Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 762
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Horiuchi Seikoh - - 2005
The pathological significance of advanced glycation end product (AGE)-modified proteins deposited in several lesions is generally accounted for by their cellular interaction via the AGE receptors and subsequent acceleration of the inflammatory process. In this study, we focused on two AGE receptors-specifically, the role of SR-A in pathogenesis of diabetic ...
Nüsing Rolf M - - 2005
The renal potassium channel ROMK is a crucial element of K+ recycling and secretion in the distal tubule and the collecting duct system. Mutations in the ROMK gene (KCNJ1) lead to hyperprostaglandin E syndrome/antenatal Bartter syndrome, a life-threatening hypokalemic disorder of the newborn. The localization of ROMK channel protein, however, ...
Javaid Basit - - 2005
Glomerulonephritis refers to a collection of primary renal disorders and those secondary to a systemic disease, all characterized by inflammation within the glomerulus. Given the underlying immunologic nature of these disorders, they are routinely treated with corticosteriods and various cytotoxic agents. Although in many instances such therapies are successful, they ...
Weichhart Thomas - - 2005
Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) is exclusively produced by renal tubular cells of the distal loop of Henle and is the most abundant urinary protein in mammals. The physiological function of THP has remained elusive for over half a century; however, new lines of research position it as a central antimicrobial molecule ...
Vielhauer Volker - - 2005
TNF is essential for the development of glomerulonephritis, an immune-mediated disorder that is a major cause of renal failure worldwide. However, TNF has proinflammatory and immunosuppressive properties that may segregate at the level of the 2 TNF receptors (TNFRs), TNFR1 and TNFR2. TNFR1-deficient mice subjected to immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis developed ...
Nangaku Masaomi - - 2005
The pathogenesis of membranous nephropathy (MN) involves in situ formation of subepithelial immune deposits that produce glomerular injury by damaging and/or activating podocytes through complement-dependent processes. C5b-9 formation and insertion into podocyte cell membranes causes glomerular injury in MN. C5b-9 in sublytic quantities stimulates podocytes to produce proteases, oxidants, prostanoids, ...
Patole Prashant S - - 2005
How viral infections trigger autoimmunity is poorly understood. A role for Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) was hypothesized in this context as viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) activates dendritic cells to secrete type I interferons and cytokines that are known to be associated with the disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). ...
Hagiwara Shinji - - 2005
A 57-year-old woman with pulmonary sarcoidosis was admitted to the hospital because of an elevation of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. On admission, the laboratory data suggested interstitial nephritis without proteinuria and hematuria, whereas a renal biopsy showed granulomatous interstitial nephritis and mild mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis. Immunoglobulin and C1q ...
Thomas John C - - 2005
Advances in molecular biology have provided valuable insight into the development of the urinary tract, particularly ureteral bud formation. Reciprocal inductive signals between the ureteral bud and growing kidney are crucial for normal development. The Wolffian duct serves as the site of origin of the ureteral bud and forms distal ...
Gaedeke Jens - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of proteins, shares many biological features with the pro-fibrotic cytokine TGF-beta1, which is primarily responsible for the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in renal disease. This study was designed to identify regulators of activin A production in glomerular ...
Kriz Wilhelm - - 2005
Studies of glomerular diseases in animal models show that progression toward nephron loss starts with extracapillary lesions, whereby podocytes play the central role. If injuries remain bound within the endocapillary compartment, they will undergo recovery or be repaired by scaring. Degenerative, inflammatory and dysregulative mechanisms leading to nephron loss are ...
Dean Elizabeth G - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Goodpasture's disease [antiglomerular basement membrane (GBM) glomerulonephritis] is a classic autoimmune disease and the only organ-specific autoimmune renal disease in which the antigen is well described. The importance of antibodies against the non-collagenous domain of the alpha3 chain of type IV collagen [alpha3(IV)NC1] is well established. However, observational human ...
Nakajou K - - 2005
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glomerular mesangial expansion is a characteristic feature of diabetic nephropathy, and the accumulation of AGE in the mesangial lesion has been implicated as one of its potential causes. However, the route for the AGE accumulation in mesangial lesions in diabetic patients is poorly established. METHODS: Glycolaldehyde-modified BSA (GA-BSA) and ...
Hirschberg Raimund - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are ongoing debates as to the role and mechanisms of proteinuria in tubulointerstitial fibrogenesis. Moreover, recent experimental findings have allowed for further insights into mediators and interactions between cells in the renal interstitium during fibrogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Proteinuria or albuminuria are likely just markers for the ...
Ortiz Alberto - - 2005
Cidofovir is an antiviral drug with activity against a wide array of DNA viruses including poxvirus. The therapeutic use of cidofovir is marred by a dose-limiting side effect, nephrotoxicity, leading to proximal tubular cell injury and acute renal failure. Treatment with cidofovir requires the routine use of prophylactic measures. A ...
Tipping Peter G - - 2005
The pro-inflammatory contributions of leukocytes, particularly macrophages and T cells, to the immunopathogenesis of proliferative forms of glomerulonephritis (GN) have been clearly established by various techniques, including in vivo depletion studies in experimental models. The evidence for an active pro-inflammatory role for intrinsic renal cells in GN has relied on ...
Lee Seung Hun - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) protects neurons and cardiomyocytes from acute insults. We investigated the protective effect of rHuEPO on cyclosporine (CsA)-induced renal injury. METHODS: CsA (15 mg/kg/day) was given to rats for 1 or 4 weeks, and rHuEPO was concurrently administered at a dose of 100 ...
Lee So Young - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced nephrotoxicity has been known to be secondary to hemodynamic changes, but increasing evidence indicates that CsA has a direct toxicity to renal tubular cells, leading to their apoptosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. This study evaluated the mechanism for CsA-induced tubular cell apoptosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis ...
Lang Andreas - - 2005
Heat shock proteins (Hsp) are ubiquitous intracellular proteins that can be released in various forms of cellular stress. Some Hsp, such as Hsp60, have been shown to stimulate directly T cell-mediated immune responses in vitro. Here, it is demonstrated that Hsp60 is released from the kidneys and excreted into the ...
Xu Qihe - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Retinoids, a family of vitamin A metabolites or analogs, play an important role in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. METHODS: The biological importance of retinoids in the kidney and the potential of retinoids in the treatment of renal diseases are reviewed. RESULTS: Vitamin A deficiency and mutations of ...
Yanagita Motoko - - 2004
The product of growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) is a unique vitamin K-dependent autocrine growth factor for mesangial cells, and warfarin inhibits mesangial cell proliferation by interfering with the activation process of Gas6. A recent series of studies has revealed the in vivo roles of Gas6 and its receptor Axl ...
Kuki Kiyonori - - 2004
Our study hypothesized that cytokines or chemokines induced in tonsils by infectious stimulations play an important role on the exacerbation of the glomerular injuries in patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Tonsils from six patients with IgAN diagnosed by renal biopsy were studied after getting their written informed consents Tonsils from ...
Comoli Patrizia - - 2004
Failure to mount or maintain a protective immune response may influence the development of polyomavirus BK (BKV)-associated nephropathy (PVAN). However, limited data are so far available on BKV-specific immunity after kidney transplantation. BKV-specific cellular immune response was retrospectively analyzed in kidney recipients with or without BKV infection/reactivation by measuring the ...
Heeringa Peter - - 2004
Vasculitis is inflammation of blood vessels and can affect any type of vessel in any organ. Pulmonary vasculitis usually is a component of a systemic small vessel vasculitis. Three major forms of small vessel vasculitis that often affect the lungs are Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome. These forms ...
Kairaitis Lukas Karolis - - 2005
Cellular hypoxia has been proposed as a major factor in the pathogenesis of chronic renal injury, yet to date there has been no direct evidence to support its importance. Therefore, we examined cortical hypoxia in an animal model of chronic renal injury (murine adriamycin nephrosis; AN) by assessing nuclear localization ...
Rayman Patricia - - 2004
PURPOSE: We reported that in renal cell carcinoma patients with active disease, T-cell reactions to the tumor-associated antigens MAGE-6 and EphA2 are highly skewed toward TH2-type cytokine responses [interleukin (IL) 5]. Herein, we determined whether tumor-derived products, including gangliosides isolated from renal cell carcinoma patients, participate in the down-regulation of ...
van den Berg José G - - 2004
Idiopathic NS (nephrotic syndrome) is characterized by massive proteinuria, due to a leak in the glomerular barrier to proteins. Genetic defects that affect the function and the composition of the glomerular capillary wall, in particular of the visceral epithelial cells, have recently been recognized as the cause of familial forms ...
Bonventre Joseph V - - 2004
Inflammation plays a major role in the pathophysiology of acute renal failure resulting from ischemia. In this review, we discuss the contribution of endothelial and epithelial cells and leukocytes to this inflammatory response. The roles of cytokines/chemokines in the injury and recovery phase are reviewed. The ability of the mouse ...
Cunningham Malcolm A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Tissue factor initiated glomerular fibrin deposition is an important mediator of injury in crescentic glomerulonephritis. Recent data have suggested noncoagulant roles for tissue factor in inflammation. METHODS: To test the hypothesis that in addition to its effects in initiating coagulation, tissue factor has proinflammatory effects in glomerulonephritis, rabbits given ...
De Mello Walmor C - - 2004
Heart failure, which is classically described as a pathologic process characterized by a decline of heart contractility, involves a complex set of alterations like the release of inflammatory cytokines, endothelin, angiotensin II and aldosterone. These abnormalities cause appreciable changes at cellular and molecular levels with consequent impairment of cell coupling, ...
Friedewald John J - - 2004
Ischemic acute renal failure (ARF) is increasingly recognized as involving a complex cascade of mechanisms with both acute and chronic consequences. Attention to nontraditional mediators of ARF such as inflammatory pathways and microvascular events has yielded new paradigms and avenues of research. The initiation phase of renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury ...
Kluth David C - - 2004
Macrophage infiltration is a common feature of renal disease and their presence has been synonymous with tissue damage and progressive renal failure. More recently work has focused on the heterogeneity of macrophage activation and in particular their ability to curtail inflammation and restore normal function. This has led to the ...
Michel Jean-Baptiste - - 2004
In the present issue of Clinical Science, Brown and co-workers report preliminary results of Ang I (angiotensin I) immunization in humans. They demonstrate the presence of antibodies in human plasma and report that the procedure is well tolerated, but the blood pressure does not fall. The first attempts to actively ...
Kone Bruce C - - 2004
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous free radical that serves cell signaling, cellular energetics, host defense, and inflammatory functions in virtually all cells. In the kidney and vasculature, NO plays fundamental roles in the control of systemic and intrarenal hemodynamics, the tubuloglomerular feedback response, pressure natriuresis, release of sympathetic neurotransmitters ...
Yang An Hang - - 2004
While diffuse mesangial sclerosis is traditionally described as being the glomerulopathy of Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS), the podocyte proliferative lesions may be overlooked in these DDS cases. In the present study, an evolving process is extrapolated from a selected case of DDS that demonstrated glomerulopathy with conspicuous podocyte proliferation. The observation ...
Trachtman Howard - - 2004
Glomerulonephritis is a common clinical condition that is caused by immune-mediated injury to the kidney and is characterized by dysfunction of the glomerular capillary filtration barrier. Nitric oxide (NO), a ubiquitous molecule with many biological functions throughout the body, has been evaluated as an inflammatory mediator in these circumstances. NO ...
Kanellis John J Department of Nephrology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. - - 2004
A basic conservation of cell migration guidance mechanisms in the nervous and immune systems was proposed when Slit, known for its role in axon guidance, was found to inhibit chemokine-induced leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro. These studies examined the role of Slit2 in modulating inflammation in vivo. In a rat model ...
Ikezumi Yohei - - 2004
Macrophage accumulation is a prominent feature in most forms of human glomerulonephritis and correlates with renal dysfunction. Macrophages can directly mediate acute renal injury in animal models, but the mechanisms of macrophage activation required for mediating renal injury are unknown. This study examined whether activation of the Jun amino terminal ...
Martínez-Salgado Carlos - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Gentamicin (G)-induced acute renal failure is characterized by an impairment of glomerular function without apparent changes in glomerular structure. However, G stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated mesangial cell proliferation in vitro. We studied whether G promotes mesangial cell apoptosis in vitro, and if apoptosis and proliferation in parallel may ...
Le Hir Michel - - 2004
BACKGROUND: From a diagnostic point of view it would be important to learn more about the relationship between the immune responses underlying glomerulonephritis and the patterns of glomerular lesions. A murine model of anti-GBM glomerulonephritis in which inflammation is driven by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) has been studied extensively. The aim ...
Wilson Heather M - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Macrophage infiltration is a hallmark of all forms of inflammatory and non-inflammatory renal injury. However, the classical view of macrophages as cells that cause injury has been superseded with evidence of their heterogeneous role, i.e. with involvement in all stages of the inflammatory process including tissue repair ...
Kovalenko Pavel - - 2004
Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) glomerulonephritis induced in WKY rats is characterized by glomerular accumulation of CD8(+) T cells and monocytes/macrophages, followed by crescent formation. The mechanism of leukocyte accumulation after antibody binding to GBM is still unclear. To unveil an involvement of Fcgamma receptors (FcgammaR) in leukocytes recruitment we examined ...
Yukawa Kazunori - - 2004
Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine kinase that has been implicated as a positive mediator of apoptosis. However, little is known about the involvement of DAPK in the apoptosis associated with several pathological states, except for cancer. Here, DAPK-mutant mice were used in order to examine the role ...
Hertig Alexandre - - 2004
In the past decade, numerous experimental studies of genetically engineered mice have confirmed the involvement of the coagulation/fibrinolysis system during glomerular inflammation and repair, revealing many unexpected biologic effects far beyond fibrin formation and clearance. Resident glomerular cells and macrophages seem to act in concert to ensure the long-term consolidation ...
Sekine Hideharu - - 2004
Lupus nephritis is characterized by immune complex deposition and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the kidney including Ab-producing cells (AbPCs). Although AbPCs play a central role in the pathogenesis of immune complex glomerulonephritis in lupus, the specificity and pathogenic role of AbPCs infiltrating into the kidneys in lupus are poorly ...
Julian Bruce A - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The elution of nephrectomy specimens from patients with IgA nephropathy yields IgA1 with galactose-deficient glycans in the hinge region. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the role of the aberrant immunoglobulin in the pathogenesis of this form of glomerulonephritis. In the absence ...
Mitchell Derick - - 2004
Lipoxins (LX) are endogenously produced eicosanoids with a spectrum of bioactions that suggest anti-inflammatory, pro-resolution roles for these agents. Mesangial cell (MC) proliferation plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of glomerular inflammation and is coupled to sclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. We have previously reported that LXA4 acts through a ...
Lameire Norbert H - - 2004
This chapter summarizes the pathophysiology of ischaemic acute renal failure from both the experimental and clinical points of view. Traditionally, the abrupt fall in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is thought to be due to an interplay of haemodynamic and tubular abnormalities. The intrarenal haemodynamic alterations include renal vasoconstriction, leukocyte-endothelium interactions ...
Tramontano Alfonso - - 2004
Active Heymann nephritis (AHN), a rat model of autoimmune glomerulonephritis, is induced by immunization with autologous megalin, a 600-kDa cell surface glycoprotein isolated from crude renal extracts. Recombinant proteins containing a 563-residue N-terminal sequence of megalin were obtained from Escherichia coli and baculovirus-insect cell expression systems. Rats immunized with the ...
Zoja Carla - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Insight into the mechanisms underlying the progression of chronic proteinuric nephropathies has attracted the interest of the renal community in the last two decades. Systemic hypertension, proteinuria, cytokines and growth factors, and reactive oxygen species have all been implicated. Reviewed here are the determinants of tubulointerstitial injury; ...
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