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Nishida Atsushi A Molecular Pathology Unit, Center for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, - - 2015
The intestine, which provides the first line of defense against over trillion of enteric microorganisms, suffers from broad range of inflammatory conditions caused by infectious, autoimmune, allergic, neurological, and ischemic mechanisms. Recent data have suggested dual roles (protective versus deleterious) for galectins in the pathogenesis of some intestinal inflammations, highlighting ...
Mann Elizabeth R ER *Antigen Presentation Research Group, Imperial College London, Northwick Park and St. Mark's Campus, Harrow, United Kingdom; †Gastrointestinal Division, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; ‡Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Institute of Digestive Disease, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Science, State Key Laboratory of Digestive Disease, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; §Division of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom; ‖Department of Gastroenterology, St. Mark's Hospital, North West London Hospitals NHS Trust, Harrow, United Kingdom; ¶Yakult UK Ltd., South Ruislip, United Kingdom; and **Centre for Immunology and Infectious Disease, Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United - - 2014
: The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease is incompletely understood but results from a dysregulated intestinal immune response to the luminal microbiota. CD4 T cells mediate tissue injury in the inflammatory bowel disease-associated immune response. Dendritic cells (DC) generate primary T-cell responses and mediate intestinal immune tolerance to prevent overt ...
Kernbauer Elisabeth E 1] Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine at the Skirball Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA [2] Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, - - 2014
Intestinal microbial communities have profound effects on host physiology. Whereas the symbiotic contribution of commensal bacteria is well established, the role of eukaryotic viruses that are present in the gastrointestinal tract under homeostatic conditions is undefined. Here we demonstrate that a common enteric RNA virus can replace the beneficial function ...
Bazsó Anna A National Institute of Rheumatology and Physiotherapy, Frankel L. u. 38-40., Budapest, Hungary, - - 2014
A strong connection between spondylarthropathies and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is well established. About 10-15 % of IBD are associated with different forms of spondylarthritis. Arthritis can be manifested as axial, peripheral form or both. The primary functions of the gastrointestinal tract are digestion and absorption of nutrients, electrocytes and maintenance ...
Chewning Joseph H JH Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplantation Program, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294; and - - 2014
Th17 cells have emerged as important mediators of host defense and homeostasis at barrier sites, particularly the intestines, where the greatest number and diversity of the microbiota reside. A critical balance exists between protection of the host from its own microbiota and pathogens and the development of immune-mediated disease. Breaches ...
Lu Huili H Engineering Research Center of Cell and Therapeutic Antibody, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, - - 2014
Acute intestinal damage induced by chemotherapeutic agent is often a dose-limiting factor in clinical cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chemokine CXCL9 on the intestinal damage after chemotherapy and explore the therapeutic potential of anti-CXCL9 agents. In vitro cell proliferation assay was performed ...
Gregová Kristína K Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Šrobárova 2, 041 80, Košice, Slovak Republic. - - 2014
The small intestine is an organ with very well developed immunological activity, responsible for synthesis of specific inflammatory mediators that participate in causing the systemic inflammation that can occur after ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of our work was to study mRNA expression and protein concentration of inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and ...
Alexeev Vitali V Department of Dermatology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, - - 2014
Normal tissue toxicity markedly reduces the therapeutic index of genotoxic anticancer agents, including ionizing radiation. Countermeasures against tissue damage caused by radiation are limited by their potential to also protect malignant cells and tissues. Here, we tested a panel of signal transduction modifiers for selective radioprotection of normal but not ...
Coppo Rosanna R Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Unit, University and Hospital Health Agency "Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino", Regina Margherita Children's Hospital, Turin, - - 2014
It is commonly stated that mucosal immunity plays a role in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN); however, the search for specific eliciting factors has been largely inconclusive. A dysregulated mucosal immune system with defective immune tolerance to commonly encountered pathogens or alimentary components is likely to be the key ...
Shen Xiaofei X Department of General Surgery, Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, - - 2014
Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a pathophysiology involving local tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Accumulating evidence has confirmed that the infiltration of neutrophils is of central importance in mediating intestinal I/R injury. On the other hand, adequate neutrophils in the intestine could also benefit the antibacterial translocation and tissue repair. ...
Wu Hao H Hao Wu, Ling Liu, Qing-Hua Tan, Chun-Hui Wang, Cheng-Wei Tang, Department of Gastroenterology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province, - - 2014
To investigate inflammatory injury in the intestinal mucosa after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IIR) with Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated innate immunity. Ten macaques were randomized into control and IIR groups. The distribution and expression level of TLR2, TLR4, MD2, nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 and interferon (IFN)-γ were measured by immunohistochemical stain and western ...
Bowcutt Rowann R Rowann Bowcutt, Ruth Forman, Maria Glymenaki, Kathryn Jane Else, Sheena Margaret Cruickshank, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester, United - - 2014
The small and large intestine of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) have evolved to have discrete functions with distinct anatomies and immune cell composition. The importance of these differences is underlined when considering that different pathogens have uniquely adapted to live in each region of the gut. Furthermore, different regions of ...
Thagia Imtiyaz I Lancaster - - 2014
A single layer of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) lines the entire GI tract and provides the first line of defence and barrier against an abundance of microbial stimuli. IEC homeostasis and repair are mediated through microbe-sensing Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced inflammatory pathways. Increasing evidence supports a role of suppressor of cytokine ...
Maehara Toko T Department of Veterinary Pharmacology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657, - - 2014
Postoperative ileus (POI) is induced by intestinal muscularis inflammation. The present study aimed to clarify the therapeutic action of 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor (5-HT3 R) antagonists against POI. We administered three 5-HT3 R antagonists subcutaneously (s.q.) (ondansetron, tropisetron and palonosetron) to a mouse model of POI induced by surgical intestinal manipulation ...
Fernandes Philana P Department of Medicine, University College Cork, Cork, - - 2014
TLRs play an important role in mediating intestinal inflammation and homeostasis. Fas is best studied in terms of its function in apoptosis, but recent studies demonstrate that Fas signaling may mediate additional functions such as inflammation. The role of Fas, and the Fas ligand (FasL), in the intestine is poorly ...
Dagenais Maryse M aDepartments of Biochemistry bMicrobiology and Immunology cMedicine, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, - - 2014
To critically review recent advances on the role of programmed necrosis and other cell death modalities in intestinal health and inflammatory bowel disease. Tight regulation of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and cell death is required for intestinal physiology, and to maintain an integral barrier that restricts microbiota translocation and ensures ...
Kernbauer Elisabeth E aKimmel Center for Biology and Medicine at the Skirball Institute bDepartment of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, - - 2014
To highlight recent findings that identify an essential role for the cellular degradative pathway of autophagy in governing a balanced response to intestinal pathogens and commensals. Following the genetic association of autophagy with inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility, increasing evidence indicates that this pathway functions in various epithelial lineages to support ...
Matsuzaki-Horibuchi Shiori S Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba 263-8555, Japan Department of Traumatology and Critical Care Medicine, Kyorin University Hospital, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka-city, Tokyo, 181-8611, - - 2014
One of the important mechanisms for gastrointestinal (GI) injury following high-dose radiation exposure is apoptosis of epithelial cells. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) and cellular IAP2 (cIAP2) are intrinsic cellular inhibitors of apoptosis. In order to study the effects of exogenously added IAPs on apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells, we ...
Witte Merlijn M 1 Laboratory for Translational Immunology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital Utrecht, University Medical Centre Utrecht , Utrecht, the Netherlands - - 2014
Abstract Several genome-wide association studies have identified the genes encoding for macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP) and its receptor RON (Recepteur d'Origine Nantais) as possible susceptibility factors in inflammatory bowel disease. While it has been shown that the MSP-RON signaling pathway is involved in tissue injury responses, current mouse models for MSP ...
Ghareeb Khaled K Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, 1210, Vienna, Austria; Department of Animal Hygiene, Behaviour and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, South Valley University, 83523, Qena, - - 2014
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most prevalent cereal contaminants with major public health concerns owing to its high toxigenic potentials. Once ingested, DON first and foremost targets epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract, whose proper functioning, as the first line of defence, is of paramount importance for the host's ...
Yang Ye Y Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, - - 2014
Animals develop in the presence of complex microbial communities and early host responses to these microbes can influence key aspects of development, such as maturation of the immune system, in ways that impact adult physiology. We previously showed that the zebrafish intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALPI) gene alpi.1 was induced by ...
Chen Shan-Wen SW Division of General Surgery, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University, 8 Xi Shiku Street, Beijing, 100034, People's Republic of - - 2014
Lipopolysaccharide was found to be elevated in the plasma of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and may play an important role in the pathogenesis and propagation of these intestinal diseases. To illustrate the destructive effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to test the protective effect of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin ...
Iablokov Vadim V University of Calgary, - - 2014
Mucosal biopsies from inflamed colon of inflammatory bowel disease patients exhibit elevated epithelial apoptosis compared to those from healthy individuals, disrupting mucosal homeostasis and perpetuating disease. Therapies that decrease intestinal epithelial apoptosis may, therefore, ameliorate IBD, but treatments that specifically target apoptotic pathways are lacking. Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2), a G ...
Zhang Feng F Department of General Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning 116023, P.R. - - 2014
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common complication following intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and is a major contributing factor to its high mortality rate. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD+‑dependent deacetylase, has been reported to have an important role in apoptosis inhibition, oxidative stress resistance and cell lifespan extension through its deacetylation ...
Roulis Manolis M Institute of Immunology, Biomedical Sciences Research Center "Alexander Fleming", Vari 16672, Greece; kollias@fleming.gr - - 2014
Tumor progression locus-2 (Tpl2) kinase is a major inflammatory mediator in immune cell types recently found to be genetically associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Here we show that Tpl2 may exert a dominant homeostatic rather than inflammatory function in the intestine mediated specifically by subepithelial intestinal myofibroblasts (IMFs). Mice ...
Zuo Tao T College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Yushan Road 5th, Qingdao, Shandong Province, P.R. - - 2014
Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) is a non-inflammatory antibody that shields internal body surfaces, such as in the intestine to neutralize pathogens in the lumen of the intestine. As chemotherapy seriously damages the mucosal immune system, we herein demonstrated that polysaccharide from the squid ink of Ommastrephes bartrami (OBP) activated intestinal ...
Leslie Jhansi L JL Department of Microbiology and - - 2014
Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of infectious nosocomial diarrhea. The pathogenesis of C. difficile infection (CDI) results from the interactions between the pathogen, the intestinal epithelium, host immune system and the gastrointestinal microbiota. Previous studies of the host-pathogen interaction in CDI have utilized either simple cell monolayers or in ...
Lawrance Ian C IC Centre for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Fremantle Hospital, Fremantle, WA, Australia; University Department of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Fremantle Hospital, Freemantle, WA, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Intestinal fibrosis is a major complication of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and although inflammation is necessary for its development, it would appear that it plays a minor role in its progression as anti-inflammatory treatments in IBD do not prevent fibrosis once it has started. The processes that regulate fibrosis ...
Yang Ying Y State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, People's Republic of - - 2014
The integrity of intestinal barrier is essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Dysfunction of the mucosal barrier is associated with increased gut permeability and development of various gastrointestinal diseases. Aside from serving as substrates for protein biosynthesis, amino acids also maintain the health of ...
Kristek Maja M Immunomodulation Research Group, School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, - - 2014
Intestinal macrophages originate from inflammatory blood monocytes which migrate to the intestine, where they differentiate into anti-inflammatory macrophages through a number of transitional stages. These macrophages typically remain hypo-responsive to commensal bacteria and food Ags in the intestine, yet also retain the ability to react to invading pathogens. In this ...
Bellafante Elena E Fondazione Mario Negri Sud, 66030 Santa Maria Imbaro (Chieti), - - 2014
The mucosa of the small intestine is renewed completely every 3-5 d throughout the entire lifetime by small populations of adult stem cells that are believed to reside in the bottom of the crypts and to migrate and differentiate into all the different populations of intestinal cells. When the cells ...
Read Lisa T LT Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA - - 2014
Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are a significant cause of diarrheal disease and death, especially in children in developing countries. ETEC cause disease by colonizing the small intestine and producing heat-labile toxin (LT), heat-stable toxin (ST), or both LT and ST (LT/ST). The majority of ETEC produce both ST and LT. ...
Olson Alicia A From the Department of Surgery, Wayne State University, Detroit, - - 2014
The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile colitis have increased dramatically in the last decade. Disease severity is related to C. difficile virulence factors, including toxins A and B, as well as the patient's immune status. The intestinal mucus is an important component of innate barrier function in the intestine. ...
Jarry A A EA 4273 Biometadys, Université de Nantes, Faculté de Médecine, Nantes, - - 2014
Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), associated with Crohn's disease, are likely candidate contributory factors in the disease. However, signaling pathways involved in human intestinal mucosa innate host response to AIEC remain unknown. Here we use a 3D model of human intestinal mucosa explant culture to explore the effects of the AIEC ...
Yang D-J DJ Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Affiliated to The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China. - - 2014
Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) is a common syndrome encountered in clinic following intestinal surgery, strangulated hernia, and shock. Hypertonic saline has been shown to prevent inflammatory tissue damages caused by I/R and regulate immunologic disorders in peripheral blood. However, the immunoregulatory effects of hypertonic saline on the small intestine response ...
Yang Hong-Ling HL The Key Laboratory of Healthy Mariculture for the East China Sea, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries College, Jimei University, Xiamen 361021, PR - - 2014
The health benefits of probiotics are thought to occur, at least in part, through an improved intestinal microbial balance in fish, although the molecular mechanisms whereby probiotics modulate the intestinal microbiota by means of activation of mucosal immunity are rarely explored. In this study, the effects of viable and heat-inactivated ...
Liu Song S *Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, Department of Surgery, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, China; and †Department of Medicine, Gastrointestinal Unit and Center for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, - - 2014
: Interleukin-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) is responsible for both IL-17A and IL-25 (IL-17E) signaling pathways. Current evidences suggest distinct but interactive responses between IL-17A and IL-25 signaling, both of which are critical for intestinal immune homeostasis. IL-17RA is assumed to regulate this counterbalance and therefore becomes a crucial molecule in ...
Muñoz-González Irene - - 2014
In this study, 24 immune markers were analysed in feces from healthy volunteers (n=34) before and after consumption of a red wine (12% ethanol, 1758 mg/L total polyphenols) for 4 weeks. The analysis of the data permitted to differentiate a 6-volunteer subgroup showing unusually high basal values of cytokines. For ...
Bouwman Lieneke I LI Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Utrecht University, 3584 CL Utrecht, the - - 2014
The Gram-negative pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide. The mechanisms that lead to bacterial invasion of eukaryotic cells and massive intestinal inflammation are still unknown. In this study, we report that C. jejuni infection of mouse macrophages induces upregulation of pro-IL-1β transcript and ...
Little Matthew C MC Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, United Kingdom - - 2014
Macrophages (Mφs) accumulate at sites of inflammation, and, because they can assume several functionally distinct states of activation, they can either drive or restrain inflammatory responses. Once believed to depend on the recruitment of blood monocytes, it is now clear that the accumulation of Mφs in some tissues can result ...
Cohen-Kedar Sarit S Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Center, Department of Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases and The Research Center for Digestive Tract and Liver Diseases, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, - - 2014
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are the first to encounter luminal antigens and may be involved in intestinal immune responses. Fungi are important components of the intestinal microflora. The potential role of fungi, and in particular their cell wall component β-glucan, in modulating human intestinal epithelial responses is still unclear. Here ...
Donaldson D S DS The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, - - 2014
Isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs) develop after birth in the small and large intestines (SI and LI) and represent a dynamic response of the gut immune system to the microbiota. Despite their similarities, ILF development in the SI and LI differs on a number of levels. We show that unlike ILF ...
Ray Shuvra S aDepartment of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA bDepartment of Gastroenterology, Guy's and St. Thomas' Hospitals/University College London, London, United - - 2014
Intestinal fibrosis is a serious, yet common, outcome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Despite advances in developing novel treatment modalities to control chronic gut inflammation characteristic of IBD, no effective antifibrotic therapies exist to date. As such, a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying intestinal fibrosis and ...
Gonçalves Pedro P *INSERM (French Institute of Health and Medical Research), Unit 1151, INEM (Research Center in Molecular Medicine); †Faculty of Medicine, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France; ‡Department of Pharmacology, MedInUP, Center for Drug Discovery and Innovative Medicines; §Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; and ‖Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, - - 2014
: Epidemiological studies show that both the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the proportion of people with obesity and/or obesity-associated metabolic syndrome increased markedly in developed countries during the past half century. Obesity is also associated with the development of more active IBD and requirement for hospitalization and ...
Mowat Allan M AM Centre for Immunobiology, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Sir Graeme Davies Building, 120 University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8TA, Scotland, - - 2014
The intestine represents the largest compartment of the immune system. It is continually exposed to antigens and immunomodulatory agents from the diet and the commensal microbiota, and it is the port of entry for many clinically important pathogens. Intestinal immune processes are also increasingly implicated in controlling disease development elsewhere ...
Rodríguez-Yoldi M Jesús MJ Physiology Unit. Dept. of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Zaragoza, 50013, Zaragoza, Spain; CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), - - 2014
A variety of bacteria and their excreted/secreted products having direct effects on epithelial ion transport and permeability and the release of cytokines during bacterial infection may impact directly on epithelial function. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a pleiotropic cytokine that affects the intestinal absorption of nutrients. The aim of this work was ...
Sánchez de Medina Fermín F Departments of *Pharmacology, and †Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, CIBERehd, School of Pharmacy, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.Granada, University of Granada, Granada, - - 2014
: Intestinal mucosal barrier function is the capacity of the intestine to provide adequate containment of luminal microorganisms and molecules while preserving the ability to absorb nutrients. The central element is the epithelial layer, which physically separates the lumen and the internal milieu and is in charge of vectorial transport ...
Stockinger Silvia S Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hospital Epidemiology, Hannover Medical School, D-30625 Hannover, Germany; Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics, University of Veterinary Medicine, 1210 Vienna, - - 2014
Recent results indicate a significant contribution of innate immune signaling to maintain mucosal homeostasis, but the precise underlying signal transduction pathways are ill-defined. By comparative analysis of intestinal epithelial cells isolated from conventionally raised and germ-free mice, as well as animals deficient in the adaptor molecules MyD88 and TRIF, the ...
Orzekowsky-Schroeder Regina R University of Lübeck, Institute of Biomedical Optics, Peter-Monnik-Weg 4, 23562 Lübeck, Germany ; Authors have contributed - - 2014
Gut mucosa is an important interface between body and environment. Immune response and healing processes of murine small intestinal mucosa were investigated by intravital time-lapse two-photon excited autofluorescence microscopy of the response to localized laser-induced damage. Epithelial lesions were created by 355-nm, 500-ps pulses from a microchip laser that produced ...
Bamias Giorgos G aAcademic Department of Gastroenterology, Kapodistrian University of Athens, Laikon Hospital, Athens, Greece bDivision of Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, - - 2014
Cytokines are integral mediators for maintaining intestinal mucosal homeostasis, as well as prominent effector molecules during chronic gut inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on recent studies of the role of specific cytokines in mucosal immunity. Dichotomous, or even opposing, functions have been described for several cytokines involved in intestinal innate ...
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