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Howell Owain W OW Wolfson Neuroscience Laboratories, Centre for Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration, Division of Brain Sciences, Imperial College London, UK; Neurology and Molecular Neuroscience, Institute of Life Science 1, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, SA2 8PP, - - 2014
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a progressive inflammatory neurological disease affecting myelin, neurons and glia. Demyelination and neurodegeneration of cortical grey matter contributes to a more severe disease and inflammation of the forebrain meninges associates with pathology of the underlying neocortical grey matter, particularly in deep sulci. We assessed the extent ...
Karo-Atar Danielle D Tel-Aviv University. Sackler School of Medicine, - - 2014
Abstract Background: Macrophages are heterogeneous cells, which possess pleotropic effector and immunoregulatory functions. The phenotypic diversity of macrophages is best exemplified by the ability of IL-4 or IL-13, two key cytokines in asthma to promote macrophages into a suppressive/anti-inflammatory phenotype (e.g. alternatively activated or M2) whereas exposure to IFN-γ followed ...
Chan Elsa C EC Centre for Eye Research Australia, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3002, - - 2014
Systemic sclerosis is characterised by three main pathological features namely auto-immunity, vasculopathy and an overgrowth of connective tissues in the skin and visceral organs including lung, heart, kidney and gastrointestinal tract. Currently, there is no intervention directed towards fibrosis in systemic sclerosis. Blocking immune response with an immunosuppressive drug like ...
Simon Anna - - 2014
A study in mice implicates a cholesterol derivative in damping down the inflammatory response mediated by interleukin-1β and explaining, at least in part, the immunosuppressive effect of type I interferon, which is used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.
Dillingham Blythe C BC Research Center for Genetic Medicine, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC, 20010, - - 2014
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease of the central nervous system characterized by an autoimmune inflammatory reaction that leads to axonal demyelination and tissue damage. Glucocorticoids, such as prednisolone, are effective in the treatment of multiple sclerosis in large part due to their ability to inhibit pro-inflammatory pathways (e.g., NFκB). ...
Cossu Davide D Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Microbiologia e Virologia, Università di Sassari, - - 2014
A large number of reports indicate the association of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) with multiple sclerosis (MS). To gain a better understanding of the role of these two pathogens, we investigated the host response induced by selected antigenic peptides. We examined both humoral and cell-mediated ...
Choi E Y EY 1] Department of Biomedical Sciences and Department of Pharmacology, Cell Dysfunction Research Center (CDRC), University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea [2] Experimental Immunology Branch, National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA [3] Department of Clinical Pathobiochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany [4] Department of Internal Medicine III, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, - - 2014
Inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) and disruption of its immune privilege are major contributors to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and of its rodent counterpart, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We have previously identified developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) as an endogenous anti-inflammatory factor, which inhibits integrin-dependent leukocyte adhesion. ...
Arosio Daniela - - 2014
Dendritic Cells (DCs), the most potent antigen-presenting cells, play a critical role in the detection of invading pathogens, which are recognized also by multiple carbohydrate-specific receptors. Among them, DC-SIGN is one of the best characterized, with high-mannose and Lewis-type glycan specifity. In this study, we present a potent DC-SIGN targeting ...
Han X - - 2014
Atherosclerosis is primarily a disorder of lipid metabolism, but there is also a prominent chronic inflammatory component that drives the atherosclerotic lesion progression in the artery wall. During hyperlipidaemic conditions, there is a rapid influx of circulating monocytes into the atherosclerosis-prone areas of the arterial intima. These infiltrated monocytes differentiate ...
Zhang Rongwei R Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, No. 155, Nanjing North Street, Heping District, Shenyang, 110001, Liaoning, China, - - 2014
A number of different microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in various autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). T helper (Th)17 and regulatory T cells (Tregs) have likewise been implicated as key players in MS, and a functional imbalance of these cell types is increasingly recognized as a key etiological factor ...
Jonas Anna - - 2014
In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), inflammatory axonal injury is a major determinant of disability; however, the drivers of this injury are incompletely understood. Here, we used the EAE model and determined that the extracellular matrix protein matrilin-2 (MATN2) is an endogenous neuronal ...
Donders Raf - - 2014
Umbilical cord matrix or Wharton?s jelly-derived stromal cells (WJ-MSCs) are an easily accessible source of mesenchymal-like stem cells. Recent studies describe a hypo-immunogenic phenotype, multipotent differentiation potential and trophic support function for WJ-MSCs, with variable clinical benefit in degenerative disease models such as stroke, myocardial infarction and Parkinson?s disease. It ...
Liu Nan N Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan, - - 2014
Immunological dysfunction is a primary characteristic of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Matrine (MAT), a quinolizidine alkaloid derived from the herb Radix Sophorae Flave, has been shown to ameliorate the clinical signs of EAE by suppressing the production of proinflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and ...
Kyrova Kamila - - 2014
BackgroundFollowing infection and initial multiplication in the gut lumen, Salmonella Typhimurium crosses the intestinal epithelial barrier and comes into contact with cells of the host immune system. Mononuclear phagocytes which comprise macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) are of key importance for the outcome of Salmonella infection. Although macrophages and DC ...
Pannee Chinjarernpan C Interdisciplinary Program of Pharmacology, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, - - 2014
Cassia oil (CO) from different parts of Cinnamomum cassia have different active components. Very few pharmacological properties of cassia leaf oil have been reported. This study investigated and compared effects of cassia leaf oil and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774A.1 cells. Volatile compositions in cassia leaf oil were identified by ...
Wagner Verena V Max-Eder Group Experimental Therapies for Hematologic Malignancies, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and Dept. of Internal Medicine V, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. Contributed equally to this - - 2014
The inhibitor-of-apoptosis family member survivin has been reported to inhibit apoptosis and regulate mitosis and cytokinesis. In multiple myeloma, survivin has been described to be involved in downstream sequelae of various therapeutic agents. We assessed 1093 samples from previously untreated patients, including two independent cohorts of 392 and 701 patients, ...
Huber Amanda K AK From the Holtom-Garrett Program in Neuroimmunology and Multiple Sclerosis Center, Departments of Neurology (A.K.H., D.N.I., B.M.S.), Biostatistics (L.W.), and Radiology (A.S.), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Neurology Service (B.M.S.), VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, MI; Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science (P.H.), University of Waterloo, Canada; Department of Mathematics and Statistics (X.Z.), Bowling Green State University, OH; and Department of Imaging Sciences (S.E.), University of Rochester Medical Center, - - 2014
In the current exploratory study, we longitudinally measured immune parameters in the blood of individuals with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), and investigated their relationship to disease duration and clinical and radiologic measures of CNS injury. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma were obtained ...
Pakravan Nafiseh N Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical School, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, - - 2014
Previous studies have shown that insemination elicits the expansion of the natural FoxP3(+) regulatory T cell (Treg) pool in female reproductive tissue during mating. Further research demonstrated that this effect was due to seminal vesicle fluid. Indeed, seminal vesicle fluid causes differential recruitment of Tregs into different organs. The recruitment ...
Thomas Katja K Departments of Neurology (K.T., T.S., H.R., T.Z.) and Dermatology (C.G.), University Hospital, Dresden; Institute of Immunology (K.D., R.W., M.S.), Medical Faculty, TU Dresden; Department of Neuropathology (I.M., W.B.), University Medical Centre, Göttingen; Department of Neurology (H.T.), University Hospital, Ulm; Department of Dermatology (K.S.), University Hospital, Heidelberg; and Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden (M.S.), Dresden, - - 2014
To examine the potential role of 6-sulfo LacNAc(+) (slan) dendritic cells (DCs) displaying pronounced proinflammatory properties in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We determined the presence of slanDCs in demyelinated brain lesions and CSF samples of patients with MS. In addition, we explored the impact of methylprednisolone, interferon-β, glatiramer ...
Mayo Lior L Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, - - 2014
Astrocytes have complex roles in health and disease, thus it is important to study the pathways that regulate their function. Here we report that lactosylceramide (LacCer) synthesized by β-1,4-galactosyltransferase 6 (B4GALT6) is upregulated in the central nervous system (CNS) of mice during chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of ...
Slowik A A Institute of Neuroanatomy, Faculty of Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen, - - 2014
The sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator is an approved treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) because of its anti-inflammatory effect to retain lymphocytes within the lymph nodes. Here, we evaluated the potential of FTY720 (fingolimod; Gilenya™, Novartis Pharma AG) to activate pro-myelinating pathways within the brain to encourage remyelination and ...
Abdin Amany A AA Departments of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt. Electronic address: - - 2014
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of brain and spinal cord that has an increasing incidence worldwide and classically presents in a relapsing-remitting form. This study was designed to induce a relapsing-remitting model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) to investigate the possible modulatory effect of celastrol on ...
Zhou Xin X Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Republic of Korea; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Yanbian University, People's Republic of - - 2014
In the study described herein, the red emitting probe CHCN, which possesses a linked coumarin-hemicyanine scaffold, was developed for detection of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) under physiological conditions. The studies show that CHCN displays a dual ratiometric and colorimetric response to ONOO(-) that is caused by an oxidation process. A possible mechanism ...
Li Hong-Mei HM Faculty of Pharmacy, Bengbu Medical College, 2600 Donghai Road, Bengbu, 233030, Anhui, - - 2014
Bioassay-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of Magnolia grandiflora seeds resulted in the isolation of a new dimeric neolignan, named bishonokiol A (1), as well as two known neolignans magnolol (2) and honokiol (3). The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of data obtained using NMR and ...
Liu Xiaomei X Nanjing Medical University, - - 2014
Interleukin 17 (IL-17), produced mainly by T helper (Th) 17 cells, is increasingly recognized as a key regulator in various autoimmune diseases, including human multiple sclerosis (MS), and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Although several microRNAs (miRNAs) with aberrant expression have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis ...
Panos Michael - - 2014
Abstract Recent studies provide a functional link between kallikrein 6 (Klk6) and the development and progression of disease in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and in its murine models. To evaluate the involvement of additional kallikrein family members, we compared Klk6 expression with four other kallikreins (Klk1, Klk7, Klk8, and ...
Russi Abigail E AE Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, - - 2014
The central nervous system (CNS) largely comprises nonregenerating cells, including neurons and myelin-producing oligodendrocytes, which are particularly vulnerable to immune cell-mediated damage. To protect the CNS, mechanisms exist that normally restrict the transit of peripheral immune cells into the brain and spinal cord, conferring an "immune-specialized" status. Thus, there has ...
Hussain Rehana Z RZ Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, TX, - - 2014
Treatment of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disorders frequently involves the reduction, or depletion of immune-competent cells. Alternatively, immune cells are being sequestered away from the target organ by interfering with their movement from secondary lymphoid organs, or their migration into tissues. These therapeutic strategies have been successful in multiple ...
Lassmann H H Center for Brain Research, Medical University of Vienna, Spitalgasse 4, A-1090 Wien, Austria. Electronic address: - - 2014
Basic mechanisms of immune surveillance of the central nervous system (CNS) and of brain inflammation have recently been elucidated through neuroimmunological research. Despite this progress our understanding of human inflammatory diseases of the brain and spinal cord is still incomplete. In this short review, we discuss some recent findings on ...
He Yi-Xin - - 2014
Radix Astragali is famous for its beneficial effect on inflammation associated diseases. This study was to assess the efficacy of astragalosides (AST) extracted from Radix Astragali, on the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and explore its possible underlying molecular mechanisms. EAE was induced by subcutaneous immunization of MOG35-55. Infiltration ...
Mizee Mark R MR Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, - - 2014
Multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions are characterized by the presence of activated astrocytes, which are thought to actively take part in propagating lesion progression by secreting pro-inflammatory mediators. Conversely, reactive astrocytes may exert disease-dampening effects through the production of trophic factors and anti-inflammatory mediators. Astrocytic control of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) ...
Høglund Rune A RA Rune A Høglund, Azzam A Maghazachi, Department of Physiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo N-0317, - - 2014
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease with many different immune cells involved in its pathogenesis, and in particular T cells as the most recognized cell type. Recently, the innate immune system has also been researched for its effect on the disease. Hence, cells of the immune system play vital ...
Castelo-Branco Gonçalo G Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: - - 2014
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in young adults. Chronic treatments with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) have been reported to ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a rodent model of MS, by targeting immune responses. We have recently shown that ...
Luchtman Dirk W DW Department of Neurology, Focus Program Translational Neuroscience (FTN), Rhine Main Neuroscience Network (rmn(2)), University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
Multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune neurological disorder, is driven by self-reactive T helper (Th) cells. Research on the role of Th17 lymphocytes in MS pathogenesis has made significant progress in identifying various immunological as well as environmental factors that induce the differentiation and expansion of these cells, different subsets of ...
Kasper Lloyd H LH Departments of Microbiology/Immunology and Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College Hanover, New - - 2014
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disorder of the central nervous system that appears to be driven by a shift in immune functioning toward excess inflammation that results in demyelination and axonal loss. Beta interferons were the first class of disease-modifying therapies to be approved for patients with MS after ...
Behjati Mohaddeseh M Department of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Center AND Heart Failure Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, - - 2014
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic auto-immune disease. Most therapeutic strategies for treatment of this disease direct immune modulation and control of inflammatory processes. First-line therapeutic agents showed moderate efficacy and frequent side-effects with moderate efficacy in trials. Their parental administration and limited long-term adherence restrict their efficacy compared with ...
Ebrahimi Kalan Abbas A Anatomical Sciences Department, School of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran ; Shefa Neuroscience Research Center, Tehran, IR - - 2014
Cytokines are secreted signaling proteins which play essential roles in immune responses during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a demyelinating model that mimics many features of multiple sclerosis (MS). Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine produced by different cells, mediating inflammatory reactions and immune-mediated processes. Several studies have described immunosuppressive ...
Namekata K K Visual Research Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, - - 2014
Dedicator of cytokinesis 3 (Dock3) belongs to an atypical family of the guanine nucleotide exchange factors. It is predominantly expressed in the neural tissues and causes cellular morphological changes by activating the small GTPase Rac1. We previously reported that Dock3 overexpression protects retinal ganglion cells from excitotoxic cell death. Oligodendrocytes ...
Mansilla M José MJ Servei de Neurologia-Neuroimmunologia, Centre d'Esclerosi Múltiple de Catalunya (Cemcat), Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR), Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, - - 2014
Heat shock protein (Hsp)70 is one of the most important stress-inducible proteins. Intracellular Hsp70 not only mediates chaperone-cytoprotective functions but can also block multiple steps in the apoptosis pathway. In addition, Hsp70 is actively released into the extracellular milieu, thereby promoting innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, Hsp70 may be ...
Gu Dongmin D Department of Lymphoma/Myeloma, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of - - 2014
Intracellular proteolytic pathways have been validated as rational targets in multiple myeloma with the approval of two proteasome inhibitors in this disease, and with the finding that immunomodulatory agents work through an E3 ubiquitin ligase containing Cereblon. Another E3 ligase that could be a rational target is the murine double ...
Marcu-Malina Victoria V Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Sheba Medical Center , Ramat Gan , - - 2014
Infusions of aminobisphonates (ABP) activate Vγ9δ2T cells in vivo and induce an acute inflammatory response in 30% of patients treated for osteoporosis. Following the observation of digital thrombosis in a systemic sclerosis (SSc) patient after treatment with an intravenous ABP, zoledronate (Zol), we evaluated whether patient and control peripheral blood ...
Montarolo Francesca F Neurobiology Unit, Neurologia 2 - CRESM (Regional Referring Center of Multiple Sclerosis), Neuroscience Institute Cavalieri Ottolenghi (NICO), University of Turin and AOU San Luigi, Orbassano, Torino, - - 2014
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune chronic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by immune-mediated inflammation, demyelination and subsequent axonal damage. Gene expression profiling showed that Nurr1, an orphan nuclear receptor, is down-regulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients. Nurr1 exerts an anti-inflammatory role repressing the ...
Wang Yue Y Department of Neuroimmunology, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, - - 2014
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is composed of capillary endothelial cells, pericytes, and perivascular astrocytes, which regulate central nervous system homeostasis. Sonic hedgehog (SHH) released from astrocytes plays an important role in the maintenance of BBB integrity. BBB disruption and microglial activation are common pathological features of various neurologic diseases such ...
Quintana Francisco J FJ Center for Neurologic Diseases, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA. E-mail: - - 2014
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system and considered one of the leading causes of disability in young adults. The precise cause of multiple sclerosis is unknown, although the current evidence points towards a combination of genetic and environmental factors leading to an autoimmune response ...
Duffy Samuel S SS School of Medical Science, The University of New South Wales, Wallace Wurth Building East, Level 3, Room 327, Sydney, NSW 2052, - - 2014
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterised by widespread areas of focal demyelination. Its aetiology and pathogenesis remain unclear despite substantial insights gained through studies of animal models, most notably experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). MS is widely believed to be immune-mediated and pathologically ...
Moling Oswald O 0000-0002-4185-7970 Division of Infectious Diseases, Ospedale Generale, 39100 Bolzano, - - 2014
The immune system protects the organism from foreign invaders and foreign substances and is involved in physiological functions that range from tissue repair to neurocognition. However, an excessive or dysregulated immune response can cause immunopathology and disease. A 39-year-old man was affected by severe hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni and by amyotrophic ...
Qiu Jing - - 2011
The combined effects of γ-irradiation and cadmium (Cd) exposures on osteoblasts were observed in the present study. Osteoblasts were exposed to γ-irradiation (0.5Gy) and Cd (0-0.5μmol/L). Cell viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization ability, cell apoptosis and genes expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OC) and caspase 3 were observed. Low concentrations ...
Singla Abhishek - - 2011
In the past decade, immunomodulatory drugs have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM)-and a number of emerging agents that target the cellular pathways or proteins involved in the pathophysiology of MM are currently in development. Lenalidomide (Revlimid) and pomalidomide induce ...
Liu Dongmei - - 2011
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most common toxic metals in water. To investigate the mechanism of Cd-induced apoptosis in the hepatopancreas, freshwater crabs Sinopotamon yangtsekiense were exposed to 0, 3.56, 7.12, 14.25, 28.49 and 56.98 mg/L Cd for 48 h. After a 48 h exposure, apoptosis and necroptosis were ...
Naser Saleh A - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of infiltration of different cell subpopulations (tissue dendritic macrophages, T-helper cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, and B cells) and the expression of the cytokines interleukin-12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in inflamed and noninflamed resected tissues from ...
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