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Qiu Jie J Department of Newborn Infants, Nanjing Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008, P.R. - - 2014
It was previously demonstrated that microRNA-210 (miR-210) exhibited neuroprotective effects in a murine model of hypoxic‑ischemic encephalopathy via inhibition of apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to further elucidate the effect of miR-210 on apoptosis in PC12 cells following transfection with miR‑210 inhibitors and exposure to oxygen glucose ...
Raghavan Aparna A Department of Medicinal and Biological Chemistry, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toledo, 3000 Arlington Avenue, Toledo, OH, - - 2014
Withania somnifera (WS), popularly known as "Ashwagandha" has been used for centuries as a nerve tonic. Its protective effect has been elucidated in many neurodegenerative pathologies, although there is a paucity of data regarding its effects in ischemic stroke. We examined the neuroprotective properties of an aqueous extract of WS ...
Doll Danielle N DN Center for Neuroscience, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506, - - 2014
Inflammatory mechanisms both in the periphery and in the CNS are important in the pathophysiologic processes occurring after the onset of ischemic stroke (IS). Cytokines are key players in the inflammatory mechanism and contribute to the progression of ischemic damage. This literature review focuses on the effects of inflammation on ...
Petrone Ashley B AB Center for Neuroscience, West Virginia University School of Medicine, WV 26506, USA ; Center for Basic and Translational Stroke Research, West Virginia University School of Medicine, WV 26506, - - 2014
Although typically associated with maintenance of female reproductive function, estrogens mediate physiological processes in nearly every body tissue, including the central nervous system. Numerous pre-clinical studies have shown that estrogen, specifically 17-beta-estradiol (17β-E2), protects the brain from ischemic injury following stroke. There are multiple mechanisms of 17β-E2's neuroprotection, including activation ...
Gelderblom Mathias M From the Department of Neurology (M. Gelderblom, P.A., C.G., T.M.), Institute of Neuroimmunology and Multiple Sclerosis (B.S., F.U., M.A.F.), and Institute of Neuropathology (C.B., M. Glatzel), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; Department of Neurology, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany (N.M., G.H., S.B., A.M.H., S.G.M.); and Department of Neurology, University Clinics Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany (E.G., - - 2014
Brain injury during stroke results in oxidative stress and the release of factors that include extracellular Ca(2+), hydrogen peroxide, adenosine diphosphate ribose, and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate. These alterations of the extracellular milieu change the activity of transient receptor potential melastatin subfamily member 2 (TRPM2), a nonselective cation channel ...
Elgharably Haytham H Departments of Surgery, Davis Heart & Lung Research Institute, Center for Regenerative Medicine and Cell based Therapies and Comprehensive Wound Center, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio - - 2014
We recently performed proteomic characterization of a modified collagen gel (MCG) dressing and reported promising effects of the gel in healing full-thickness excisional wounds. In this work, we test the translational relevance of our aforesaid findings by testing the dressing in a swine model of chronic ischemic wounds recently reported ...
Shafaei-Bajestani Negar N Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 9188617871, Mashhad, - - 2014
Taxodione, a diterpenoid from the roots of Salvia chorassanica Bunge, possesses cytotoxic, apoptotic, and antimicrobial activity. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of taxodione on serum/glucose deprivation-induced ischemic injury in PC12 cells and related mechanisms. In an in vitro model of ischemia, PC12 cells were exposed to ...
Zhang Rui R Department of Neurology, Second Clinical College, Jinan University, Shenzhen, 518020, China. 2 Research Centre for Neural Engineering, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, - - 2014
The iron chelator deferoxamine (DFX) is efficacious in ameliorating hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. However, the effect of DFX worked in the the ischemic and the mechanism is still unclear. Recent studies have shown that apoptosis and oncosis may be the pathways of cell death accountable for astrocytic death in the ischemic ...
Han Zhenying Z Center for Cerebrovascular Research, Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America; Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, - - 2014
Activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAchR) has a neuro-protective effect on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. However, the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. We hypothesized that α-7 nAchR agonist protects brain injury after ischemic stroke through reduction of pro-inflammatory macrophages (M1) and oxidative stress. C57BL/6 mice were treated ...
Kuric Enida E Laboratory for Experimental Brain Research, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, BMC A13, Lund, S-22184, Sweden. - - 2014
Cerebral ischemia activates both the innate and the adaptive immune response, the latter being activated within days after the stroke onset and triggered by the recognition of foreign antigens. In this study we have investigated the phenotype of antigen presenting cells and the levels of associated major histocompatibility complex class ...
Tamai Kazuya K Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Dokkyo Medical University, 880 Kitakobayashi, Mibu, Tochigi, 321-0293, Japan, - - 2013
Primary frozen shoulder (FS) is a painful contracture of the glenohumeral joint that arises spontaneously without an obvious preceding event. Investigation of the intra-articular and periarticular pathology would contribute to the treatment of primary FS. Many studies indicate that the main pathology is an inflammatory contracture of the shoulder joint ...
Wanner John - - 2013
The development of effective treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) has been hampered by a poor understanding of OA at the cellular and molecular levels. Emerging as a disease of the 'whole joint', the importance of the biochemical contribution of various tissues, including synovium, bone and articular cartilage, has become increasingly significant. ...
Lho Yun-Mee - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Frozen shoulder is a debilitating condition characterized by gradual loss of glenohumeral motion with chronic inflammation and capsular fibrosis. Yet its pathogenesis remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that the subacromial bursa may be responsible for the pathogenesis of frozen shoulder by producing inflammatory cytokines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained ...
St-Pierre Marie V MV Institute of Clinical Pharmacology and Visceral Research, University of Bern, Murtenstrasse 35, Bern, - - 2012
Apoptosis is a rare event in normal hepatocytes. However, multiple signals can trigger apoptosis in hepatocytes and it plays a role in the pathogenesis of many liver diseases. This review summarizes the mechanisms of hepatocellular apoptosis and the importance of apoptosis in the pathological processes of liver disease. The potential ...
Macneill Colin - - 2012
Our knowledge of the innate host defenses in the vagina, a site where these defenses are essential to protecting the host upper reproductive tract from invasion by pathogens, is as yet rudimentary. Specifically, little is known about the pattern-recognition component of vaginal innate immunity, the relationship of pattern-recognition molecules to ...
Leuner Kristina - - 2012
Intracellular amyloid beta (Aβ) oligomers and extracellular Aβ plaques are key players in the progression of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Still, the molecular signals triggering Aβ production are largely unclear. We asked whether mitochondrion-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are sufficient to increase Aβ generation and thereby initiate a vicious cycle ...
Chiang Chi-Huei - - 2012
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) suppresses the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are implicated in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). We thus hypothesised that NAC attenuates VILI. VILI was induced by mechanical ventilation with a tidal volume (Vt) of 15mlkg(-1) in isolated and perfused rat lung. NAC was administered in the perfusate ...
Park H - - 2012
Amyloid beta (Aβ) fibrils are believed to play a major role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Although the mechanisms underlying Aβ toxicity remain largely unknown, Aβ fibrils disrupt calcium homeostasis and generate free radicals, resulting in oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptotic cell death. Houttuyniae Herba, the aerial part ...
Murgas P - - 2012
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of β amyloid (Aβ) aggregates. Aβ induces the inflammatory activation of glia, inducing secretion of Interleukin 1β (IL1β), nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide radicals. The specific receptor responsible for the induction of inflammatory activation by Aβ, is still an ...
Leow Koon-Yeow - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) on global gene expression in macrophages derived from THP-1 monocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Global genetic expression in THP-1-derived macrophages was determined using Illumina HT-12 microarray chips and the results were validated by real-time PCR. Cytokine levels in cellular supernatant were ...
Men Jie - - 2012
Some ocular diseases characterized by apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are chronic neurodegenerative disorders and have similarities in neuropathology. Humanin (HN) is known for its ability to suppress neuronal death induced by AD-related insults. In present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of HN ...
Zhang Feng - - 2012
Neuroinflammation is closely associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurological disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation might represent a promising therapeutic potential for PD and related disorders. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is commonly used for the treatment of major depression due ...
Mizwicki Mathew T - - 2011
Brain clearance of amyloid-β (Aβ42) by innate immune cells is necessary for maintenance of normal brain function. Phagocytosis of soluble Aβ42 by Alzheimer's disease (AD) macrophages is defective, recovered in all "Type I and Type II" AD patients by 1α,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 (1,25D3) and blocked by the nuclear vitamin D receptor ...
Park Jin-Sun - - 2011
Microglial activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of various neurologic disorders, such as cerebral ischemia, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Thus, controlling microglial activation is a promising therapeutic strategy for such brain diseases. In the present study, we found that a ginseng saponin metabolite, compound K, inhibited the ...
Liu Shirong - - 2011
Microglia activated by extracellularly deposited amyloid β peptide (Aβ) act as a two-edged sword in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis: on the one hand, they damage neurons by releasing neurotoxic proinflammatory mediators (M1 activation); on the other hand, they protect neurons by triggering anti-inflammatory/neurotrophic M2 activation and by clearing Aβ via phagocytosis. ...
Grimm Marcus O W MO Deutsches Institut für DemenzPrävention, Saarland University, Kirrbergerstrasse, 66421 Homburg/Saar, Germany. - - 2012
Amyloid plaques in brains are one of the major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These plaques are mainly formed by aggregated Aβ, generated by proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Therefore, APP processing and Aβ production have been one of the central scopes in AD research in ...
Matousek Sarah B SB Department of Neurobiology & Anatomy, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, - - 2012
Neuroinflammation is a local tissue response to injurious stimuli in the central nervous system (CNS) and is characterized by glial reactivity, induction of cytokines and chemokines, and vascular permeability. The cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β is rapidly induced following CNS insult, and is chronically expressed in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease ...
Capiralla Hemachander H The Litwin-Zucker Research Center for the Study of Alzheimer's Disease, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York, - - 2012
Activation of microglia, the resident macrophages of the brain, around the amyloid plaques is a key hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent evidence in mouse models indicates that microglia are required for the neurodegenerative process of AD. Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, the core components of the amyloid plaques, can trigger microglial ...
Osera Cecilia - - 2011
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder involving deposition of misfolded proteins in vulnerable brain regions leading to inexorable and progressive neuronal loss and deterioration of cognitive functions. The AD brain displays features typical of chronic inflammation as defined by the presence of activated microglia and by an excessive amount ...
Cashman J R - - 2011
Neurodegenerative diseases are associated with accumulation of modified proteins or peptides including amyloid-β (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and misfolded superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Clearance of Aβ or SOD-1 by the innate immune system may be important for controlling or preventing disease onset. Curcumins restore Aβ ...
Fossati Silvia S Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. - - 2012
The vascular deposition of amyloid known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)--an age-associated condition and a common finding in Alzheimer's disease--compromises cerebral blood flow, causing macro/microhemorrhages and/or cognitive impairment. Very little is known about the mechanisms causing CAA-related degeneration of cerebral vascular cells. The Dutch E22Q familial amyloid-β (Aβ) variant is ...
Bartley Matthew G - - 2011
Aberrant processing of amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) into amyloid-β (Aβ) fragments underlies the formation of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, Aβ fragments, particularly Aβ42, exert direct toxic effects within neurons including the induction of mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS). Interestingly, individuals with Down syndrome (DS) frequently develop early onset ...
Zheng Lin - - 2011
Increasing evidence suggests the toxicity of intracellular amyloid β-protein (Aβ) to neurons, as well as the involvement of oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease (AD). Here we show that normobaric hyperoxia (exposure of cells to 40% oxygen for five days), and consequent activation of macroautophagy and accumulation of Aβ within lysosomes, ...
Puig Kendra L KL Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Therapeutics, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND 58203, USA. - - 2012
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is widely expressed across many tissue and cell types. Proteolytic processing of the protein gives rise to a plethora of protein fragments with varied biological activities. Although a large amount of data has been generated describing the metabolism of the protein in neurons, its role in ...
Sun Miao - - 2011
Formononetin, an active constituent of the Chinese herb Astragali Radix, has been reported to have beneficial effects for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Yet the mechanism of this effect remains to be elucidated. The present study shows that formononetin increases soluble-AβPPα (sAβPPα) secretion and thus protects human-AβPP Swedish mutation cell (N2a-AβPP cell) ...
Di Francesco Laura - - 2011
Microglia-mediated inflammation in the central nervous system is a hallmark of the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. Microglial cells activation follows the deposition of amyloid beta fibrils and it is generally considered a triggering factor in the early steps of the onset of Alzheimer's disease. Although the ...
Fonseca Maria B - - 2011
p63, the structural and functional homologue of p53, is expressed either as a full-length isoform, containing a transactivation (TA) domain (TAp63), or as a truncated isoform, which lacks TA (ΔNp63). Amyloid-β (Aβ) incubation of neuronal cells results in stress-induced cell death through poorly understood mechanisms. We investigated the role of ...
Kelsey Natalie - - 2011
Objectives Mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS) is a major factor in the underlying pathology of many neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of a unique class of nutraceutical antioxidants, anthocyanins, against MOS-induced death of cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Callistephin and kuromanin are anthocyanins derived from strawberries and black ...
Kim Mi-Jeong - - 2011
Scope: We examined the biological effect of gallic acid (GA) as a nuclear factor (NF)-κB acetyltransferase inhibitor on microglial-mediated β-amyloid neurotoxicity and restorative effects on the Aβ-induced cognitive dysfunction. Methods and results: The protective effects of GA on the survival of neuronal cells were assessed with an MTT assay and ...
Subramanian S L SL Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, VA Puget Sound Health Care System and University of Washington, 1660 South Columbian Way, Seattle, WA 98108, - - 2012
Aggregation of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) as islet amyloid is associated with increased beta cell apoptosis and reduced beta cell mass in type 2 diabetes. Islet amyloid formation induces oxidative stress, which contributes to beta cell apoptosis. The cJUN N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is a critical mediator of beta ...
Li Tingting - - 2011
Although heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in protection against atherogenesis, its role in vulnerable plaques remains to be fully elucidated. This study was aimed to explore the effect of HO-1 on the progression and stabilization of vulnerable plaques and the possible mechanism. We established a vulnerable plaque model by ...
Jiménez-Aliaga Karim - - 2011
AIMS: Quercetin and rutin have been reported to exert numerous pharmacological activities, such as free-radical scavenging, effects on immune and inflammatory cell functions, and could have benefits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by mitigating cellular damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). A key event in AD is the conversion of ...
Qu Mingyue - - 2011
Mortalin (mtHsp70) is a mitochondrial heat shock protein critical for maintaining the functional integrity of mitochondrial proteins. Our previous study demonstrated that mortalin overexpression protected against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity through a mitochondria-dependent mechanism, but the molecular details remained unclear. Recent biochemical studies implicate opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) ...
Zeng Ke-Wu - - 2011
Amyloid β-protein (Aβ), which is deposited in neurons as neurofibrillary tangles, is known to exert cytotoxic effects by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, the PI3K/Akt-mediated interaction between Bad and Bcl(XL) plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial integrity. However, the application of therapeutic drugs, especially natural products in Alzheimer's disease therapy ...
Zhang Jun J Geriatric Anesthesia Research Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 149 13th St., Room 4310, Charlestown, MA 02129-2060, - - 2011
β-Amyloid protein (Aβ) accumulation and caspase activation have been shown to contribute to Alzheimer disease neuropathogenesis. Aβ is produced from amyloid precursor protein through proteolytic processing by aspartyl protease β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme (BACE). The inhaled anesthetic isoflurane has been shown to induce caspase activation and increase levels of ...
Rocha Natália Pessoa - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: Among several other factors, the neuro-toxic β-amyloid peptide (βAP)-induced inflammatory mechanisms have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Cytokines have recently emerged as prime candidates underlying this immune reaction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inflammatory response of peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells ...
Kiyota T T Center for Neurodegenerative Disorders, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, - - 2012
Brain inflammation is a double-edged sword. It is required for brain repair in acute damage, whereas chronic inflammation and autoimmune disorders are neuropathogenic. Certain proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines are closely related to cognitive dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Representative anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-10, can suppress neuroinflammation and have significant therapeutic ...
Keene C Dirk CD Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United - - 2011
The largest genetic risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) resides at the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) locus, which has three common alleles (ɛ2, ɛ3, ɛ4) that encode three isoforms (apoE2, apoE3, apoE4). The very strong association of the APOE ɛ4 allele with AD risk and its role in the accumulation ...
Liu Xiao-Cui - - 2011
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the predominant cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly population. Despite intensive basic and clinical research, its pathogenesis remains unclear. However, evidence suggests that immunological and inflammatory factors contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD. A newly identified cytokine, IL-33, appears to be an important pro-inflammatory ...
Mizuno Tetsuya - - 2011
Microglia, macrophage-like resident immune cells in the brain, possess both neurotoxic and neuroprotective properties and have a critical role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined the function of Interleukin-34 (IL-34), a newly discovered cytokine, on microglia because it reportedly induces proliferation of monocytes and macrophages. We observed ...
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