits. The present study investigated whether a novel TCM concoction, ...
Riechelmann H - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Clinical manifestations of rhinosinusitis include acute rhinosinusitis, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps and CRS without polyps. OBJECTIVE: Possible mechanisms defining these three forms of rhinosinusitis should be investigated assessing biomarker profiles in nasal secretions. METHODS: Fifteen cytokines, three cellular activation markers and total IgE were determined in nasal ...
Zhang N - - 2005
Nasal polyps in adults, characterized by abundant eosinophils, local overproduction of immunoglobulin E, and often associated with asthma, have been appreciated as an eosinophilic inflammation, potentially of allergic origin, but unrelated to a bacterial impact. Evidence accumulates, however, that Staphylococcus aureus colonizes chronic rhinosinusitis with, but not without polyps, with ...
Puxeddu Ilaria - - 2005
Mast cells and eosinophils are the key cells in the early and late stages of allergic inflammation. There is increasing evidence that angiogenesis plays an important role both in the development of inflammation and in the pathophysiology of tissue remodeling during allergic disorders. In this review we provide recent data ...
Schopf Lisa - - 2005
PURPOSE: To assess alterations in allergic ocular responses to nonparasite antigens in an experimental system in which mice were skewed toward a Th2 cytokine profile by helminth infection. METHODS: Mice were inoculated with Ascaris suum (A. suum) eggs concurrent with ragweed (RW) sensitization (RW/acute) or by repeated inoculation before RW ...
Lavastre Valérie - - 2005
Although there are several agents that induce neutrophil apoptosis, few are known as inducers of eosinophil apoptosis. As eosinophils are potent effector cells contributing to allergic inflammation and asthma, we investigated whether the pro-apoptotic agent Viscum album agglutinin-I (VAA-I) could induce eosinophil apoptosis. VAA-I was found to induce apoptosis in ...
Straumann Alex - - 2005
BACKGROUND: In eosinophilic esophagitis (EE), the esophagus is infiltrated with activated eosinophils that often evoke tissue damage, but the intestines of these patients remain unaffected. We thus hypothesized that different tissue-dwelling eosinophil populations may coexist: activated eosinophils that infiltrate the esophagus and resting eosinophils that reside in unaffected intestines. We ...
Kankaanranta Hannu - - 2005
Eosinophilic inflammation of the airways is a key characteristic of asthma. The balance between eosinophil recruitment into the lung and their removal from the lungs determines the number of eosinophils in the airways. Apoptosis or programmed cell death is of importance in the removal of eosinophils from the lungs. In ...
Hasala Hannele - - 2005
Eosinophils are considered essential in the pathogenesis of allergy. Reduced eosinophil apoptosis is considered to be a key element in the formation of eosinophilia in allergic conditions. Antihistamines are widely used in the treatment of allergic disorders, but their effects on eosinophil apoptosis are poorly understood. The histamine H1-receptor antagonist, ...
Fan Ming - - 2006
In the present study, we examined dynamic changes in cellular profile of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid after adenosine challenge in ragweed sensitized and challenged mice. Mice systemically sensitized and airway challenged with ragweed showed marked airway inflammation manifesting increased eosinophils, lymphocytes, neutrophils and activated macrophages in BAL. Adenosine challenge further ...
Walsh G M - - 2005
The inappropriate accumulation of eosinophils and the subsequent release of their potent pro-inflammatory mediator arsenal are thought to be important contributors to the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases. It is also becoming apparent that eosinophils may play a role in the orchestration of immune responses in the asthmatic ...
Conrad Mark F - - 2005
BACKGROUND: These experiments were designed to quantitatively compare the patterns of tissue thrombosis, cytokine response, and tissue viability in a murine model of partial (PI) versus complete hindlimb ischemia (CI), alone or with reperfusion (RE). METHODS: The control tension tourniquet was used to establish either PI or CI in the ...
Simon D - - 2005
BACKGROUND: In several clinical trials the topical application of pimecrolimus was shown to be effective in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). By targeting calcineurin-dependent signaling pathways, pimecrolimus controls cytokine gene expression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pimecrolimus on the inflammatory infiltrate and cytokine ...
Belden L K - - 2005
In many amphibian species, an apparent increase has occurred in the prevalence of limb deformities caused by parasitic trematodes. We are interested in the role of environmental stressors in increasing these infections in amphibians. One mechanism by which environmental stressors could act to increase disease prevalence is to increase circulating ...
Kirmaz Cengiz - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a disease characterized by IgE-mediated, allergic inflammation of the nasal mucosa. T helper (Th) 2 cells play an important role in the development of IgE-mediated diseases such as AR, with local overproduction of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13) at the site of allergic inflammation. ...
Hellmich B - - 2005
Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) belongs to the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides and is further characterized by severe eosinophilia and, often, granulomatous inflammation. The therapeutic efficacy of recombinant interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) blockade point toward a central role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of CSS. Recent data show ...
Luijk Bart - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Eosinophils isolated from the blood of patients with allergic asthma exhibit enhanced responsiveness to multiple stimuli compared with cells from normal controls, a phenomenon generally referred to as priming . This priming response is essential for optimal activation with augmented responses including chemotaxis, cytotoxicity, respiratory burst, and the release ...
Hussein Mahmoud R - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To assess the types, distributions, and numbers of immune cell infiltrates in the testes of men with azoospermia. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University research and clinical institutes. PATIENT(S): Thirty-one men with azoospermia showing normal spermatogenesis (n = 10), germ cell maturation arrest (GA, n = 12), and Sertoli cell-only ...
Khan Seema - - 2005
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis despite its uncommon occurrence is one of the most important primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders, and most commonly presents with abdominal pain. The terminology is, however, misleading because all levels of the gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus to the rectum may be affected. A history of atopy and allergies ...
Spik Isabelle - - 2005
Allergic pathologies are often associated with IgE production, mast cell activation, and eosinophilia. PGD2 is the major eicosanoid, among several inflammatory mediators, released by mast cells. PGD2 binds to two membrane receptors, D prostanoid receptor (DP)1 and DP2, endowed with antagonistic properties. In humans, DP2 is preferentially expressed on type ...
Koreck Andrea I - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Phototherapy has a profound immunosuppressive effect and is able to inhibit hypersensibility reactions in the skin. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether phototherapy using a combination of UV-B (5%), UV-A (25%), and visible light (70%), referred to as mUV/VIS, is effective in treating allergic rhinitis. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind ...
Bandeira-Melo Christianne C Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacodinâmica, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, - - 2005
Human eosinophils have been demonstrated to contain a multitude of cytokines and chemokines that exist pre-formed within these cells. This content of pre-formed cytokines, with diverse potential biologic activities, provides eosinophils with capabilities distinct from most other leukocytes. The localization of pre-formed cytokines within eosinophils is both within specific granules ...
Ciprandi Giorgio - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis and its link with asthma are well known. Nevertheless, a complete cross-sectional evaluation of the usually available clinical, functional and immunological parameters has never been made. We assessed nasal symptoms and flow, cytology, cytokines, pulmonary function and methacholine positivity in a large number of ...
Matthews Stephen P - - 2005
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major viral pathogen of infants and the elderly. Significant morbidity is caused by an overexuberant mixed lung cell infiltrate, which is thought to be driven by chemokines. One of the main chemotactic mediators responsible for the movement of eosinophils is CCL11 (eotaxin). Using a ...
Bernstein Joel M - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and immunobiology of chronic hyperplastic sinusitis with massive nasal polyposis are starting to become unraveled. Allergy, viral infection, bacterial infection, fungal infection, and environmental pollution have all been suggested as possible initial triggers that may upregulate inflammation of the lateral wall of the nose ...
Benson Mikael - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The exact mechanisms by which glucocorticoids exert their beneficial effects on nasal polyps are not clearly defined. Nasal polyps, asthma and allergic rhinitis share common features such as mucosal infiltration with eosinophils and mast cells as well as local IgE production. The present review is an update ...
Chiou Yuan-Yow - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The cytokine-producing ability of urothelium, a urinary tract barrier between urine and underlying connective tissue, may exacerbate the pathogenesis of congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJ-O) disease. A role for urothelium in human urinary tract obstruction has rarely been described. In this study, we investigated the immunopathologic characteristics of, and ...
Ilavská Silvia - - 2005
Occupational exposure to asbestos is strongly associated with pulmonary diseases, cancer and immunotoxic effects. Both systemic and local immunity may play an important role in the pathogenesis of these events. Immune cells appear to be influenced by asbestos exposure, either through direct effects or as a result of the host's ...
Fulkerson, Patricia C.
Airway inflammation in asthma is complex, involving innate and adaptive responses, pathologic Th2 sensitization, and alterations in tolerance. In this thesis, we aimed to characterize the contribution of chemokines, CCR3 signal transduction, and eosinophils to experimental asthma. Our studies, implicating the involvement of 17 chemokines in experimental asthma, highlight the ...
Munitz Ariel - - 2005
Eosinophils are present in parasitic, allergic, various immunological, and malignant disorders as well as in a variety of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndromes. However, their exact role in some of these conditions remains elusive. They can be activated both in vivo and in vitro by various agonists, such as Igs, lipid mediators, ...
Packer M - - 2005
The histological diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in horses and other species is subjective, and pathological assessments vary considerably as a result. One important criterion is increased infiltration of the lamina propria by eosinophils, plasma cells, lymphocytes or macrophages, but this is difficult to assess without a knowledge of ...
Adamko D J - - 2005
We have entered a new phase in the evolution of our understanding of the role of the eosinophil with a greater appreciation of novel potential functions that may be ascribed to this enigmatic cell type. This review not only provides an update to our current understanding of the various immunobiological ...
Fogel Wiesława Agnieszka - - 2005
In inflamed bowel there is sustained local secretion of histamine not only from activated mast cells but also from some infiltrating cells. Released histamine acting through different receptors may exert variety of effects. H1 receptors mediate inflammatory effects i.e. smooth muscle and endothelial cell contractions, increased vascular permeability, but also ...
Ip Wai Ki - - 2005
Hematopoietic cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-3, IL-5, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) play a fundamental role in eosinophil functions in allergic asthma. The intracellular signal transduction mechanisms of these cytokines regulating the activation of eosinophils have been potential therapeutic targets. We investigated the roles of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase ...
Uller Lena - - 2005
Fas receptor-mediated eosinophil apoptosis is currently forwarded as a mechanism resolving asthma-like inflammation. This view is based on observations in vitro and in airway lumen with unknown translatability to airway tissues in vivo. In fact, apoptotic eosinophils have not been detected in human diseased airway tissues whereas cytolytic eosinophils abound ...
Correale Jorge - - 2004
To study immunologic alterations in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). The authors studied 8 patients with NMO together with 16 healthy subjects, 16 patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and 16 patients with secondary progressive MS (SPMS), matched for age and sex, as controls. Because recent histopathologic studies have ...
Shin Seung-Heon - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Although chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is one of the most frequently reported chronic diseases its etiology is not well understood. Recently, fungi have been proposed to influence the chronicity of rhinosinusitis. If fungi do play an important role then topical antifungal treatment may improve the inflammatory process of CRS. Therefore, ...
Stout Barbara A - - 2004
Allergic inflammation is characterized by elevated eosinophil numbers and by the increased production of the cytokines IL-5 and GM-CSF, which control several eosinophil functions, including the suppression of apoptosis. The JAK/STAT pathway is important for several functions in hemopoietic cells, including the suppression of apoptosis. We report in this study ...
Gelfand Erwin W - - 2004
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is part of a systemic disease complex. There is a close relationship between AR and asthma, which has led to the "one airway, one disease" concept. Both conditions share common immunopathology and pathophysiology. In patients with AR, allergen-triggered early and late responses are mediated by a series ...
Feltis Bryce N - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: In a longitudinal ex vivo placebo-controlled study, asthmatics already treated with inhaled corticosteroid received supplemental long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) or increased doses of their inhaled corticosteroid (ICS). Previously reports have shown significant reductions in biopsy eosinophil numbers after treatment with LABA. Following these findings, eosinophil chemokines eotaxin and IL-5 in ...
Vliagoftis Harissios - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Mast cells and eosinophils are important effector cells in asthma. Understanding their interactions is essential for studying asthma pathophysiology. Inflammatory mediators released from mast cells, such as arachidonic acid metabolites, TNF and IL-5, are important in eosinophil biology. However, little is known about the effects of mast cell-specific mediators, ...
Duez Catherine - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Eosinophils play a major role in allergic airway inflammation because of their ability to release toxic mediators. In addition, they are able to migrate toward draining thoracic lymph nodes (TLNs) after intratracheal administration, where they can function as antigen-presenting cells. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated in vivo eosinophil ...
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