Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 762
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Shinojima Toshiaki - - 2007
Recent efforts have been aimed at targeting the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-mediated hypoxia-induced gene pathway for renal cell carcinomas (RCC) therapy. Among the various genes induced by HIF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the critical mediators in angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. To date, however, limited information ...
Kellner Daniel - - 2006
PURPOSE: Unilateral ureteral obstruction is characterized by histopathological changes including interstitial fibrosis, fibroblast specific protein expression, tubular atrophy and apoptosis, and macrophage infiltration. Angiotensin II has been implicated in some of these changes. We examined the effect of angiotensin blockade on markers of renal injury, including fibroblast specific protein expression, ...
Gautam Amitabh - - 2006
The first-line treatment for PTLD is reduction in immunosuppression, allowing partial reconstitution of cell-mediated immunity. However, there is a risk of inducing acute allograft rejection during clinical resolution of PTLD. A recently available assay, Immuknow, measures the cell-mediated immune response and could be used to monitor reduction of immunosuppression. We ...
Moriguchi Takashi - - 2006
MafB is a member of the large Maf family of transcription factors that share similar basic region/leucine zipper DNA binding motifs and N-terminal activation domains. Although it is well known that MafB is specifically expressed in glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes) and macrophages, characterization of the null mutant phenotype in these ...
Griffin Siân V - - 2006
The limited regenerative capacity of the glomerular podocyte following injury underlies the development of glomerulosclerosis and progressive renal failure in a diverse range of kidney diseases. We discovered that, in the kidney, cyclin I is uniquely expressed in the glomerular podocyte, and have constructed cyclin I knock-out mice to explore ...
Xing C-Y CY Academic Renal Unit, University of Bristol, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, - - 2006
Glucocorticoids are widely used in the treatment of human glomerular diseases, but their mode of action is poorly understood particularly in steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome, which is most common in childhood and is characterized by a lack of inflammation in the kidney. The podocyte is a key cell in the glomerulus ...
Chen C G - - 2006
The cph1/cph1 efg1/efg1 Candida albicans mutant cells were non-lethal in a mouse model of systemic infection. We investigated in vivo proliferation and invasion of C. albicans cells in infected mice to elucidate the interaction between the host and the pathogen. Homogenates of kidneys from the mice infected with the wild-type ...
Declèves Anne-Emilie - - 2006
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the kidney involves hemodynamic and cellular dysfunctions as well as leukocyte infiltration. Functional recovery occurs via cell proliferation and/or migration. To determine the roles of hyaluronan (HA) and its main receptor CD44 in renal postischemic processes, we compared their localization and expression with that of neutrophils, ...
Ruth Amanda-Jane - - 2006
Most humans with microscopic polyarteritis and anti-myeloperoxidase (anti-MPO), anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) develop "pauci-immune" crescentic glomerulonephritis. For dissection of the roles of ANCA and cell-mediated effectors in microscopic polyarteritis, experimental autoimmune anti-MPO glomerulonephritis was induced by immunizing C57BL/6 mice with human MPO. Autoimmunity to mouse MPO (ANCA and CD4+ cell ...
Zheng Ling - - 2006
The mechanism of renal cell apoptosis involves transcriptional activation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene by nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB. The role of apoptosis in mediating tubulointerstitial injury in human lupus nephritis (LN) remains unclear. We examined the relationship between alterations in NF-kappaB activation and iNOS expression levels and ...
Liu Bi-Cheng - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) plays a key role in tissue fibrosis including renal scarring. While studies showed several forms of CTGF with 10-38 kDa in the body fluids, little is known about these small molecule species. We investigated the effect of a 10 ...
Pawluczyk Izabella Z A - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The sympathetic nervous system is frequently activated in hypertension and may modify various aspects of renal function. Whether modulation of the sympathetic nervous system directly influences the development of renal fibrosis is yet to be established. The current study investigates the role of the alpha-1 adrenoceptor on human mesangial ...
Ortega Arantxa - - 2006
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is shortly upregulated in acute renal injury, but its pathophysiologic role is unclear. Investigated was whether PTHrP might act as a profibrogenic factor in mice that do or do not overexpress PTHrP in the proximal tubule after folic acid (FA) nephrotoxicity, a model of acute renal ...
Kettritz R - - 2006
AIMS: Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are detected in most patients with crescentic glomerulonephritis and necrotizing small vessel vasculitis. ANCA cause renal inflammation and proliferation. Apoptosis is necessary for resolution of inflammation. We studied apoptosis, apoptosis-regulating proteins, proliferation and infiltration with ANCA target antigen containing neutrophils and monocytes in renal biopsies ...
Zoja Carla - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney diseases are emerging as a worldwide public health problem. Clarification of the mechanisms underlying progression of proteinuric nephropathies received significant input from the generation of transgenic and knockout animals and from novel approaches to block mediators of injury. Reviewed here are advances in animal models ...
Chevalier Robert L - - 2006
Obstructive nephropathy is a major cause of renal failure, particularly in infants and children. Cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the progression of the tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis-processes that lead to nephron loss-have been elucidated in the past 5 years. Following urinary tract obstruction and tubular dilatation, a cascade ...
Hayakawa Kunihiro - - 2006
Macrophage-mesangial cell interaction plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis. Activated macrophages trigger mesangial cells to express an array of inflammation-associated genes via activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1. However, this inflammatory response is often transient and subsides spontaneously. We found that mesangial cells activated by bystander macrophages showed ...
Fiorina Paolo - - 2006
Chemokines play a major role in the recruitment of leukocytes in inflammation and in the regulation of T helper 1 (Th1)/Th2 immune responses. These mechanisms have been recognized to be important in the pathogenesis of renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. The interaction of the CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) receptor with ...
Yung S - - 2006
The mechanism by which anti-DNA antibodies contribute to the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis (LN) remains to be fully elucidated. Hyaluronan (HA) is an important extracellular matrix constituent that accumulates during tissue injury, and participates in lymphocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation. The role of HA in the pathogenesis of LN ...
Hughes J - - 2006
The work of Lange-Sperandio et al in this issue explores the differential role of beta2 integrins in promoting the macrophage infiltration characteristic of the obstructed kidneys of neonatal mice. Future work is needed to define factors that regulate macrophage death within or emigration from the kidney as well as to ...
Millar I D - - 2006
K(+) channels play an important role in renal collecting duct cell function. The current study examined barium (Ba(2+))-sensitive whole-cell K(+) currents (IKBa) in mouse isolated collecting duct principal cells. IKBa demonstrated strong inward rectification and was inhibited by Ba(2+) in a dose- and voltage-dependent fashion, with the K (d) decreasing ...
Watson Simon - - 2006
Glomerulonephritis (GN) is a form of autoimmunity in which apoptosis may be a double-edged sword. Resolution of GN can be promoted by apoptosis of infiltrating leucocytes and excess resident glomerular cells, leading to efficient anti-inflammatory clearance by macrophages and mesangial cells. However, unscheduled apoptosis in glomerular cells, especially epithelial cells ...
Fu Yuyang - - 2006
Innate stimuli are well recognized as adjuvants of the systemic immune response. However, their role in driving end-organ disease is less well understood. Whereas the passive transfer of glomerular-targeting Abs alone elicited minimal renal disease, the concomitant delivery of innate stimuli triggered severe nephritis, characterized by proliferative glomerulonephritis with crescent ...
Abrass Christine K - - 2006
Metabolic syndrome is associated with dyslipidemia, which is thought to contribute in part to the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review discusses the factors that regulate intracellular handling of lipids and their relationship to disordered mesangial cell function. Specific attention is paid to those factors such as fatty ...
Khan S - - 2006
NHE1 is a ubiquitously expressed Na+/H+ exchanger, which is important for vital cell functions. Using in vivo models of kidney podocyte injury and renal tubular epithelial cell (RTC) culture systems, we previously demonstrated that NHE1 defends against apoptosis by a mechanism involving ezrin binding to the NHE1 cytoplasmic domain. We ...
Macdougall I C - - 2005
The anaemia associated with chronic renal failure is multi-factorial. Although a relative erythropoietin deficiency is a major factor, it has also been recognized in recent times that uraemia is a chronic inflammatory state, and thus patients with renal failure also develop anaemia due to mechanisms associated with chronic inflammation. Thus, ...
Ritz Eberhard - - 2005
Among factors related to disturbed calcium-phosphate metabolism in chronic kidney disease, the following must be mainly considered as potential culprits in the progression of renal dysfunction: hyperphosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, lack of active vitamin D, and possibly excess of the phosphaturic hormone FGF 23. Early experimental work suggested a parathyroid hormone (PTH)-independent ...
Rossini Michele - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family has functions in development, cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. While FGF-2 induces fibrosis, the role of FGF-1 in inflammation and fibrosis is less defined. We examined the expression of FGF-1 and FGF receptor (FGFR-1) to determine if renal diseases with varying etiologies of ...
Duann Pu - - 2006
Overproduction of superoxide (O2*) occurs in glomerular disease and may overwhelm the capacity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), thereby intensifying oxidant injury by O2* and related radical species that disrupt the glomerular capillary permeability barrier to protein. We examined the efficacy of the SOD mimetic tempol in preserving glomerular permeability to ...
Le Berre Ludmilla - - 2005
BACKGROUND: At 8 weeks, Buffalo/Mna rats spontaneously develop a nephrotic syndrome associated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). We have previously demonstrated that this glomerulopathy recurs after renal transplantation, thus supporting the relevance of this rat model to human idiopathic nephrotic syndrome [1]. In this study, we describe renal immune abnormalities ...
Rodriguez-Iturbe Bernardo - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Renal tubulointerstitial infiltration of activated T cells and macrophages is invariably present and plays a role in elevation of arterial pressure in nearly all animal models of hypertension (HTN). The role, if any, of elevated renal arterial pressure in the pathogenesis of this inflammatory process is uncertain. Also unclear ...
Duffield Jeremy S - - 2005
The presence of macrophages in inflamed glomeruli of rat kidney correlates with proliferation and apoptosis of resident glomerular mesangial cells. We assessed the contribution of inflammatory macrophages to progressive renal injury in murine crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN). Using a novel transgenic mouse (CD11b-DTR) in which tissue macrophages can be specifically and ...
Vargas Louis - - 2005
PROBLEM: This study was undertaken to evaluate whether the anti-GnRH antibodies and immune complexes (IC) generated by immunization with GnRH-TT cause cellular damage within the animal. METHOD OF STUDY: Chronic immunization of rats with GnRH-TT injected i.m. was followed by tissue/organ analysis for immune complex deposition by immunofluorescence microscopy. Two ...
Tipping P G - - 2005
Glomerulonephritis (GN), the major worldwide cause of chronic renal disease and renal failure, shows a wide spectrum of histological patterns, severity of injury and clinical outcomes that may be related to the nature of the nephritogenic immune response. In the majority of cases, there is evidence of a central role ...
Patel Sanjeevkumar R - - 2005
Fibrosis, and in particular tubulointerstitial fibrosis, is a common feature of almost all chronic renal diseases. Over the past several years, significant progress has been made in defining the underlying mechanisms of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In a variety of mouse models, expression of transforming growth factor-beta is a primary causative factor ...
Eddy Allison A - - 2005
The pathogenic mechanisms that lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD) converge on a common pathway that results in progressive interstitial fibrosis, peritubular capillary loss with hypoxia, and destruction of functioning nephrons because of tubular atrophy. Interstitial recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes and myofibroblasts occurs early in kidneys destined to develop fibrosis. ...
Ikezumi Yohei - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Sialoadhesin (Sn; CD169) is a lectin-like receptor whose expression is restricted to subsets of tissue and inflammatory macrophages. We have previously identified accumulation of Sn+ macrophages as an important marker of disease progression versus remission in rat mesangial proliferative nephritis. The current study examined the significance of Sn+ macrophages ...
Rodgers Karen - - 2005
Lipoxins (LXs), endogenously produced eicosanoids, possess potent anti-inflammatory, pro-resolution bioactivities. We investigated the potential of LXA(4) (1 to 10 nmol/L) to modify the effects of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced gene expression in human renal mesangial cells (hMCs). Using oligonucleotide microarray analysis we profiled pro-fibrotic cytokines and matrix-associated genes induced in ...
Nangaku Masaomi - - 2005
The passive trapping of preformed immune complexes is responsible for some forms of glomerulonephritis that are associated with mesangial or subendothelial deposits. The biochemical characteristics of circulating antigens play important roles in determining the biologic activity of immune complexes in these cases. Examples of circulating immune complex diseases include the ...
Wu Sheng-Hua - - 2005
Studies have implicated that lipoxinA4 (LXA4) inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), Akt/PKB and PI 3-kinase activity and proliferation of glomerular mesangial cells. It is speculated that LXA4 might serve as pro-apoptotic factor. Rat renal interstitial fibroblasts (NRK-49F cells) were exposed to LXA4 in 5% FCS for 24 h. LXA4 at 0.1 ...
Sean Eardley Kevin - - 2005
Macrophages and progressive tubulointerstitial disease. In chronic renal disease, tubulointerstitial inflammation and injury is associated with infiltrating macrophages. As a consequence of primary injury, proteinuria, chronic hypoxia, and glomerular-derived cytokines may all differentially modulate the expression of factors that promote macrophage recruitment. In addition to adhesion molecules and chemokines, products ...
Kiley Susan C - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) markedly attenuates tubular apoptosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in the neonatal rat, and reduces apoptosis induced by mechanical stretch of cultured rat tubular cells. METHODS: To investigate the role of EGF in modulating apoptosis resulting from UUO, neonatal wild type and mutant mice ...
Biju Mangatt P MP Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, 19104-6144, - - 2005
Ischemic acute renal failure is a frequent clinical problem in hospitalized patients and is associated with significant mortality. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) mediates cellular adaptation to hypoxia by regulating biological processes important for cell survival, which include glycolysis, angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, apoptosis, and proliferation. To investigate the role of HIF-1 in ...
Hughes Jeremy - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although glomerular cell apoptosis may be detrimental in acute and chronic inflammation, it is also a key component of the reparative glomerular remodelling that can follow injury. All glomerular cells are vulnerable to apoptosis although there are often differences in the nature of the initiating stimulus and ...
Kuusniemi Arvi-Matti - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Sustained proteinuria is a major factor leading to kidney fibrosis and end-stage renal failure. Tubular epithelial cells are believed to play a crucial role in this process by producing mediators leading to fibrosis and inflammation. Congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type (NPHS1) is a genetic disease caused by ...
Wilson Heather M - - 2005
Infiltrating macrophages (mphi) can cause injury or facilitate repair, depending on how they are activated by the microenvironment. Studies in vitro have defined the roles of individual cytokines and signaling pathways in activation, but little is known about how macrophages integrate the multiple signals they receive in vivo. We inhibited ...
Smith Kelly D - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review considers new information on the pathogenesis of a long recognized and poorly understood form of glomerular injury, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. This disease has received growing attention as it is the principal renal manifestation of hepatitis C virus infection, which has become pandemic worldwide. RECENT FINDINGS: This ...
Odobasic Dragana - - 2005
The participation of renal expression of CD80 and CD86 in the immunopathogenesis of crescentic Th1-mediated anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) glomerulonephritis (GN) has not been assessed. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated prominent upregulation of both molecules in glomeruli of mice with anti-GBM GN, suggesting a potential role for the local expression of CD80 ...
Letavernier Emmanuel - - 2005
Ischemic acute renal failure is characterized by damages to the proximal straight tubule in the outer medulla. Lesions include loss of polarity, shedding into the tubule lumen, and eventually necrotic or apoptotic death of epithelial cells. It was recently shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta) increases keratinocyte survival after ...
Gómez-Guerrero Carmen - - 2005
The mesangium occupies a central anatomical position in the glomerulus, and also plays an important regulatory role in immune-mediated glomerular diseases, with an active participation in the response to local inflammation. In general, the mesangial cell responses to the pathological stimuli are associated with the main events of glomerular injury: ...
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