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Results 401 - 450 of 762
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Serone Adrian Pierce - - 2002
CONTEXT: Progressive glomerular sclerosis is a condition characterized by the accumulation of glomerular extracellular matrix and a decrease in the number of glomerular cells. The mechanisms involved in the progressive loss of glomerular cells are not well understood but may involve the process of apoptosis. The principal mediators for the ...
El-Koraie Ahmed F - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Progression of renal diseases is related to the abnormal regulation of cellular and extracellular matrix turnover. Other factors in addition to schistosomal antigens may be relevant to the progression of schistosomal nephropathy (SN). The validity of markers of fibroblastic differentiation, alpha smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA), and vimentin, as well ...
Marti Hans-Peter - - 2002
Mesangial cells play a prominent role in renal inflammatory disorders, especially in IgA nephropathy. This disease represents the most common form of glomerulonephritis that eventually leads to progressive kidney failure requiring renal replacement therapy. In kidney transplants, IgA nephropathy displays a high recurrence rate in the order of 50%. Increased ...
Cheng Chi-Hung - - 2002
Calcium channel antagonists have been reported to have a favorable impact on cyclosporin A (CsA)-treated kidney transplant recipients. However, it is not clear whether this is because of their direct effect on antagonizing the toxicity of CsA to renal tubular cells. In this study, we have used Madin-Darby canine kidney ...
Mattana Joseph - - 2002
Oxidative injury in glomerular disease may oxidize extracellular matrix proteins which might modulate their interaction with mesangial cells and thereby account for the hypocellularity seen in advanced glomerulosclerosis. In this study we evaluated whether oxidation of extracellular matrix could modulate human mesangial cell apoptosis. Human mesangial cells were seeded onto ...
Kitching A R - - 2002
Conflicting reports exist regarding the effects of interleukin-10 (IL-10) on mesangial cells. There have been reports of both proliferative and antiproliferative effects, and both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects of IL-10 on mesangial cells. However, the potential for IL-10 to affect glomerulonephritis characterized by mesangial proliferation is not known. To test ...
Pfeilschifter Josef - - 2002
The glomerular response to injury displays astonishingly uniform features that include infiltration with professional immune cells, activation and proliferation of resident glomerular cells and matrix expansion. Cross-communication of intrinsic mesangial cells with invading immune cells is crucial for the fate of glomerular injury: progression to glomerulosclerosis or resolution and repair. ...
Takahashi Satoru - - 2002
Circulating leukocytes, particularly neutrophils and monocytes, are important effector cells in the induction of many forms of glomerulonephritis. Adhesion molecules, especially selectins, are also thought to be critical for the development of this disease. We examined the possible suppressive effect of soluble E-selectin on the development of experimental lupus nephritis ...
Miyata Toshio - - 2002
Mesangial cells maintain normal glomerular function by mediating ECM remodeling and immune complex disposal. We have recently identified megsin, a novel member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily predominantly expressed in the mesangium. While our previous studies suggested a role for megsin in the pathogenesis of human glomerular diseases, ...
Kataoka Saeko - - 2002
Our previous study demonstrated that the GR is expressed in the human kidney glomerulus. The function of the GR of glomerular cells might be affected by the concentration of intracellular glucocorticoids, which is modulated by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11betaHSD2). Because the expression of 11betaHSD2 in the glomerular cells remains ...
Lange-Sperandio Bärbel - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract obstruction during development leads to tubular atrophy and causes interstitial fibrosis. Macrophage infiltration into the interstitium plays a central role in this process. Selectins, a family of three adhesion molecules, are involved in leukocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation and immune activity. We investigated the role of ...
Hayashi Matsuhiko - - 2002
Apoptosis is an important process for organogenesis and tissue remodelling in various normal and pathological conditions. In the apoptotic pathway, caspases play central roles, and have been studied extensively in the past decade, while their roles in renal development and organogenesis have not been elucidated yet. To reveal the roles ...
Wagner Juergen - - 2002
Cytokine-driven proliferation and inflammation play important roles in the response of the kidney to injury and precede the development of glomerulosclerosis. There is great interest in agents which may interfere with such proliferation and inflammation. Therefore, a rat model of mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis was studied and the effects of all-trans retinoid ...
Woolf Adrian S - - 2002
As metanephric mesenchyme converts into nephrons, the first step is aggregation into a 'condensate'. Precursors inside this structure are proliferative and have a low rate of apoptosis, accompanied by expression of PAX-2 and BCL-2 survival molecules; conversely, cells at the borders of the structure have a high rate of apoptosis, ...
Gerth Jens H - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) is characterized by proliferation of tubular and interstitial cells, and infiltration of the renal parenchyma with macrophages/monocytes. These alterations lead ultimately to tubulointerstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. Some of these changes are caused by an activated renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We have previously demonstrated that angiotensin ...
Buemi Michele - - 2002
Thanks to the administration of hypocholesterolemic drugs, important advances have been made in the treatment of patients with progressive renal disease. In vitro and in vivo findings demonstrate that statins, the inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, can provide protection against kidney diseases characterized by inflammation and/or enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells ...
Bard Jonathan B L - - 2002
Because the kidney (metanephros) starts to function before completing development, its patterning and morphogenesis need to be closely integrated with its growth. This is achieved by blast cells at the kidney periphery generating new nephrons that link up to the extending collecting-duct arborisation, while earlier-formed and more internal nephrons are ...
Baker R J - - 2001
Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) is the principal cause of late renal allograft failure. This complex process is multifactorial in origin, and there is good evidence for immune-mediated effects. The immune contribution to this process is directed by CD4(+) T cells, which can be activated by either direct or indirect pathways ...
Taneda S - - 2001
Mixed cryoglobulins are complexes of immunoglobulins that reversibly precipitate in the cold and lead to a systemic disease in humans. Renal involvement usually manifests as a membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with marked monocyte infiltration and, at times, intracapillary thrombi. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a recently cloned cytokine that supports differentiation and ...
Cao Z - - 2001
The renin angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in tubulointerstitial injury in a range of clinical and experimental settings. Angiotensin II, the major effector molecule of the RAS, in addition to its effects on systemic blood pressure and intrarenal hemodynamics, also acts as a local hormone and growth factor to ...
Lai P C - - 2001
Interleukin-11 (IL-11) is a multifuctional cytokine with anti-inflammatory activity. The effect of IL-11 was studied in an experimental model of necrotizing glomerulonephritis induced in Wistar Kyoto rats by an injection of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody (nephrotoxic serum). Intraperitoneal injection was chosen as the route of IL-11 administration in all experiments. ...
Ray P E - - 2001
The term hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) was first introduced to describe a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. Substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of HUS. This article reviews some of the classic and new ...
Duffield J S - - 2001
Activated macrophages (M(phi)) isolated from inflamed glomeruli or generated by interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide treatment in vitro induce glomerular mesangial cell apoptosis by hitherto incompletely understood mechanisms. In this report we demonstrate that nitric oxide-independent killing of co-cultured mesangial cells by interferon-gamma/lipopolysaccharide-activated M(phi) is suppressed by binding/ingestion of apoptotic cells and ...
De Greef K E - - 2001
Blocking the costimulatory pathway by CTLA-4 Ig, reactive with both B7-1 and B7-2 costimulatory molecules, protects the kidney during acute ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study investigated whether and how B7-1 and/or B7-2 proteins are involved in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Uninephrectomized rats were submitted to warm renal ischemia (30 min) and ...
Spicer S T - - 2001
The role of IL-4, a key Th2 cytokine, in promoting or inhibiting active Heymann nephritis (HN) was examined. HN is induced by immunization with Fx1A in CFA, and proteinuria in HN is associated with subepithelial IgG and C3 deposition and infiltration of CD8(+) T-cytotoxic 1 (Tc1) cells and macrophages into ...
Sato W - - 2001
Midkine (MK) is a multifunctional heparin-binding protein and promotes migration of neutrophils, macrophages, and neurons. In the normal mouse kidney, MK is expressed in the proximal tubules. After renal ischemic reperfusion injury, its expression in proximal tubules was increased. Immediate increase of MK expression was found when renal proximal tubular ...
Mezzano S A - - 2001
Angiotensin (Ang) II, the main peptide of the renin angiotensin system (RAS), is a renal growth factor, inducing hyperplasia/hypertrophy depending on the cell type. This vasoactive peptide activates mesangial and tubular cells and interstitial fibroblasts, increasing the expression and synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. Some of these effects seem to ...
Pesanti E L - - 2001
Patients with chronic renal failure suffer from defective host defenses which are directly the result of the renal impairment, in addition to those dependent on the primary illness leading to the renal failure. The mechanisms underlying the defective responses in phagocytic cells, lymphocytes and antigen processing are likely due to ...
Lin Y - - 2001
Epithelial-mesenchymal tissue interactions play a central role in vertebrate organogenesis, but the molecular mediators and mechanisms of these morphogenetic interactions are still not well characterized. We report here on the expression pattern of Wnt-2b during mouse organogenesis and on tests of its function in epithelial- mesenchymal interactions during kidney development. ...
de Water R - - 2001
Deposition of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals in the renal interstitium is common in humans with primary oxalosis and secondary hyperoxaluria, as well as in kidneys of rats with CaOx nephrolithiasis. In vivo, macrophages and multinucleated giant cells mostly encapsulate these crystals. To investigate whether macrophages are able to dispose of ...
Isbel N M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Macrophage accumulation is a prominent feature in many forms of glomerulonephritis. Local proliferation of macrophages within the kidney has been described in human and experimental glomerulonephritis and may have an important role in augmenting the inflammatory response. The current study examined the relationship between local macrophage proliferation and renal ...
Suyama K - - 2001
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Activator protein-2 (AP-2) is an important transcription factor for activation of growth- and inflammatory-associated genes. To detect AP-2 in the mesangium, the expression level of AP-2 was examined in cultured mesangial cells in response to various cytokines and prostaglandins. The level was also observed in kidney tissue samples obtained ...
Stevenson F T - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Hyperlipidemia accelerates the progression of glomerular disease, and lipoproteins bind glomerular mesangial cells (MC) and induce proliferation and cytokine expression. In the vessel wall, the binding of lipoproteins to endothelial cells is markedly enhanced by lipoprotein lipase (LpL), synthesized by the underlying smooth muscle cells. While it is known ...
Heyderman R S - - 2001
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), which is caused by Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli, is the commonest cause of acute renal failure in childhood. It is widely believed that HUS develops following the release of Stx, an AB5 toxin that inhibits protein synthesis and has a direct toxic effect on the ...
Rodríguez-Iturbe B - - 2001
Renal infiltration with macrophages and monocytes is a well-recognized feature of not only immune, but also nonimmune kidney disease. This review focuses on the investigations that have shown accumulation of immunocompetent cells in experimental models of acute and chronic ischemia, protein overload, hypercholesterolemia, renal ablation, obstructive uropathy, polycystic kidney disease, ...
Tinaztepe K - - 2001
Apoptosis, a programmed form of cell death, is an important mechanism that maintains cellular homeostasis. The cellular content of tissues is regulated by a balance between cell proliferation and cell loss. Apoptosis is important not only in physiological conditions but in pathological processes as well. Apoptosis has been implicated in ...
Lavaud S - - 2001
We examined the role of inflammation in the development of renal interstitial fibrosis in Zucker obese rats, which rapidly present kidney lesions in the absence of hypertension and hyperglycemia. Type I and III collagens were quantified using a polarized light and computer-assisted image analyzer. The expression of mRNA encoding matrix ...
Miyajima A - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The obstructed kidney in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) is characterized by renal atrophy and tissue loss, which is mediated by renal tubular apoptosis. We sought to determine whether NO is involved in renal tubular apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Rat renal tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E) were subjected ...
Varlam D E - - 2001
The aim of this study was to investigate whether apoptosis contributes to nephrotoxicity caused by amphotericin B (AmB). By detecting apoptosis-specific DNA fragmentation, it is demonstrated that proximal tubular cells (LLC-PK(1)) and medullary interstitial cells (RMIC) respond with programmed cell death when treated with therapeutic doses of AmB. Concomitant application ...
Rovin B H - - 2001
Leukocyte recruitment to the kidney in immune complex disease like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is mediated in part by local expression of chemokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Recent studies from this laboratory demonstrated that cross-linking Fc gammaR on lymphocytes causes release of a soluble factor that induces monocyte ...
Balint E - - 2001
Renal osteodystrophy is the major cause of skeletal morbidity in dialysis patients. It is characterized by beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)M) amyloid deposition at the osteoarticular sites and a destructive arthropathy. beta(2)M is present on the surface of all nucleated cells as the small extracellular subunit of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class ...
Yang B - - 2001
The caspase family is central to the proteolytic events of apoptosis. In particular, caspase-3 plays a key role in the execution of apoptosis. However, the importance of caspase-3 in renal cell apoptosis during kidney scarring has not been established. Here, nephrotoxic nephritis (NTN) was induced in Wistar Kyoto rats by ...
Roos A - - 2001
Renal diseases are in many cases associated with the presence of increased numbers of apoptotic cells in the kidney. Apoptosis has been proposed as an important mechanism involved in the resolution of a proliferative response. Furthermore, recent studies indicate its possible involvement in progression of renal disease, leading to sclerosis. ...
Rana A - - 2001
Acute renal failure (ARF) can be defined as a sudden loss of renal function and is a common and serious clinical problem. There are many causes of ARF but the most common cause results from injury to the renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs). RTECs can be injured by schemia or ...
Parry R G - - 2001
Visceral glomerular epithelial cells (GECs) are involved in the maintenance of the filtration barrier and may play a role in immune responses. Cytokines may act on GECs and we wished to test this in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a specific product of the GEC that may play ...
Nikolic-Paterson D J - - 2001
Macrophage accumulation is a prominent feature in most types of human glomerulonephritis. In particular, tubulointerstitial macrophage accumulation correlates with the degree of renal dysfunction and is predictive of disease progression. Depletion studies have shown that macrophages can induce glomerular injury in experimental glomerulonephritis. Moreover, recent studies targeting chemokines and adhesion ...
Antus B - - 2001
It has been recently recognized that besides its vasoactive actions Angiotensin II (Ang II) exerts various immunomodulatory effects that may contribute to renal injury and to the progression of renal disease. Consistent with this concept, Ang II facilitates macrophage recruitment into the kidney either directly or through the-upregulation of different ...
Manzano V M - - 2000
Mesangial cells play an active role in the inflammatory response to glomerular injury. We have studied in cultured human mesangial cells (CHMC) several effects of 9-cis retinoic acid (9-cRA), an activator of both retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs). 9-cRA inhibited foetal calf serum-induced CHMC proliferation. It ...
Eddy A A - - 2000
All progressive renal diseases are the consequence of a process of destructive fibrosis. This review will focus on tubulointerstitial fibrosis, the pathophysiology of which will be divided into four arbitrary phases. First is the cellular activation and injury phase. The tubules are activated, the peritubular capillary endothelium facilitates migration of ...
Tsuchiyama Y - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Galectins are characterized by specific affinity for beta-galactoside sugars, and they play a role in diverse biological processes, including cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Galectin-1, -3, and -9 have been implicated in modulating the immune response. METHODS: Nephrotoxic serum nephritis, which is characterized by crescent formation and glomerular ...
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