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Margesson Lynette J LJ Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, 721 Chestnut Street, Manchester, NH 03104-3002, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic relapsing disorder of the folliculopilosebaceous units (FPSUs). Its negative impact on quality of life is extreme, mainly due to the lack of early recognition, accurate diagnosis, and appropriate management. The support structure of the FPSUs is defective. Under the influence of endogenous reproductive hormones, exogenous ...
Zhang Tao T Minimally Invasive Urology Center, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021, China. - - 2014
The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), either alone or in combination with other anti-cancer agents, has been considered as a new strategy for anti-cancer therapy. In this study, we demonstrated that evodiamine, a quinolone alkaloid isolated from the fruit of Evodia fructus, induced apoptosis and enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in ...
Lee Jane-Dar - - 2013
To investigate the intrinsic or extrinsic pathway of apoptosis from bladder biopsy that was performed in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS). Although previous studies have reported observations of the dysfunction, denudation, and thinning of the bladder urothelium in patients associated with an increase of cell apoptosis, the molecular mechanism is ...
Hughes Francis M FM Jr Jr., Dept. of Urology, CSB644, Medical Univ. of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas St., Charleston, SC 29425. - - 2014
Bladder inflammation (cystitis) underlies numerous bladder pathologies and is elicited by a plethora of agents such as urinary tract infections, bladder outlet obstruction, chemotherapies, and catheters. Pattern recognition receptors [Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nod-like receptors (NLRs)] that recognize pathogen- and/or damage-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and/or DAMPs, respectively) are key components ...
Larue Hélène - - 2013
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have an important role in the activation of both innate and adaptive immunity in response to pathogens and danger signals. These receptors are expressed in immune cells and in some epithelia. They are expressed in the epithelium of the urinary bladder, where they actively participate in the ...
Umpiérrez Ana - - 2013
Flagella are bacterial virulence factors allowing microorganisms to move over surfaces. Flagellin, the structural component of flagella, is sensed by the host via Toll and NOD-like receptors and triggers pro-inflammatory responses. The use of Toll-like receptors agonists to modulate innate immune responses has aroused great interest as an alternative to ...
Lee Cheng-Ling - - 2013
To investigate the suburothelial inflammation and urothelial dysfunction that occurs with ketamine-related cystitis (KC) and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). Bladder tissues from 16 patients with KC, 17 patients with IC/BPS and 10 control subjects were analysed. Immunofluorescence staining of the junction protein E-cadherin was carried out, and tryptase levels ...
Kong Chui-Ze - - 2013
Resistance to induction of apoptosis is a major obstacle for bladder cancer treatment. Bcl-2 is thought to be involved in anti-apoptotic signaling. In this study, we investigated the effect of Bcl-2 overexpression on apoptotic resistance and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in bladder cancer cells. A stable Bcl-2 overexpression ...
Chuang Fei-Chi - - 2013
This study was designed to investigate whether increased urothelial cell apoptosis and chronic inflammation might contribute to recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) in women. The bladder biopsy specimens were collected from thirty women with recurrent UTI and ten controls. The bladder biopsies were performed at one to two months after ...
Biancheri Paolo - - 2013
Interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-17E (also known as IL-25) have been implicated in fibrosis in various tissues. However, the role of these cytokines in the development of intestinal strictures in Crohn's disease (CD) has not been explored. We investigated the levels of IL-17A and IL-17E and their receptors in CD strictured ...
Izgi Kenan - - 2013
The pathophysiology of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is enigmatic. Autoimmunity and impaired urothelium might lead the underlying pathology. A major shortcoming in IC/PBS research has been the lack of an appropriate animal model. In this study, we show that the bladder specific uroplakin 3A-derived immunogenic peptide UPK3A 65-84, which ...
Lau Megan E - - 2013
The recruitment of immune cells from the periphery to the site of inflammation is an essential step in the innate immune response at any mucosal surface. During infection of the urinary bladder, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; neutrophils) migrate from the bloodstream and traverse the bladder epithelium. Failure to resolve infection in ...
Lee Won Yong WY GlycoMira Therapeutics, Inc. Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of - - 2013
Interstitial cystitis (IC), often referred to in combination with painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic inflammatory disease of the bladder. Current therapies primarily focus on replenishing urothelial glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer using GAG analogs and managing pain with supportive therapies. However, the elusive etiology of IC and the lack of animal ...
Rahbi Hazim - - 2012
The uroguanylin system is a newly discovered endocrine/paracrine system that may have a role in the regulation of salt balance, appetite and gut health. The precursor pro-uroguanylin is predominantly synthesized in the gut, although there may be other sites of synthesis, including the kidney tubules. Products from pro-uroguanylin may mediate ...
Luo Yi - - 2012
Proper induction of Th1 immunity is required for effective immunotherapy of bladder cancer with the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Interleukin-10 (IL-10) downregulates the Th1 immune response and is associated with BCG therapy failure. We evaluated BCG plus IL-10 blocking antibodies and found that this combination therapy induces enhanced Th1 immune responses ...
Prendergast Andrew J AJ Centre for Paediatrics, Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, Newark Street, London E1 2AT, - - 2012
The course of immune maturation has evolved to favour survival at each stage of development in early life. Fetal and neonatal immune adaptations facilitate intrauterine survival and provide early postnatal protection against extracellular pathogens, but they leave infants susceptible to intracellular pathogens such as viruses that are acquired perinatally. This ...
Fasano Alessio - - 2012
One of the most important and overlooked functions of the gastrointestinal tract is to provide a dynamic barrier to tightly controlled antigen trafficking through both the transcellular and paracellular pathways. Intercellular tight junctions (TJ) are the key structures regulating paracellular trafficking of macromolecules. Although steady progress has been made in ...
Palmer C V - - 2012
Reef-building corals form bio-diverse marine ecosystems of high societal and economic value, but are in significant decline globally due, in part, to rapid climatic changes. As immunity is a predictor of coral disease and thermal stress susceptibility, a comprehensive understanding of this new field will likely provide a mechanistic explanation ...
Rincon Mercedes M Department of Medicine/Immunobiology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA. - - 2012
The incidence and diversity of chronic inflammatory diseases is increasing worldwide. However, the complexity of clinical symptoms has made it difficult to develop therapies that provide a substantial improvement for extended periods of time in a wide range of patient groups. Thus, there is a need for new therapies that ...
Thangaraju Shyam - - 2012
Surgical treatment including Total Abdominal Hysterectomy+Bilateral Salpingo Oopherectomy (TAH+BSO) with pelvic and para aortic lymphadenectomy may not be sufficient to treat cases with advanced endometrial adenocarcinoma (EAC), in these cases, adjuvant treatment including radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, are employed based upon the tumor location, type and stage of the disease. These ...
Vinod Balachandran S - - 2012
Significance: This review provides an overview of the clinical relevance of chemosensitization, giving special reference to the phenolic phytochemicals, curcumin, genistein, Epigallocatechin Gallate, quercetin, emodin and resveratrol, which are potential candidates due their ability to regulate multiple survival pathways without inducing toxicity. We also give a brief summary of all ...
Bischoff Pierre - - 2012
Autophagy is an intracellular process of self-digestion involving the lysosomal degradation of cytoplasmic organelles and macromolecules. It occurs at low basal levels to perform housekeeping functions and is dramatically augmented upon nutrient depletion or exposure to other stresses, thus maintaining cellular homeostasis and energy balance and providing cytoprotective responses to ...
Cunningham Colm C School of Biochemistry and Immunology & Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. - - 2013
Delirium is a common and severe neuropsychiatric syndrome characterised by acute deterioration and fluctuations in mental status. It is precipitated mainly by acute illness, trauma, surgery, or drugs. Delirium affects around one in eight hospital inpatients and is associated with multiple adverse consequences, including new institutionalisation, worsening of existing dementia, ...
Punzi Leonardo - - 2012
Gout is probably one of the oldest diseases affecting men. This is not surprising especially for the active role that innate immunity seems to play in its pathogenesis. It is fascinating to observe as this ancestral mechanism of defense feels that microcrystals are a danger, quite similar to infectious agents. ...
Chan James K - - 2012
Alarmins are endogenous molecules that are constitutively available and released upon tissue damage and activate the immune system. Current evidence indicates that uncontrolled and excessive release of alarmins contributes to the dysregulated processes seen in many inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, as well as tumorigenesis and cancer spread. Conversely, alarmins have ...
Cai Ming-sheng MS State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, - - 2012
In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the initial host responses to viral infections. Herpesviral infections can provoke an inflammatory cytokine response, however, the innate pathogen-sensing mechanisms that transduce the signal for this response are poorly understood. In recent years, it ...
Wang Lingling - - 2012
The economical and phylogenic importance of mollusc has led an increasing number of investigations giving emphasis to immune defence mechanism. This review discusses the advances in immunological study of mollusc in China, with special reference to dominant aquaculture species over the past decades. As an invertebrate group, molluscs lack adaptive ...
Pulendran Bali B Department of Pathology, Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA. - - 2012
Nearly half of the world's population harbors helminth infections or suffers from allergic disorders. A common feature of this population is the so-called "type 2 immune response," which confers protection against helminths, but also promotes pathologic responses associated with allergic inflammation. However, the mechanisms that initiate and control type 2 ...
Caljon Guy - - 2012
Blood feeding arthropods are responsible for the transmission of a large array of medically important infectious agents that include viruses, bacteria, protozoan parasites and helminths. The recent development of transgenic and paratransgenic technologies have enabled supplementing the immune system of these arthropod vectors with anti-pathogen effector molecules in view of ...
Lee Jaeho - - 2012
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic allergic inflammatory disease of the skin. Its pathophysiology involves an orchestrated sequence of allergic provocation by IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated Th2 responses to allergens. Allergen sensitization precedes the immunopathogenesis. Th2 cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-5 play a key role in both the sensitization and effector ...
Ciraci Ceren - - 2012
The importance of innate immunity lies not only in directly confronting pathogenic and non-pathogenic insults but also in instructing the development of an efficient adaptive immune response. The Nlrp3 inflammasome provides a platform for the activation of caspase-1 with the subsequent processing and secretion of IL-1 family members. Given the ...
Monneret Guillaume - - 2012
ABSTRACT: Septic syndromes induce immune alterations that have long been considered solely an overwhelming pro-inflammatory response. Increasing evidence now suggests that, after the first pro-inflammatory hours, sepsis is accompanied by the occurrence of a systemic immune failure. Here, novel perspectives regarding sepsis-induced lymphocyte alterations will be discussed in the context ...
Sarvestani Soroush T - - 2012
Recent advances in our understanding of foreign nucleic acid sensing indicate an important role for the human Toll-like receptor (TLR) 8 in the initiation of immune responses to certain pathogens. However, TLR8, far too often grouped together with TLR7 for its common ability to detect RNA, has a function on ...
Macleod Colin D - - 2012
The effects of ocean acidification (OA) on marine species and ecosystems have received significant scientific attention in the past 10 years. However, to date, the effects of OA on host-parasite interactions have been largely ignored. As parasites play a multidimensional role in the regulation of marine population, community, and ecosystem ...
Zelante Teresa - - 2012
Most myeloid cells express the growth-factor receptor CSF1R. Recognition of interleukin 34 by CSF1R is required for the development of tissue-resident Langerhans cells and microglia, which explains the independence of their growth from CSF1.
Wallace Daniel J - - 2012
Antimalarial agents have routinely been used for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) for over 50 years. These agents continue to enjoy success as the initial pharmacotherapy for SLE even in the era of targeted therapies. Antimalarial agents have numerous biological effects that are responsible for their immunomodulatory actions ...
Ambati Jayakrishna J Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA. - - 2012
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a progressive condition that is untreatable in up to 90% of patients, is a leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. The two forms of AMD, wet and dry, are classified based on the presence or absence of blood vessels that have disruptively invaded the ...
Speeckaert Reinhart - - 2012
Insights into immune reactions against benign and malignant melanocytes may help the development of more efficient immunotherapeutic treatments for melanoma. The interplay between an active systemic antitumor immunity and a responsive local tumor environment is crucial to achieve effective clinical responses. Increasing evidence confirms this strategy can lead to an ...
van Esch Edith Mg - - 2012
Failure of the immune system to launch a strong and effective immune response to high-risk HPV is related to viral persistence and the development of anogenital (pre)malignant lesions such as vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN). Different forms of immunotherapy, aimed at overcoming the inertia of the immune system, have been developed ...
Sundaram Maria E - - 2012
Vitamin D has become increasingly recognized in the literature for its extra-skeletal roles, including an effect on inflammation and the immune response to infection. Our goal was to describe the role of vitamin D in the immune response and implications for the risk of influenza infection in humans. In this ...
Cooke Anne A Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Rd, Cambridge, UK. - - 2012
Parasitic worms have evolved strategies to manipulate the host immune system, some of which may lead to a reduction in inflammation. Characterisation of the ways in which these organisms mediate an anti-inflammatory response and identification of parasite-derived molecules involved in immune modulation paves the way to novel therapeutic approaches for ...
Sacerdote Paola - - 2012
This review provides an overview of the immunological effects of commonly used analgesic opioid drugs, focusing mainly on two aspects: the mechanisms involved and the potential clinical relevance. The immunomodulatory effects of morphine have been characterized in animal and human studies. Morphine decreases the effectiveness of both natural and acquired ...
Gram Anna M - - 2012
Pro-inflammatory cytokines are important mediators in immune responses against invading pathogens, including viruses. Precursors of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL 18 are processed by caspase-1. Caspase-1 is activated through autocleavage, but how this was regulated remained elusive for a long time. In 2002, an intracellular multimeric complex was discovered ...
Ferreira Cristina - - 2012
The significant impact of commensal microorganisms on metabolism, susceptibility to disease, and general well-being of their host has become increasingly clear in recent years. Chung et al. now show that the maturation and performance of the immune system depend on organism-specific bacterial species.
Simrén Magnus - - 2013
It is increasingly perceived that gut host-microbial interactions are important elements in the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). The most convincing evidence to date is the finding that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may develop in predisposed individuals following a bout of infectious gastroenteritis. There has been ...
Carruth Bryant P - - 2012
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI), with an emphasis on the development and use of inflammatory mediators and biologic agents. RECENT FINDINGS: Use of targeted biologic immunomodulatory therapy is becoming widespread and proving effective against many inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Although corticosteroids ...
Liang Dong - - 2012
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The contributions of microRNA (miRNA) to pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are beginning to be uncovered. In this review, we discuss the major progress made in understanding of miRNA biology, as well as novel insights into SLE pathogenesis mediated by miRNAs. RECENT ...
Varnum Megan M - - 2012
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive decline of cognitive function. There is no therapy that can halt or reverse its progression. Contemporary research suggests that age-dependent neuroinflammatory changes may play a significant role in the decreased neurogenesis and cognitive impairments in AD. The innate immune response ...
Tierney Lanay - - 2012
Modeling interactions between fungi and their hosts at the systems level requires a molecular understanding both of how the host orchestrates immune surveillance and tolerance, and how this activation, in turn, affects fungal adaptation and survival. The transition from the commensal to pathogenic state, and the co-evolution of fungal strains ...
Gullestad Lars - - 2012
Evidence from both experimental and clinical trials indicates that inflammatory mediators are of importance in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure (HF) contributing to cardiac remodeling and peripheral vascular disturbances. Several studies have shown raised levels of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in ...
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