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Stack Julianne J School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, - - 2014
Detection of microbes by TLRs on the plasma membrane leads to the induction of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, via activation of NF-κB. Alternatively, activation of endosomal TLRs leads to the induction of type I IFNs via IFN regulatory factors (IRFs). TLR4 signaling from the plasma membrane to NF-κB via ...
Li Feng-Jun - - 2014
Lysosomes play important roles in autophagy, not only in autophagosome degradation, but also in autophagy initiation. In Trypanosoma brucei, an early divergent protozoan parasite, we discovered a previously unappreciated function of the acidocalcisome, a lysosome related organelle characterized by acidic pH and large content of Ca(2+) and polyphosphates, in autophagy ...
Li Ruibin R Division of NanoMedicine, Department of Medicine, University of California , 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, California 90095, United - - 2014
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) including multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and rare earth oxide (REO) nanoparticles, which are capable of activating the NLRP3 inflammasome and inducing IL-1β production, have the potential to cause chronic lung toxicity. Although it is known that lysosome damage is an upstream trigger in initiating this pro-inflammatory response, ...
Jain Swati S University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, - - 2014
Prolonged cold storage and re-warming (CS/REW) of kidneys are risk factors for delayed graft function (DGF). Studies in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) have determined apoptosis and autophagy in models of either cold storage (CS) or re-warming alone. The effect of both cold storage and re-warming on apoptosis and autophagy, ...
He Liang L MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (P. R. - - 2014
During autophagy, the intracellular components are captured in autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes for degradation and recycling. Changes in lysosomal trafficking and contents are key events in the regulation of autophagy, which has been implicated in many physiological and pathological processes. In this work, two iridium(III) complexes (LysoIr1 and LysoIr2) ...
Huang Xiao-Jun XJ a Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine & Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University , Guangzhou 510632 , - - 2014
A new ursane-type triterpenoid saponin, flaccidoside IV (1), and three new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, flaccidosides V-VII (2-4), along with 17 known saponins (5-21), were isolated from the rhizomes of Anemone flaccida. The structures of the new triterpenoid saponins were determined based on spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. All the isolated ...
Mella Juan Rodolfo JR Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, 670 Albany Street, Room 441, Boston, MA 02118, USA; # Department of Surgery, Boston University Medical Center, 88 East Newton Street, C515, Boston, MA - - 2014
Considerable breakthroughs in the field of sepsis have been made using animal models. Sepsis exhibits a wide array of derangements that may be evaluated in the blood, including the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The Shock journal adheres to the ARRIVE guidelines regarding reporting in vivo results to allow ...
Hartley Mary-Anne MA Department of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, 1066 Epalinges, - - 2014
Cutaneous leishmaniases have persisted for centuries as chronically disfiguring parasitic infections affecting millions of people across the subtropics. Symptoms range from the more prevalent single, self-healing cutaneous lesion to a persistent, metastatic disease, where ulcerations and granulomatous nodules can affect multiple secondary sites of the skin and delicate facial mucosa, ...
Haulcomb Melissa M MM Neuroscience Program, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois, 60153; Research and Development Service, Hines Veterans Administration Hospital, Hines, Illinois, - - 2014
The target disconnection theory of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis suggests disease onset is initiated by a peripheral pathological event resulting in neuromuscular junction loss and motoneuron (MN) degeneration. Pre-symptomatic mSOD1(G93A) mouse facial MN (FMN) are more susceptible to axotomy-induced cell death than wild-type (WT) FMN, which suggests additional CNS ...
Smith Francis F Graduate Program in Oral and Craniofacial Sciences, The University of California San Francisco, School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA 94143, - - 2013
Craniofacial anomalies can arise from both genetic and environmental factors, including prenatal hypoxia. Recent clinical evidence correlates hypoxia to craniofacial malformations. However, the mechanisms by which hypoxia mediates these defects are not yet understood. We examined the cellular mechanisms underlying malformations induced by hypoxia using a chicken (Gallus gallus) embryo ...
Li Wen-Hwa - - 2013
BACKGROUND: The loss of subcutaneous (sc) fat is associated with aging. Inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 α (IL-1α), interleukin-11 (IL-11) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), are known to inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the potential role of inflammatory cytokines in solar-radiation-induced facial fat loss. METHODS: Cultured ...
Liu Bin B First Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Hebei United University, Tangshan 063000, Hebei Province, - - 2013
We investigated the role of the Wnt signaling pathway in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by examining β-catenin and glycogen synthase kinase-3β protein expression in the rat hippocampal CA1 region following acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Our results demonstrate that cell apoptosis increases in the CA1 region following ischemia/reperfusion. In addition, β-catenin and glycogen ...
Provencio J Javier JJ Department of Neurology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA. - - 2013
Delayed deterioration associated with vasospasm (DDAV) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), (often called vasospasm) continues to be both a difficult entity to treat and a leading cause of morbidity in patients. Until recently, attention was focused on alleviating the vascular spasm. Recent evidence shows that vascular spasm may not account for ...
Bosnar Martina - - 2012
Macrolide antibiotics, like erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin, possess anti-inflammatory properties. These properties are considered fundamental to the efficacy of these three macrolides in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases like diffuse panbronchiolitis and cystic fibrosis. However, long-term treatment with macrolide antibiotics presents a considerable risk for promotion of bacterial resistance. ...
Sun Jin-sheng - - 2012
Thioredoxin (Trx) is a small redox protein existing ubiquitously in all living organisms and plays an important role in multiple cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation and immune response. To date very few studies have been carried out to examine the function of piscine Trx. In this study, we identified and ...
Yang Huan - - 2012
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein with extracellular inflammatory cytokine activity. It is released passively during cell injury and necrosis, and secreted actively by immune cells. HMGB1 contains three conserved redox-sensitive cysteine residues: C23 and C45 can form an intramolecular disulfide bond, whereas C106 is unpaired ...
Mor Adam - - 2011
There is substantial evidence suggesting that the Ras inhibitor farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS) may modulate various aspects of immune function and inflammation in addition to its well known anti-cancer activity. In this regard, we have recently shown that FTS suppresses T lymphocyte-mediated immune responses. Mast cells (MC), the main effector cells ...
Coppo Lucia - - 2011
Inflammation or inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress have often been associated, and thiol antioxidants, particularly glutathione, have often been seen as possible anti-inflammatory mediators. However, whereas several cytokine inhibitors have been approved for drug use in chronic inflammatory diseases, this has not happened with antioxidant molecules. We outline the complexity ...
Balce Dale R - - 2011
Alternatively activated macrophages, generated in a T-helper 2 environment, have demonstrated roles in wound repair and tissue remodeling in addition to being charged with immune tasks. Since the hydrolytic chemistries of the phagosomal lumen are central to many of these functions, we investigated their modification following alternative activation with interleukin-4 ...
Lin Ren-Kuo - - 2011
Studies in animal models have indicated that dietary isothiocyanates (ITCs) exhibit cancer preventive activities through carcinogen detoxification-dependent and -independent mechanisms. The carcinogen detoxification-independent mechanism of cancer prevention by ITCs has been attributed at least in part to their ability to induce apoptosis of transformed (initiated) cells (e.g. through suppression of ...
Aranow Cynthia C Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA. - - 2011
It is now clear that vitamin D has important roles in addition to its classic effects on calcium and bone homeostasis. As the vitamin D receptor is expressed on immune cells (B cells, T cells, and antigen-presenting cells), and these immunologic cells are all capable of synthesizing the active vitamin ...
Lugea Aurelia A Southern California Research Center for ALPD & Cirrhosis, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System and University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA. - - 2011
Alcohol abuse is the leading etiologic factor of pancreatitis, although many heavy drinkers do not develop pancreatic damage. Alcohol promotes pancreatitis through a combination of remote (e.g., increased gut permeability to bacterial products such as lipopolysaccharide) and more proximal effects (e.g., altered pancreatic cholinergic inputs), including oxidative damage at the ...
Nabenishi Hisashi - - 2011
SummaryIn the present study, we investigated the effects of various concentrations of cysteine (0.0, 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 mM) added to the maturation medium on nuclear maturation and subsequent embryonic development of bovine oocytes exposed to heat stress (HS: set at 39.5 °C for 5 h, 40.0 °C for 5 ...
Peng Liang - - 2011
Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction is a critical component in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is one of the factors that induces pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, but the underlying mechanisms have not been well elucidated. In this study, we report that a mitochondrial fission modulator, dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP-1), plays ...
Jin Hai-Tao - - 2011
Background: Overinduced polyamine catabolism (PC) in a transgenic rat model has been suggested to be a mediator of trypsin activation which is important in acinar cell necrosis. PC has also been observed in experimental taurodeoxycholate pancreatitis. We hypothesized that PC may be a mediator of trypsin activation in taurodeoxycholate pancreatitis. ...
Berenger Byron M - - 2011
Recognition of TLR agonists involves a complex interplay among a variety of serum and cell membrane molecules, including mCD14 and sCD14 that is not fully understood. TLR activation results in downstream signaling that induces inflammatory cytokine production in response to pathogenic molecules, such as ExoS, which is a TLR2 and ...
Akbar Nadeem A - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the role of vitamin D in asthma, allergic rhinitis, and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). RECENT FINDINGS: Over the last several years, the role of vitamin D in immunomodulation has been studied and shown to have a significant impact on immune function. A causal relationship exists between ...
Fukuda Akihisa A Diabetes Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, - - 2011
Chronic pancreatitis is a well-known risk factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) development in humans, and inflammation promotes PDA initiation and progression in mouse models of the disease. However, the mechanistic link between inflammatory damage and PDA initiation is unclear. Using a Kras-driven mouse model of PDA, we establish that ...
Chi A - - 2011
Recent studies have reported conflicting data on the association between maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and asthma. To assess the influence of prenatal vitamin D status on immune function at birth. In an inner-city birth cohort of 568 newborns, 520 of whom had at least one atopic parent, ...
Ceyhan G O - - 2011
Background/Aims: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is characterized by premature zymogen activation, systemic inflammatory response resulting in inflammatory infiltrates, sustained intracellular calcium, neurogenic inflammation and pain. The inhibitory neurotransmitter and cytoprotective amino acid glycine exerts a direct inhibitory effect on inflammatory cells, inhibits calcium influx and neuronal activation and therefore represents a ...
Gambhir Vandana V Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, - - 2011
The vitamin D metabolite, 1,25-(OH)ā‚‚Dā‚ƒ, binds the vitamin D receptor (VDR) to exert its regulatory effects at the transcription level. VDR is expressed in professional antigen-presenting cells (pAPCs), such as macrophages (Mø) and dendritic cells (DCs). We show for the first time that the 24-hydroxylase enzyme is activated in bone ...
Gaiser Sebastian S Department of Cancer Biology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2011
Premature intra-acinar activation of trypsinogen is widely considered key for both the initiation of acute pancreatitis and the development of chronic pancreatitis. However, the biological consequences of intracellular trypsinogen activation have not been directly examined. To do so, a new mouse model was developed. Mice were engineered to conditionally express ...
Gupta Monika - - 2011
Spirulina platensis, used worldwide as a food supplement, is a natural source of protein, vitamins, carbohydrates and polyunsaturated fatty acids. C-Phycocyanin (C-Pc), its major biliprotein, is known to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging properties. Our present study showed that treatment with C-Pc protects the rats from Tributyltin (TBT) induced ...
Werner Kristin - - 2011
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most malignant forms of cancer. Due to numerous defects of the apoptosis machinery this tumor shows a high resistance towards conventional oncological therapies. On the level of the extrinsic pathway, signal transduction is flawed by over-expression of decoy receptors but also by a dysfunctional ...
Hoque Rafaz R Section of Digestive Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8019, - - 2011
Acute pancreatitis is characterized by early activation of intracellular proteases followed by acinar cell death and inflammation. Activation of damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) receptors and a cytosolic complex termed the inflammasome initiate forms of inflammation. In this study, we examined whether DAMP-receptors and the inflammasome provide the link between cell ...
McMahon Laura - - 2011
Human gingival epithelial cells (GEC) produce peptides, such as β-defensins and the cathelicidin LL-37, that are both antimicrobial and that modulate the innate immune response. In myeloid and airway epithelial cells, the active form of vitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)] increases the expression and antibacterial activity of LL-37. To examine the activity ...
Wen Hongyan - - 2011
In addition to being important in calcium and phosphorus metabolism, bone formation, and mineralization, vitamin D also plays a part in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Vitamin D receptors are expressed in a number of different tissues, including, and perhaps most notably, on immune cells. The presence or absence of ...
Frossard Jean Louis - - 2011
Background and aims Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of variable severity. Leucocytes are thought to play a key role in the development of pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung injury. The interactions between inflammatory cells and their mediators are crucial for determining tissue damage. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (or CCL-2), CCR-2 and ...
Khoo A-L - - 2011
The immune modulating capacity of vitamin D(3) is well-recognized. Ultra-violet (UV) exposure determines production of vitamin D(3) in vivo and varies through the course of the year, especially in temperate regions. However, it is not known whether the human innate immune response differs due to seasonality. To validate the seasonal ...
Wu Yongzhong - - 2011
Dual oxidase 2 is a member of the NADPH oxidase (Nox) gene family that plays a critical role in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormone as well as in the inflammatory response of the upper airway mucosa and in wound healing, presumably through its ability to generate reactive oxygen species, including ...
Field Sinead - - 2011
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble steroid hormone, which is essential to health and for which epidemiological studies suggest a role in autoimmune disease, infections, cardiovascular disease and cancer. It is ingested in foods such as oily fish and supplements, so that average levels vary between countries, but most individuals worldwide ...
Jaensson-Gyllenbäck E - - 2011
Small intestinal lamina propria (SI-LP) CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) are imprinted with an ability to metabolize vitamin A (retinol), a property underlying their enhanced capacity to induce the gut-homing receptors CC chemokine receptor-9 and α4β7 on responding T cells. In this study, we demonstrate that imprinting of CD103(+) DCs is ...
Ströhle Alexander - - 2011
As explained in the first part of the article, vitamins and trace elements influence various metabolic functions that are directly related to immune function. In this context, secosteroid vitamin D has met with growing interest. The discussion has focused on whether and, if so, to what extent, vitamin D might ...
Ströhle Alexander - - 2011
As elements of the antioxidant system, cofactors of enzymes, components of transcription factors, and epigenetic modulators, micronutrients, such as vitamins and trace elements, influence various metabolic processes that are directly associated with immune functions. Specifically, the vitamins C and D have been shown to have significance immune function. Therefore, the ...
Chambers Emma S - - 2011
Epidemiologic studies highlight the increasing prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency and its association with an increased risk of autoimmune diseases and poor respiratory function, including asthma. These and additional studies have raised interest in the immunomodulatory properties of vitamin D beyond its well-established role in calcium homeostasis and ...
Sato Atsuko - - 2011
Curcumin is a dietary constituent with tumor-suppressing potential, inhibiting various pathways involved in carcinogenesis. However, because of its low bioavailability, the use of curcumin in in vivo trials has been limited. To overcome this problem, we synthesized more than 50 analogs and identified a monoketone analog, GO-Y030, which has a ...
Pastor Catherine M - - 2011
Background/Aims: During acute pancreatitis, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 play a pivotal role in promoting injury in the pancreas and remote organs. IL- 18 is a more recently discovered proinflammatory cytokine whose expression is also increased in serum. However, the profile of IL-18 expression in the pancreas ...
Hewison Martin - - 2011
Interaction between vitamin D and the immune system has been recognized for many years, but its relevance to normal human physiology has only become evident in the past 5 years. Studies of innate immune responses to pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis have shown that pathogen-recognition receptor-mediated activation of localized vitamin ...
Banu Sakhila K SK Department of Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. - - 2011
Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) has been widely used in industries throughout the world. Increased usage of CrVI and atmospheric emission of CrVI from catalytic converters of automobiles, and its improper disposal causes various health hazards including female infertility. Recently we have reported that lactational exposure to CrVI induced a delay/arrest in ...
Wood A M - - 2011
Background Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) genetic polymorphisms have been associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DBP has an indirect role in macrophage activation; thus it was hypothesised that DBP is present in the airway and contributes to lung disease by this mechanism. Methods 471 PiZZ subjects with α1-antitrypsin deficiency ...
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