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Nishida Atsushi A Molecular Pathology Unit, Center for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, - - 2015
The intestine, which provides the first line of defense against over trillion of enteric microorganisms, suffers from broad range of inflammatory conditions caused by infectious, autoimmune, allergic, neurological, and ischemic mechanisms. Recent data have suggested dual roles (protective versus deleterious) for galectins in the pathogenesis of some intestinal inflammations, highlighting ...
Dagenais Maryse M aDepartments of Biochemistry bMicrobiology and Immunology cMedicine, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, - - 2014
To critically review recent advances on the role of programmed necrosis and other cell death modalities in intestinal health and inflammatory bowel disease. Tight regulation of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and cell death is required for intestinal physiology, and to maintain an integral barrier that restricts microbiota translocation and ensures ...
Kernbauer Elisabeth E aKimmel Center for Biology and Medicine at the Skirball Institute bDepartment of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, - - 2014
To highlight recent findings that identify an essential role for the cellular degradative pathway of autophagy in governing a balanced response to intestinal pathogens and commensals. Following the genetic association of autophagy with inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility, increasing evidence indicates that this pathway functions in various epithelial lineages to support ...
Zhang Feng F Department of General Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning 116023, P.R. - - 2014
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common complication following intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and is a major contributing factor to its high mortality rate. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD+‑dependent deacetylase, has been reported to have an important role in apoptosis inhibition, oxidative stress resistance and cell lifespan extension through its deacetylation ...
Roulis Manolis M Institute of Immunology, Biomedical Sciences Research Center "Alexander Fleming", Vari 16672, Greece; kollias@fleming.gr - - 2014
Tumor progression locus-2 (Tpl2) kinase is a major inflammatory mediator in immune cell types recently found to be genetically associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Here we show that Tpl2 may exert a dominant homeostatic rather than inflammatory function in the intestine mediated specifically by subepithelial intestinal myofibroblasts (IMFs). Mice ...
Zuo Tao T College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Yushan Road 5th, Qingdao, Shandong Province, P.R. - - 2014
Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) is a non-inflammatory antibody that shields internal body surfaces, such as in the intestine to neutralize pathogens in the lumen of the intestine. As chemotherapy seriously damages the mucosal immune system, we herein demonstrated that polysaccharide from the squid ink of Ommastrephes bartrami (OBP) activated intestinal ...
Leslie Jhansi L JL Department of Microbiology and - - 2014
Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of infectious nosocomial diarrhea. The pathogenesis of C. difficile infection (CDI) results from the interactions between the pathogen, the intestinal epithelium, host immune system and the gastrointestinal microbiota. Previous studies of the host-pathogen interaction in CDI have utilized either simple cell monolayers or in ...
Lawrance Ian C IC Centre for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Fremantle Hospital, Fremantle, WA, Australia; University Department of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Fremantle Hospital, Freemantle, WA, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Intestinal fibrosis is a major complication of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and although inflammation is necessary for its development, it would appear that it plays a minor role in its progression as anti-inflammatory treatments in IBD do not prevent fibrosis once it has started. The processes that regulate fibrosis ...
Yang Ying Y State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, People's Republic of - - 2014
The integrity of intestinal barrier is essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Dysfunction of the mucosal barrier is associated with increased gut permeability and development of various gastrointestinal diseases. Aside from serving as substrates for protein biosynthesis, amino acids also maintain the health of ...
Kristek Maja M Immunomodulation Research Group, School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, - - 2014
Intestinal macrophages originate from inflammatory blood monocytes which migrate to the intestine, where they differentiate into anti-inflammatory macrophages through a number of transitional stages. These macrophages typically remain hypo-responsive to commensal bacteria and food Ags in the intestine, yet also retain the ability to react to invading pathogens. In this ...
Bellafante Elena E Fondazione Mario Negri Sud, 66030 Santa Maria Imbaro (Chieti), - - 2014
The mucosa of the small intestine is renewed completely every 3-5 d throughout the entire lifetime by small populations of adult stem cells that are believed to reside in the bottom of the crypts and to migrate and differentiate into all the different populations of intestinal cells. When the cells ...
Read Lisa T LT Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA - - 2014
Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are a significant cause of diarrheal disease and death, especially in children in developing countries. ETEC cause disease by colonizing the small intestine and producing heat-labile toxin (LT), heat-stable toxin (ST), or both LT and ST (LT/ST). The majority of ETEC produce both ST and LT. ...
Olson Alicia A From the Department of Surgery, Wayne State University, Detroit, - - 2014
The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile colitis have increased dramatically in the last decade. Disease severity is related to C. difficile virulence factors, including toxins A and B, as well as the patient's immune status. The intestinal mucus is an important component of innate barrier function in the intestine. ...
Jarry A A EA 4273 Biometadys, Université de Nantes, Faculté de Médecine, Nantes, - - 2014
Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), associated with Crohn's disease, are likely candidate contributory factors in the disease. However, signaling pathways involved in human intestinal mucosa innate host response to AIEC remain unknown. Here we use a 3D model of human intestinal mucosa explant culture to explore the effects of the AIEC ...
Yang Hong-Ling HL The Key Laboratory of Healthy Mariculture for the East China Sea, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries College, Jimei University, Xiamen 361021, PR - - 2014
The health benefits of probiotics are thought to occur, at least in part, through an improved intestinal microbial balance in fish, although the molecular mechanisms whereby probiotics modulate the intestinal microbiota by means of activation of mucosal immunity are rarely explored. In this study, the effects of viable and heat-inactivated ...
Liu Song S *Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, Department of Surgery, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, China; and †Department of Medicine, Gastrointestinal Unit and Center for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, - - 2014
: Interleukin-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) is responsible for both IL-17A and IL-25 (IL-17E) signaling pathways. Current evidences suggest distinct but interactive responses between IL-17A and IL-25 signaling, both of which are critical for intestinal immune homeostasis. IL-17RA is assumed to regulate this counterbalance and therefore becomes a crucial molecule in ...
Muñoz-González Irene - - 2014
In this study, 24 immune markers were analysed in feces from healthy volunteers (n=34) before and after consumption of a red wine (12% ethanol, 1758 mg/L total polyphenols) for 4 weeks. The analysis of the data permitted to differentiate a 6-volunteer subgroup showing unusually high basal values of cytokines. For ...
Bouwman Lieneke I LI Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Utrecht University, 3584 CL Utrecht, the - - 2014
The Gram-negative pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide. The mechanisms that lead to bacterial invasion of eukaryotic cells and massive intestinal inflammation are still unknown. In this study, we report that C. jejuni infection of mouse macrophages induces upregulation of pro-IL-1β transcript and ...
Little Matthew C MC Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, United Kingdom - - 2014
Macrophages (Mφs) accumulate at sites of inflammation, and, because they can assume several functionally distinct states of activation, they can either drive or restrain inflammatory responses. Once believed to depend on the recruitment of blood monocytes, it is now clear that the accumulation of Mφs in some tissues can result ...
Cohen-Kedar Sarit S Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Center, Department of Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases and The Research Center for Digestive Tract and Liver Diseases, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, - - 2014
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are the first to encounter luminal antigens and may be involved in intestinal immune responses. Fungi are important components of the intestinal microflora. The potential role of fungi, and in particular their cell wall component β-glucan, in modulating human intestinal epithelial responses is still unclear. Here ...
Donaldson D S DS The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, - - 2014
Isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs) develop after birth in the small and large intestines (SI and LI) and represent a dynamic response of the gut immune system to the microbiota. Despite their similarities, ILF development in the SI and LI differs on a number of levels. We show that unlike ILF ...
Ray Shuvra S aDepartment of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA bDepartment of Gastroenterology, Guy's and St. Thomas' Hospitals/University College London, London, United - - 2014
Intestinal fibrosis is a serious, yet common, outcome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Despite advances in developing novel treatment modalities to control chronic gut inflammation characteristic of IBD, no effective antifibrotic therapies exist to date. As such, a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying intestinal fibrosis and ...
Gonçalves Pedro P *INSERM (French Institute of Health and Medical Research), Unit 1151, INEM (Research Center in Molecular Medicine); †Faculty of Medicine, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France; ‡Department of Pharmacology, MedInUP, Center for Drug Discovery and Innovative Medicines; §Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; and ‖Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, - - 2014
: Epidemiological studies show that both the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the proportion of people with obesity and/or obesity-associated metabolic syndrome increased markedly in developed countries during the past half century. Obesity is also associated with the development of more active IBD and requirement for hospitalization and ...
Mowat Allan M AM Centre for Immunobiology, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Sir Graeme Davies Building, 120 University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8TA, Scotland, - - 2014
The intestine represents the largest compartment of the immune system. It is continually exposed to antigens and immunomodulatory agents from the diet and the commensal microbiota, and it is the port of entry for many clinically important pathogens. Intestinal immune processes are also increasingly implicated in controlling disease development elsewhere ...
Rodríguez-Yoldi M Jesús MJ Physiology Unit. Dept. of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Zaragoza, 50013, Zaragoza, Spain; CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), - - 2014
A variety of bacteria and their excreted/secreted products having direct effects on epithelial ion transport and permeability and the release of cytokines during bacterial infection may impact directly on epithelial function. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a pleiotropic cytokine that affects the intestinal absorption of nutrients. The aim of this work was ...
Sánchez de Medina Fermín F Departments of *Pharmacology, and †Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, CIBERehd, School of Pharmacy, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.Granada, University of Granada, Granada, - - 2014
: Intestinal mucosal barrier function is the capacity of the intestine to provide adequate containment of luminal microorganisms and molecules while preserving the ability to absorb nutrients. The central element is the epithelial layer, which physically separates the lumen and the internal milieu and is in charge of vectorial transport ...
Stockinger Silvia S Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hospital Epidemiology, Hannover Medical School, D-30625 Hannover, Germany; Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics, University of Veterinary Medicine, 1210 Vienna, - - 2014
Recent results indicate a significant contribution of innate immune signaling to maintain mucosal homeostasis, but the precise underlying signal transduction pathways are ill-defined. By comparative analysis of intestinal epithelial cells isolated from conventionally raised and germ-free mice, as well as animals deficient in the adaptor molecules MyD88 and TRIF, the ...
Bamias Giorgos G aAcademic Department of Gastroenterology, Kapodistrian University of Athens, Laikon Hospital, Athens, Greece bDivision of Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, - - 2014
Cytokines are integral mediators for maintaining intestinal mucosal homeostasis, as well as prominent effector molecules during chronic gut inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on recent studies of the role of specific cytokines in mucosal immunity. Dichotomous, or even opposing, functions have been described for several cytokines involved in intestinal innate ...
Shih Vincent Feng-Sheng VF Departments of - - 2014
Mammalian hosts are colonized with commensal microbes in various mucosal and epithelial tissues, including the intestinal tract. In mice, the presence of segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) promotes Th17 differentiation and the development of autoimmune disease. Here, we demonstrate that the IL-23 pathway dynamically regulates the abundance of SFB as well ...
Takahashi Nozomi N 1] VIB Inflammation Research Center, Technologiepark 927, B-9052 Ghent, Belgium [2] Department of Biomedical Molecular Biology, Ghent University, Technologiepark 927, B-9052 Ghent, - - 2014
Receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) has an essential role in the signalling triggered by death receptors and pattern recognition receptors. RIPK1 is believed to function as a node driving NF-κB-mediated cell survival and inflammation as well as caspase-8 (CASP8)-dependent apoptotic or RIPK3/MLKL-dependent necroptotic cell death. The physiological relevance of ...
Smith Carli J CJ University of California San - - 2014
The gut-brain-microbiota axis is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of intestinal physiology. Exposure to psychological stress causes activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis and causes altered intestinal barrier function, intestinal dysbiosis and behavioral changes. The primary aim of this study was to determine if the effects of psychological stress on ...
Schulz Konrad K Department of General and Visceral Surgery, Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
Breakdown of the intestinal barrier is a driving force of sepsis and multiple organ failure. Radical scavengers or cytokine inhibitors may have a therapeutic impact on intestinal failure. Therapeutic effects on different sites of small intestine and colon have not been compared. Therefore, we investigated time-dependent intestinal permeability changes and ...
Warner Neil N University of Michigan, United - - 2014
NOD2 encodes an intracellular multi-domain pattern recognition receptor that is the strongest known genetic risk factor in the pathogenesis of Crohns disease (CD), a chronic relapsing inflammatory disorder of the intestinal tract. NOD2 functions as a sensor for bacterial cell wall components and activates pro-inflammatory and anti-microbial signaling pathways. Here, ...
Chen L L Immunology Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, - - 2014
Interleukin-23 (IL-23) responsive group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) have been implicated in immune homeostasis and pathogenesis in the adult, but little is known about their roles in the newborn. Here we show that IL-23 promotes conversion of embryonic intestinal Lin(-)IL-23R(+)Thy1(+) cells into IL-22-producing Thy1(+)Sca-1(hi) ILC3s in vitro. Gut-specific expression ...
Bain Calum C CC 1] Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Science, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK. [2] - - 2014
The paradigm that macrophages that reside in steady-state tissues are derived from embryonic precursors has never been investigated in the intestine, which contains the largest pool of macrophages. Using fate-mapping models and monocytopenic mice, together with bone marrow chimera and parabiotic models, we found that embryonic precursor cells seeded the ...
Zhu Caixia C State Key Laboratory of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, 150040, China; College of Life Sciences, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, 150040, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to observe the effect of the Rhodiola crenulata extracts on gut immunity of Drosophila melanogaster. Wild-type flies fed standard cornmeal-yeast medium were used as controls. Experimental groups were supplemented with 2.5% R. crenulata aqueous extracts in standard medium. Survival rate was determined by feeding pathogenic ...
Nguyen Duc Ninh DN University of - - 2014
A balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signals from the milk and microbiota controls intestinal homeostasis just after birth, and an optimal balance is particularly important for preterm neonates that are sensitive to necrotizing enterocolis (NEC). We suggest that the intestinal cytokine IL-8 plays an important role and hypothesize that transforming ...
Mukherjee Subhadeep S Division of Immunology, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, P-33, CIT Road, Scheme-XM, Kolkata-700 010, West Bengal, - - 2014
Interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cause chronic inflammation of the intestine leading to progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is manifested through rapid apoptosis of the intestinal epithelial cells (iECs). Here, we show inhibition of IFN-γ and TNF-α-induced apoptosis of INT-407 cells by porin, a microbe-associated molecular ...
Goto Yoshiyuki Y Division of Mucosal Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012, Japan. Microbe Division/Japan Collection of Microorganisms, RIKEN BioResource Center, Tsukuba 305-0074, - - 2014
Fucosylation of intestinal epithelial cells, catalyzed by fucosyltransferase 2 (Fut2), is a major glycosylation mechanism of host-microbiota symbiosis. Commensal bacteria induce epithelial fucosylation, and epithelial fucose is used as a dietary carbohydrate by many of these bacteria. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the induction of epithelial fucosylation ...
Johnson-Henry Kathene C KC Cell Biology Program, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, - - 2014
Few studies have focused on the ability of prebiotics to prevent pathogen-induced cellular changes or alter the composition of the intestinal microbiota in complimentary relevant cell and animal models of inflammatory bowel disease. The objective of this study was to determine if pretreatment with inulin and a short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide (sc-FOS) ...
Hyun Jinhee J Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Miami, Fla., - - 2014
In the intestine, interaction between epithelial cells and macrophages (MΦs) create a unique immunoregulatory microenvironment necessary to maintain local immune and tissue homeostasis. Human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) have been shown to express interleukin (IL)-10, which keeps epithelial integrity. We have demonstrated that bacterial signaling through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 ...
Gabutti Giovanni G Department of Medical Sciences; University of Ferrara; Ferrara, - - 2014
Pertussis continues to be an important public-health issue. The high immunization coverage rates achieved, mainly in industrialized countries, have certainly decreased the spread of the pathogen. However, as immunity wanes, adolescents and adults play an important role in the dynamics of the infection. The surveillance system has several limitations and ...
Ramanan Deepshika D Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine at the Skirball Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; Sackler Institute of Graduate Biomedical Science, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, - - 2014
Nod2 has been extensively characterized as a bacterial sensor that induces an antimicrobial and inflammatory gene expression program. Therefore, it is unclear why Nod2 mutations that disrupt bacterial recognition are paradoxically among the highest risk factors for Crohn's disease, which involves an exaggerated immune response directed at intestinal bacteria. Here, ...
Engler Daniela B DB Institute of Molecular Cancer Research, University of Zürich, 8057 Zürich, - - 2014
The prevalence of allergic asthma and other atopic diseases has reached epidemic proportions in large parts of the developed world. The gradual loss of the human indigenous microbiota has been held responsible for this trend. The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori is a constituent of the normal gastric microbiota whose presence ...
Valentin-Weigand Peter P Institute for Microbiology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 30173 Hannover, - - 2014
Enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3 are the most frequent cause of human yersiniosis worldwide with symptoms ranging from mild diarrhea to severe complications of mesenteric lymphadenitis, liver abscesses and postinfectious extraintestinal sequelae. The main reservoir host of 4/O:3 strains are pigs, which represent a substantial disease-causing potential for humans, as ...
Engel Elodie - - 2014
BackgroundRapid activation of innate immune defences upon microbial infection depends on the evolutionary conserved NF-¿B dependent signals which deregulation is frequently associated with chronic inflammation and oncogenesis. These signals are tightly regulated by the linkage of different kinds of ubiquitin moieties on proteins that modify either their activity or their ...
Liang Qian Q Department of Pain Management, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510630, - - 2014
This study aims to investigate the mechanism by which resveratrol (RV) prevents sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced chondrocyte apoptosis, which is a characteristic feature of osteoarthritis (OA). Rabbit articular chondrocytes were pre-incubated with 100 μM RV for 18 h before 1.5 mM SNP co-treatment for 6 h. Cell viability was evaluated by CCK-8. Annexin V/PI double staining ...
Chang C C CC Department of Infectious Diseases, Alfred Hospital and Monash University, Melbourne, 3000, - - 2014
An immune reconstitution disorder occurs in up to 40 % of severely immunodeficient HIV patients who commence antiretroviral therapy (ART), with an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) being encountered most commonly. Differences in the immunopathogenesis of an IRIS associated with different types of pathogen have become apparent but common features have ...
Xu Shujun S Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, Zhejiang, - - 2014
Rosiglitazone has been known to attenuate neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, Morris water maze test, ELISA and electrophysiological methods were used to examine the role and underling mechanisms of rosiglitazone on Aβ42 oligomer-induced memory impairments. We found that rosiglitazone attenuated Aβ42 ...
Geuking Markus B MB Mucosal Immunology Lab; Department of Clinical Research; University of Bern; Bern, - - 2014
The impact of the gut microbiota on immune homeostasis within the gut and, importantly, also at systemic sites has gained tremendous research interest over the last few years. The intestinal microbiota is an integral component of a fascinating ecosystem that interacts with and benefits its host on several complex levels ...
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