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Mayo Lior L Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, - - 2014
Astrocytes have complex roles in health and disease, thus it is important to study the pathways that regulate their function. Here we report that lactosylceramide (LacCer) synthesized by β-1,4-galactosyltransferase 6 (B4GALT6) is upregulated in the central nervous system (CNS) of mice during chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of ...
Slowik A A Institute of Neuroanatomy, Faculty of Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen, - - 2014
The sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator is an approved treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) because of its anti-inflammatory effect to retain lymphocytes within the lymph nodes. Here, we evaluated the potential of FTY720 (fingolimod; Gilenya™, Novartis Pharma AG) to activate pro-myelinating pathways within the brain to encourage remyelination and ...
Abdin Amany A AA Departments of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt. Electronic address: - - 2014
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of brain and spinal cord that has an increasing incidence worldwide and classically presents in a relapsing-remitting form. This study was designed to induce a relapsing-remitting model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) to investigate the possible modulatory effect of celastrol on ...
Li Hong-Mei HM Faculty of Pharmacy, Bengbu Medical College, 2600 Donghai Road, Bengbu, 233030, Anhui, - - 2014
Bioassay-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of Magnolia grandiflora seeds resulted in the isolation of a new dimeric neolignan, named bishonokiol A (1), as well as two known neolignans magnolol (2) and honokiol (3). The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of data obtained using NMR and ...
Liu Xiaomei X Nanjing Medical University, - - 2014
Interleukin 17 (IL-17), produced mainly by T helper (Th) 17 cells, is increasingly recognized as a key regulator in various autoimmune diseases, including human multiple sclerosis (MS), and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Although several microRNAs (miRNAs) with aberrant expression have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis ...
Panos Michael - - 2014
Abstract Recent studies provide a functional link between kallikrein 6 (Klk6) and the development and progression of disease in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and in its murine models. To evaluate the involvement of additional kallikrein family members, we compared Klk6 expression with four other kallikreins (Klk1, Klk7, Klk8, and ...
Lassmann H H Center for Brain Research, Medical University of Vienna, Spitalgasse 4, A-1090 Wien, Austria. Electronic address: - - 2014
Basic mechanisms of immune surveillance of the central nervous system (CNS) and of brain inflammation have recently been elucidated through neuroimmunological research. Despite this progress our understanding of human inflammatory diseases of the brain and spinal cord is still incomplete. In this short review, we discuss some recent findings on ...
He Yi-Xin - - 2014
Radix Astragali is famous for its beneficial effect on inflammation associated diseases. This study was to assess the efficacy of astragalosides (AST) extracted from Radix Astragali, on the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and explore its possible underlying molecular mechanisms. EAE was induced by subcutaneous immunization of MOG35-55. Infiltration ...
Mizee Mark R MR Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, - - 2014
Multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions are characterized by the presence of activated astrocytes, which are thought to actively take part in propagating lesion progression by secreting pro-inflammatory mediators. Conversely, reactive astrocytes may exert disease-dampening effects through the production of trophic factors and anti-inflammatory mediators. Astrocytic control of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) ...
Castelo-Branco Gonçalo G Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: - - 2014
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in young adults. Chronic treatments with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) have been reported to ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a rodent model of MS, by targeting immune responses. We have recently shown that ...
Luchtman Dirk W DW Department of Neurology, Focus Program Translational Neuroscience (FTN), Rhine Main Neuroscience Network (rmn(2)), University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
Multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune neurological disorder, is driven by self-reactive T helper (Th) cells. Research on the role of Th17 lymphocytes in MS pathogenesis has made significant progress in identifying various immunological as well as environmental factors that induce the differentiation and expansion of these cells, different subsets of ...
Namekata K K Visual Research Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, - - 2014
Dedicator of cytokinesis 3 (Dock3) belongs to an atypical family of the guanine nucleotide exchange factors. It is predominantly expressed in the neural tissues and causes cellular morphological changes by activating the small GTPase Rac1. We previously reported that Dock3 overexpression protects retinal ganglion cells from excitotoxic cell death. Oligodendrocytes ...
Mansilla M José MJ Servei de Neurologia-Neuroimmunologia, Centre d'Esclerosi Múltiple de Catalunya (Cemcat), Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR), Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, - - 2014
Heat shock protein (Hsp)70 is one of the most important stress-inducible proteins. Intracellular Hsp70 not only mediates chaperone-cytoprotective functions but can also block multiple steps in the apoptosis pathway. In addition, Hsp70 is actively released into the extracellular milieu, thereby promoting innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, Hsp70 may be ...
Gu Dongmin D Department of Lymphoma/Myeloma, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of - - 2014
Intracellular proteolytic pathways have been validated as rational targets in multiple myeloma with the approval of two proteasome inhibitors in this disease, and with the finding that immunomodulatory agents work through an E3 ubiquitin ligase containing Cereblon. Another E3 ligase that could be a rational target is the murine double ...
Qiu Jing - - 2011
The combined effects of γ-irradiation and cadmium (Cd) exposures on osteoblasts were observed in the present study. Osteoblasts were exposed to γ-irradiation (0.5Gy) and Cd (0-0.5μmol/L). Cell viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization ability, cell apoptosis and genes expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OC) and caspase 3 were observed. Low concentrations ...
Singla Abhishek - - 2011
In the past decade, immunomodulatory drugs have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM)-and a number of emerging agents that target the cellular pathways or proteins involved in the pathophysiology of MM are currently in development. Lenalidomide (Revlimid) and pomalidomide induce ...
Liu Dongmei - - 2011
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most common toxic metals in water. To investigate the mechanism of Cd-induced apoptosis in the hepatopancreas, freshwater crabs Sinopotamon yangtsekiense were exposed to 0, 3.56, 7.12, 14.25, 28.49 and 56.98 mg/L Cd for 48 h. After a 48 h exposure, apoptosis and necroptosis were ...
Naser Saleh A - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of infiltration of different cell subpopulations (tissue dendritic macrophages, T-helper cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, and B cells) and the expression of the cytokines interleukin-12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in inflamed and noninflamed resected tissues from ...
Szeto Hazel H - - 2011
The burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during reperfusion of ischemic tissues can trigger the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore, resulting in mitochondrial depolarization, decreased ATP synthesis, and increased ROS production. Rapid recovery of ATP upon reperfusion is essential for survival of tubular cells, and inhibition of ...
Chamberlain Connie S CS Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, - - 2011
Despite a complex cascade of cellular events to reconstruct the damaged extracellular matrix, ligament healing results in a mechanically inferior scarred ligament. During normal healing, granulation tissue expands into any residual normal ligamentous tissue (creeping substitution), resulting in a larger region of healing, greater mechanical compromise and an inefficient repair ...
Aziz Nabil - - 2011
Apoptosis was induced in immature and mature sperm in the presence or absence of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor. The association of cleaved (cPARP) with sperm morphology was examined using sperm deformity index (SDI) score. The SDI scores are associated with PARP cleavage as an early marker of apoptosis.
Smith Stuart J SJ Division of Developmental Biology, MRC-National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, - - 2011
The heart-forming mesoderm in Xenopus embryos lies adjacent to the source of the first embryonic population of macrophages. Such macrophages underlie the bilateral myocardial cell layers as they converge to form a linear heart tube. We have examined whether such macrophages participate in early cardiac morphogenesis, combining morpholino oligonucleotides that ...
Takahashi Yoshika - - 2011
Background: Neuroinflammation triggered by macrophage infiltration into sites of peripheral nerve injury may result in neuropathic pain. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ signaling regulates the properties of macrophages. However, the macrophage-mediated effects of PPARγ signaling on neuropathic pain triggered by peripheral inflammation have not been investigated. Methods: To evaluate the peripheral ...
Aligeti Sabitha S Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78229, - - 2011
Although macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) has been suggested to play a role in maintaining the chronic inflammatory response in endometriosis, our data suggest that CSF-1 may also play a role in early endometriosis lesion formation. We have shown that CSF-1, in an autocrine fashion, has a direct effect on endometrial ...
Mitsias Dimitris I - - 2011
Evaluation of: Bussmann C, Xia J, Allam J-P, Maintz L, Bieber T, Novak N: Early markers for protective mechanisms during rush venom immunotherapy. Allergy 65, 1558-1565 (2010). The mechanisms governing the induction of peripheral tolerance as a result of specific immunotherapy are far from being clearly characterized. In the last ...
Li Guangyu G Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0435, - - 2011
Macrophages and CD4(+) lymphocytes are the major reservoirs for HIV-1 infection. CD63 is a tetraspanin transmembrane protein, which has been shown to play an essential role during HIV-1 replication in macrophages. In this study, we further confirm the requirement of CD63 in early HIV-1 replication events in both macrophages and ...
He Li-Cai - - 2011
Ikaros is an important transcription factor involved in the development and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. In this work, we found that chemotherapeutic drugs or ultraviolet radiation (UV) treatment could reduce the expression of full-length Ikaros (IK1) protein in less than 3 hours in leukemic NB4, Kasumi-1 and Jurkat cells, prior ...
Scabini Matteo - - 2011
In vivo imaging of apoptosis in a preclinical setting in anticancer drug development could provide remarkable advantages in terms of translational medicine. So far, several imaging technologies with different probes have been used to achieve this goal. Here we describe a bioluminescence imaging approach that uses a new formulation of ...
Sima Ni - - 2011
It is well known that human papillomaviruses (HPVs) involve in the pathogenesis of some specific carcinomas such as cervical cancer. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that early proteins E6 and E7 played the most important role in the cervical carcinogenesis. Early proteins E6 and E7 of HPV both are ...
Iwama Shintaro - - 2011
Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a serious demyelinating disease in the central nervous system usually caused by rapid correction of hyponatremia. In an animal model of ODS, we previously reported microglial accumulation expressing proinflammatory cytokines. Microglia and astrocytes secreting proinflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors are reported to be involved in ...
Iwama Shintaro - - 2010
Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a serious demyelinating disease in the central nervous system usually caused by rapid correction of hyponatremia. In an animal model of ODS, we previously reported microglial accumulation expressing proinflammatory cytokines. Microglia and astrocytes secreting proinflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors are reported to be involved in ...
Chen Hong-Jhang HJ Graduate Institute of Food Science and Technology, College of Bioresources and Agriculture, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address: - - 2011
Anti-inflammation-guided fractionation and purification were used to evaluate the bioactivity and components of adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) bran. Results showed that the fraction with high phenolic and flavonoid contents from the ethanol extracts of adlay bran suppressed LPS-stimulated IL-6 and TNF-α secretions in a concentration-dependent manner in ...
Tang D - - 2010
One hallmark of cancer is intrinsic or acquired resistance to apoptosis. Surprisingly, recent studies demonstrate that CD95/Fas/Apo1 and p53 upregulated mediator of apoptosis/PUMA (potent inducers of the death receptor and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathways, respectively) promote tumorigenesis. These findings provide important insights into the multifaceted roles of apoptosis in tumorigenesis.Oncogene ...
Larocca Luciana - - 2010
During normal early pregnancy circulating monocytes are recruited to the maternal-placental interface where they differentiate to macrophages expressing different functional phenotypes for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Pregnancy in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model presents some pathological features in the pre-diabetic stage. The aim of this work was to ...
Arlt Alexander - - 2010
The expression of the early response gene immediate early response 3 (IER3), formerly known as IEX-1, is induced by a great variety of stimuli, such as growth factors, cytokines, ionizing radiation, viral infection and other types of cellular stress. Being of a rather unique protein structure not sharing any similarity ...
Delano Matthew J - - 2011
Sepsis, the systemic inflammatory response to microbial infection, induces changes in both innate and adaptive immunity that presumably lead to increased susceptibility to secondary infections, multiorgan failure, and death. Using a model of murine polymicrobial sepsis whose severity approximates human sepsis, we examined outcomes and defined requirements for survival after ...
Shibata Takehiko - - 2011
Early apoptotic neutrophils but not secondary necrotic ones down-regulate LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production of macrophages, thereby contributing to the resolution of inflammation. IFN-γ is also a well-known stimulant of macrophages, but how the apoptotic neutrophils affect IFN-γ-stimulated macrophages remains largely unexplored. Since IFN-γ induces the expression of inducible nitric oxide ...
Gatto Dominique - - 2010
The germinal center (GC) reaction is the basis of T-dependent humoral immunity against foreign pathogens and the ultimate expression of the adaptive immune response. GCs represent a unique collaboration between proliferating antigen-specific B cells, T follicular helper cells, and the specialized follicular dendritic cells that constitutively occupy the central follicular ...
Xia Xuechun X Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, - - 2010
Glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is the most frequent cause of secondary osteoporosis. In this study we have demonstrated that GC treatment induced the development of autophagy, preserving osteocyte viability. GC treatment resulted in an increase in autophagy markers and the accumulation of autophagosome vacuoles in vitro and in vivo promoted the ...
Rahman Ziaur S M - - 2010
Germinal centers (GCs) are specialized microenvironments that generate high-affinity Ab-forming cells (AFCs) and memory B cells. Many B cells undergo apoptosis during B cell clonal selection in GCs. Although the factors that regulate the AFC and GC responses are not precisely understood, it is widely believed that dysregulated AFCs and ...
Vikstrom Ingela I Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 1G Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052, - - 2010
Lymphocyte survival during immune responses is controlled by the relative expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic molecules, regulating the magnitude, quality, and duration of the response. We investigated the consequences of deleting genes encoding the anti-apoptotic molecules Mcl1 and Bcl2l1 (Bcl-x(L)) from B cells using an inducible system synchronized with expression ...
Liu Jiqin - - 2010
Toluene has been extensively examined for effects on the central nervous system. To investigate the influence of low-level inhalation of toluene on the naive immune cells, male C3H/HeN mice were exposed to filtered air (control) and 50 ppm of toluene for 3 weeks. Low-level exposure resulted in (1) increased proliferation ...
Savino Wilson - - 2010
The thymus gland, where T lymphocyte development occurs, is targeted in malnutrition secondary to protein energy deficiency. There is a severe thymic atrophy, resulting from massive thymocyte apoptosis (particularly affecting the immature CD4+CD8+ cell subset) and decrease in cell proliferation. The thymic microenvironment (the non-lymphoid compartment that drives intrathymic T-cell ...
Ling Jing - - 2011
Objectives. To study the roles of heat shock proteins10 (HSP10) in the regulation of mouse ovarian granulose cell (GC) apoptosis, and to further define the possible roles of HSP10 in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods. Mouse HSP10 small interfering RNA (siRNA) and recombinant adenoviruses overexpressing HSP10 were constructed and ...
Xie Jing - - 2010
Purple sweet potato (PSP) pigments have been widely accepted as antioxidants but their radioprotective effect still remains unclear. In this study we investigated the effect of PSP pigments on ⁶⁰Co γ-ray-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in murine thymocytes. The murine thymocytes were pretreated by PSP pigments before exposure to 4 Gy ⁶⁰Co ...
Zhao Ya-Ning - - 2011
Although glucocorticoids (GCs) have been used to treat acute lymphoblast leukemia (ALL) for decades, the mechanisms of GC sensitivity and resistance in ALL cells are poorly understood. This study investigated the role and mechanisms of pro-apoptotic protein BIM in apoptosis of GC-sensitive and- resistant ALL cells. The dramatic apoptosis was ...
Flammer Jamie R JR Graduate Program in Immunology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1300 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, - - 2010
Type I interferon (IFN) is essential for host defenses against viruses; however, dysregulated IFN signaling is causally linked to autoimmunity, particularly systemic lupus erythematosus. Autoimmune disease treatments rely on glucocorticoids (GCs), which act via the GC receptor (GR) to repress proinflammatory cytokine gene transcription. Conversely, cytokine signaling through cognate Jak/STAT ...
Zhu Mingzhao M Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. - - 2010
Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) play a critical role in thymic negative selection of autoreactive thymocytes, especially for thymocytes specific for peripheral tissue-restricted self-antigens (TRA). Deficiency in lymphotoxin b receptor (LTbetaR) is associated with peripheral tissue inflammation, but whether this is caused by defective negative selection has been unclear; the ...
Sanui Ayako - - 2010
Advanced gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most lethal malignancies. Although many anticancer agents exist for the treatment of GC, its prognosis remains extremely poor. Therefore, further development of targeted therapies is required for patients with GC. To assess the role of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) ...
Blair-Handon Robin - - 2010
The thymus is a bi-lobed lymphatic organ located in the anterior portion of the ventral thoracic cavity, just behind the sternum. Because the thymus is the site of development of T lymphocytes (T cells), it is frequently targeted in research studies that involve the immune system. Furthermore, the rapid expansion ...
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