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Zhu Hongqing - - 2014
BackgroundInflammation is a key etiologic component in atherogenesis and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFß1) is a well known anti-inflammatory cytokine which potentially might be used to limit it. Yet TGFß1 is pleiomorphic, causing fibrosis, cell taxis, and under certain circumstances, can even worsen inflammation. SMAD3 is an important member ...
Richter Juli M JM Center for Perinatal Research, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH 43205, - - 2012
Intestinal epithelial restitution is the first part in the process of mucosal repair after injury in the intestine. Integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier is important as a first line of defense against bacteria and endotoxin. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in extremely-low-birth-weight infants, ...
Rautava Samuli S Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Charlestown, MA 02192-4404, USA. - - 2012
Breast milk transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 is associated with healthy immune maturation and reduced risk of immune-mediated disease in infants. We sought to investigate whether conditioning with TGF-β2 may result in a more mature immune responder phenotype in immature human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Primary human fetal IECs (hFIECs) and ...
Alhamoruni A - - 2012
Activation of cannabinoid receptors decreases emesis, inflammation, gastric acid secretion and intestinal motility. The ability to modulate intestinal permeability in inflammation may be important in therapy aimed at maintaining epithelial barrier integrity. The aim of the present study was to determine whether cannabinoids modulate the increased permeability associated with inflammation ...
Santaolalla Rebeca - - 2012
This article reviews the most recent publications on innate immunity in the small intestine. We will go over the innate immune receptors that act as sensors of microbial presence or cell injury, Paneth cells as the main epithelial cell type that secrete antimicrobial peptides, and mucosal production of immunoglobulin A ...
Kim Minjae M Department of Anesthesiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, NY, - - 2012
This study examined volatile anesthetic-mediated protection against intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Intestinal IRI is a devastating complication in the perioperative period leading to systemic inflammation and multiorgan dysfunction. Volatile anesthetics, including isoflurane, have anti-inflammatory effects. We aimed to determine whether isoflurane, given after intestinal ischemia, protects against intestinal IRI and ...
Wangdi Tamding T Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA - - 2012
The host restricts dissemination of invasive enteric pathogens, such as non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars, by mounting acute inflammatory responses characterized by the recruitment of neutrophils. However, some enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi), can bypass these defenses and cause an invasive bloodstream infection known as typhoid fever. ...
Camuesco D - - 2012
Dersalazine sodium (DS) is a new chemical entity formed by combining, through an azo bond, a potent platelet activating factor (PAF) antagonist (UR-12715) with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). DS has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects on trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats and recently in UC patients in phase ...
Panaro Maria Antonietta - - 2012
Resveratrol, a polyphenol abundantly found in grapes and red wine, exhibits beneficial health effects due to its anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of resveratrol on inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of human intestinal Caco-2 and SW480 cell lines. In the LPS-treated intestinal cells, ...
Bancroft Allison J - - 2012
Mammals, microflora and gut-dwelling macrofauna have co-evolved over many millions of years until relatively recently when the geographical prevalence of macrofauna in humans has become restricted to the developing world. Immune homeostasis relies on a balance in the composition of intestinal microflora; long-lived macrofauna have also been shown to regulate ...
Kohl Kevin D - - 2012
The intestinal microbiota have now been shown to largely affect host health through various functional roles in terms of nutrition, immunity, and other physiological systems. However, the majority of these studies have been carried out in mammalian hosts, which differ in their physiological traits from other taxa. For example, birds ...
Tilg Herbert - - 2012
Cruciform vegetables may be critical to intestinal health and immunity. It turns out that these vegetables contain ligands of the aryl hydrogen receptor which, when bound, turn on genes that mediate intestinal immune defense.
Pukkila-Worley Read R Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. - - 2012
Intestinal epithelial cells provide an essential line of defense for Caernohabditis elegans against ingested pathogens. Because nematodes consume microorganisms as their food source, there has presumably been selection pressure to evolve and maintain immune defense mechanisms within the intestinal epithelium. Here we review recent advances that further define the immune ...
Quinteiro-Filho W M - - 2012
Studies on the environmental consequences of stress are relevant for economic and animal welfare reasons. We recently reported that long-term heat stressors (31 ± 1ºC and 36 ± 1ºC/10 h per day) applied to broiler chickens from d 35 to 42 of life increased serum corticosterone concentrations, decreased performance parameters ...
Hering Nina A - - 2012
Intestinal barrier dysfunction is a main feature of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Leak flux diarrhoea and a facilitated uptake of noxious antigens are the two consequences resulting from an impaired epithelial barrier. Barrier perturbations in IBD comprise alterations in epithelial tight junctions (TJ), i.e. ...
Yang Jun - - 2012
The in vivo immunoadjuvant effects of the combination of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN) and innate defense-regulator peptides (IDRs) have been studied in mice. However, little is known about the efficacy of these molecules in stimulating the innate intestinal immune system in neonatal piglets. In this study, we observed that intranasal ...
McDonald Keely G KG Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, - - 2012
Dendritic cells (DCs) use all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) to promote characteristic intestinal responses, including Foxp3(+) Treg conversion, lymphocyte gut homing molecule expression, and IgA production. How this ability to generate ATRA is conferred to DCs in vivo remains largely unstudied. Here, we observed that among DCs, retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1), which ...
Kusunoki Ryusaku - - 2012
Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8), a glycoprotein secreted from various cells, enhances engulfment of apoptotic cells by forming a link between phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells and α(v)β(3)-integrin on phagocytes. This process is essential for maintaining the host immune system under physiological conditions. Apart from this scavenging function, MFG-E8 ...
Khan Mohammad W - - 2012
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is known for causing disturbed homeostatic balance among the intestinal immune compartment, epithelium and microbiota. Owing to the emergence of IBD as a major cause of morbidity and mortality, great efforts have been put into understanding the sequence of intestinal inflammatory events. Intestinal macrophages and dendritic ...
Macpherson Andrew J - - 2012
Summary:  Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the main secretory immunoglobulin of mucous membranes and is powerfully induced by the presence of commensal microbes in the intestine. B cells undergo class switch recombination to IgA in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues, particularly mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and Peyer's patches, through both T-dependent and ...
McClave Stephen A - - 2012
Severe acute pancreatitis is a disease process distinguished by increasing oxidative stress and potential destruction of the pancreatic gland. An initial injury to the acinar cell initiates a sentinel event, which leads to a vicious cycle of inflammation and cell death by either apoptosis or necrosis. Whether the acute inflammation ...
Chen Y P - - 2012
Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1, isolated from and identified in Taiwanese milk kefir grain, has demonstrated immune-modulating activity. In the present study, we further investigated the effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 on intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in vivo. The possible mechanisms regarding the cytokine ...
Coruzzi Gabriella - - 2012
The location and functional role of histamine H4 receptors (H4Rs) in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) is reviewed, with particular reference to their involvement in the regulation of gastric acid secretion, gastric mucosal defense, intestinal motility and secretion, visceral sensitivity, inflammation, immunity and carcinogenesis. H4Rs have been detected in different cell ...
Goto Yoshiyuki - - 2012
Summary:  Large numbers of environmental antigens, including commensal bacteria and food-derived antigens, constitutively interact with the epithelial layer of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Commensal bacteria peacefully cohabit with the host GI tract and exert multiple beneficial or destructive effects on their host. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) constitute the first physical ...
Baurhoo Bushansingh - - 2012
Salmonella causes acute systemic inflammation by using its virulence factors to invade the intestinal epithelium. But, prolonged inflammation may provoke severe body catabolism and immunological diseases. Salmonella has become more life-threatening due to emergence of multiple-antibiotic resistant strains. Mannose-rich oligosaccharides (MOS) from cells walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown to ...
Kinnebrew Melissa A MA Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, Immunology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, - - 2012
The gastrointestinal system is a common entry point for pathogenic microbes to access the inner environment of the body. Anti-microbial factors produced by the intestinal mucosa limit the translocation of both commensal and pathogenic microbes across the intestinal epithelial cell barrier. The regulation of these host defense mechanisms largely depends ...
Huang Ling - - 2011
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is a 28-amino acid neuropeptide with vasodilator, bronchodilator, and anti-inflammatory effects. But little is known about its pro-inflammatory effects. We investigated the effect of VIP on the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8), two pro-inflammatory cytokines, in TNF-α-activated proximal renal tubular epithelial cell line (HK-2 ...
Kang Sujin - - 2011
The intestinal immune system is constantly challenged by commensal bacteria; therefore, it must maintain quiescence via several regulatory mechanisms. Although intestinal macrophages (Mϕs) have been implicated in repression of excessive inflammation, it remains unclear how their functions are regulated during inflammation. In this study, we report that semaphorin 7A (Sema7A), ...
Rossi Oriana - - 2011
To peacefully coexist with the microbial inhabitants of the intestine, mammals have evolved elaborate and interconnected regulatory mechanisms to maintain immune homeostasis in the face of potential infection and tissue damage by pathogenic microorganisms. Physical barriers, antimicrobial factors and secretory antibodies act in concert to keep microbes at a distance ...
Hummel Stephanie - - 2012
The intestinal ecosystem is balanced by dynamic interactions between resident and incoming microbes, the gastrointestinal barrier, and the mucosal immune system. However, in the context of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), where the integrity of the gastrointestinal barrier is compromised, resident microbes contribute to the development and perpetuation of inflammation and ...
Yan Fang - - 2012
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from dysregulation of intestinal mucosal immune responses to microflora in genetically susceptible hosts. A major challenge for IBD research is to develop new strategies for treating this disease. Berberine, an alkaloid derived from plants, is an alternative medicine for treating bacterial diarrhea and intestinal parasite ...
Schander Artur - - 2012
Lymph stasis can result in edema and the accumulation of particulate matter, exudates, toxins and bacteria in tissue interstitial fluid, leading to inflammation, impaired immune cell trafficking, tissue hypoxia, tissue fibrosis and a variety of diseases. Previously, we demonstrated that osteopathic lymphatic pump techniques (LPTs) significantly increased thoracic and intestinal ...
Tanoue Takeshi - - 2011
CD4(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells expressing the transcription factor forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) play a critical role in maintaining immunological homeostasis. Treg cells are highly abundant in the mouse intestinal lamina propria, particularly in the colon. Recent studies using germ-free and gnotobiotic mice have revealed that specific components of the ...
Tasdemir Seda - - 2011
Inflammatory bowel disease has been linked to elevated T cells. Excessive production of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis are known to be accompanied by intestinal inflammation. This study was designed to investigate the effects of melatonin (MEL) and erythropoietin (EPO), which is a known anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic agent, in dinitrobenzene ...
Liu Zhanju - - 2012
Interleukin (IL)-10 plays an important role in immune regulation in the intestine. Immune deregulation is suggested in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aims to elucidate the role of IL-23 in the suppression of IL-10 in the IBD intestinal mucosa. Surgically removed colon specimens were obtained from ...
Zhang Yongqin - - 2012
ErbB2 and ErbB3 receptor tyrosine kinases are key regulators of proliferation, migration, differentiation and cell survival; however, their roles in gastrointestinal biology remain poorly defined. We hypothesized that ErbB2 and ErbB3 promote colon epithelial cell survival in the context of the wound-healing response following colitis. In this study, mice bearing ...
Pisano Fabio - - 2012
The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Ifp and InvC molecules are putative autotransporter proteins with a high homology to the invasin (InvA) protein. To characterize the function of these surface proteins, we expressed both factors in Escherichia coli K-12 and demonstrated the attachment of Ifp- and InvC-expressing bacteria to human-, mouse-, and pig-derived ...
Castets Marie - - 2011
The role of deleted in colorectal carcinoma (DCC) as a tumour suppressor has been a matter of debate for the past 15 years. DCC gene expression is lost or markedly reduced in the majority of advanced colorectal cancers and, by functioning as a dependence receptor, DCC has been shown to ...
Mariman Rob - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Host-microbiota interactions in the intestinal mucosa play a major role in intestinal immune homeostasis and control the threshold of local inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics in the recurrent trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis model and gain more insight into protective mechanisms. ...
Yao Lu-Ming - - 2011
Cisplatin is a widely used antitumor agent that induces aggressive cancer cell death via triggering cellular proteins involved in apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate that cisplatin effectively induces orphan nuclear receptor TR3 phosphorylation by activating Chk2 kinase activity and promoting cross-talk between these two proteins, thereby contributing to the repression of ...
Chiang Shen-Shih - - 2011
It is well-known that probiotics have a number of beneficial health effects in humans and animals, including the reduction of symptoms in lactose intolerance and enhancement of the bioavailability of nutrients. Probiotics have showed to possess antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic and hypocholesterolemic properties. Further, they were also observed to have antagonistic actions ...
Long Yanqin - - 2011
Background and Aims: Postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) which results from inflammation has been emphasized a lot recently. Dendritic cell (DC) may contribute to intestinal mucosal immune activation in the pathogenesis of PI-IBS. This study tested the hypothesis that phenotype and function of intestinal lamina propria DCs (LPDCs) changed in ...
Kosa P - - 2012
Colitis-associated colorectal cancers are an etiologically distinct subgroup of colon cancers that occur in individuals suffering from inflammatory bowel disease and arise as a consequence of persistent exposure of hyperproliferative epithelial stem cells to an inflammatory microenvironment. An intrinsic defect in the intestinal epithelial barrier has been proposed to be ...
Delgado Mario M Instituto de Parasitologia y Biomedicina, IPBLN-CSIC, Granada, - - 2013
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a 28-amino acid neuropeptide/neurotransmitter, is widely distributed in both the central and peripheral nervous system. VIP is released by both neurons and immune cells. Various cell types, including immune cells, express VIP receptors. VIP has pleiotropic effects as a neurotransmitter, immune regulator, vasodilator and secretagogue. This ...
Geuking M B - - 2011
The large production of immunoglobulin (Ig)A is energetically costly. The fact that evolution retained this apparent luxury of intestinal class switch recombination to IgA within the human population strongly indicates that there must be a critical specific function of IgA for survival of the species. The function of IgA has ...
Hauk V - - 2011
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by a progressive oral and ocular dryness that correlates poorly with the autoimmune damage of the glands. It has been proposed that a loss of homeostatic equilibrium in the glands is partly responsible for salivary dysfunction with acinar cells involved actively ...
Seki Ekihiro E Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC no. 0702, Leichtag Biomedical Research Building, Room no. 118B, La Jolla, CA 92093-0702, USA. - - 2012
Liver fibrosis occurs as a wound-healing scar response following chronic liver inflammation including alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, viral hepatitis, cholestatic liver disease and autoimmune liver diseases. The liver has a unique vascular system within the gastrointestinal tract, as the majority of the liver's blood supply comes from the intestine ...
Blaut Michael - - 2011
The number of microorganisms inhabiting the human digestive tract exceeds the number of body cells by a factor of ten. This microbial community affects host physiology and host health. The metabolic potential of the gut microbiota is immense affording the extraction of energy from otherwise indigestible carbohydrates (dietary fiber) and ...
Mishra Jayshree - - 2012
Sustained damage to the mucosal lining in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) facilitates translocation of intestinal microbes to submucosal immune cells leading to chronic inflammation. Previously, we demonstrated the role of Jak3 in IL-2-induced intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) migration, one of the early events during intestinal wound repair. In ...
Kandulski Arne - - 2011
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) affects 20-30% of the population in Western countries, and is one of the most common clinical problems in daily practice. GERD-associated functional and structural abnormalities are caused by recurrent exposure of the esophagus to acidic and nonacidic refluxate of gastric contents (containing duodenal and intestinal proteases ...
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