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Qiu Jing - - 2011
The combined effects of γ-irradiation and cadmium (Cd) exposures on osteoblasts were observed in the present study. Osteoblasts were exposed to γ-irradiation (0.5Gy) and Cd (0-0.5μmol/L). Cell viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization ability, cell apoptosis and genes expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OC) and caspase 3 were observed. Low concentrations ...
Liu Dongmei - - 2011
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most common toxic metals in water. To investigate the mechanism of Cd-induced apoptosis in the hepatopancreas, freshwater crabs Sinopotamon yangtsekiense were exposed to 0, 3.56, 7.12, 14.25, 28.49 and 56.98 mg/L Cd for 48 h. After a 48 h exposure, apoptosis and necroptosis were ...
Naser Saleh A - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of infiltration of different cell subpopulations (tissue dendritic macrophages, T-helper cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, and B cells) and the expression of the cytokines interleukin-12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in inflamed and noninflamed resected tissues from ...
Szeto Hazel H - - 2011
The burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during reperfusion of ischemic tissues can trigger the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore, resulting in mitochondrial depolarization, decreased ATP synthesis, and increased ROS production. Rapid recovery of ATP upon reperfusion is essential for survival of tubular cells, and inhibition of ...
Chamberlain Connie S - - 2011
Despite a complex cascade of cellular events to reconstruct the damaged extracellular matrix, ligament healing results in a mechanically inferior scarred ligament. During normal healing, granulation tissue expands into any residual normal ligamentous tissue (creeping substitution), resulting in a larger region of healing, greater mechanical compromise and an inefficient repair ...
Aziz Nabil - - 2011
Apoptosis was induced in immature and mature sperm in the presence or absence of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor. The association of cleaved (cPARP) with sperm morphology was examined using sperm deformity index (SDI) score. The SDI scores are associated with PARP cleavage as an early marker of apoptosis.
Smith Stuart J SJ Division of Developmental Biology, MRC-National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, - - 2011
The heart-forming mesoderm in Xenopus embryos lies adjacent to the source of the first embryonic population of macrophages. Such macrophages underlie the bilateral myocardial cell layers as they converge to form a linear heart tube. We have examined whether such macrophages participate in early cardiac morphogenesis, combining morpholino oligonucleotides that ...
Takahashi Yoshika - - 2011
Background: Neuroinflammation triggered by macrophage infiltration into sites of peripheral nerve injury may result in neuropathic pain. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ signaling regulates the properties of macrophages. However, the macrophage-mediated effects of PPARγ signaling on neuropathic pain triggered by peripheral inflammation have not been investigated. Methods: To evaluate the peripheral ...
Aligeti Sabitha - - 2011
Although macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) has been suggested to play a role in maintaining the chronic inflammatory response in endometriosis, our data suggest that CSF-1 may also play a role in early endometriosis lesion formation. We have shown that CSF-1, in an autocrine fashion, has a direct effect on endometrial ...
Mitsias Dimitris I - - 2011
Evaluation of: Bussmann C, Xia J, Allam J-P, Maintz L, Bieber T, Novak N: Early markers for protective mechanisms during rush venom immunotherapy. Allergy 65, 1558-1565 (2010). The mechanisms governing the induction of peripheral tolerance as a result of specific immunotherapy are far from being clearly characterized. In the last ...
Li Guangyu - - 2011
Macrophages and CD4(+) lymphocytes are the major reservoirs for HIV-1 infection. CD63 is a tetraspanin transmembrane protein, which has been shown to play an essential role during HIV-1 replication in macrophages. In this study, we further confirm the requirement of CD63 in early HIV-1 replication events in both macrophages and ...
He Li-Cai - - 2011
Ikaros is an important transcription factor involved in the development and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. In this work, we found that chemotherapeutic drugs or ultraviolet radiation (UV) treatment could reduce the expression of full-length Ikaros (IK1) protein in less than 3 hours in leukemic NB4, Kasumi-1 and Jurkat cells, prior ...
Scabini Matteo - - 2011
In vivo imaging of apoptosis in a preclinical setting in anticancer drug development could provide remarkable advantages in terms of translational medicine. So far, several imaging technologies with different probes have been used to achieve this goal. Here we describe a bioluminescence imaging approach that uses a new formulation of ...
Sima Ni - - 2011
It is well known that human papillomaviruses (HPVs) involve in the pathogenesis of some specific carcinomas such as cervical cancer. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that early proteins E6 and E7 played the most important role in the cervical carcinogenesis. Early proteins E6 and E7 of HPV both are ...
Iwama Shintaro - - 2011
Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a serious demyelinating disease in the central nervous system usually caused by rapid correction of hyponatremia. In an animal model of ODS, we previously reported microglial accumulation expressing proinflammatory cytokines. Microglia and astrocytes secreting proinflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors are reported to be involved in ...
Iwama Shintaro - - 2010
Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a serious demyelinating disease in the central nervous system usually caused by rapid correction of hyponatremia. In an animal model of ODS, we previously reported microglial accumulation expressing proinflammatory cytokines. Microglia and astrocytes secreting proinflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors are reported to be involved in ...
Tang D - - 2010
One hallmark of cancer is intrinsic or acquired resistance to apoptosis. Surprisingly, recent studies demonstrate that CD95/Fas/Apo1 and p53 upregulated mediator of apoptosis/PUMA (potent inducers of the death receptor and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathways, respectively) promote tumorigenesis. These findings provide important insights into the multifaceted roles of apoptosis in tumorigenesis.Oncogene ...
Larocca Luciana - - 2010
During normal early pregnancy circulating monocytes are recruited to the maternal-placental interface where they differentiate to macrophages expressing different functional phenotypes for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Pregnancy in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model presents some pathological features in the pre-diabetic stage. The aim of this work was to ...
Arlt Alexander - - 2010
The expression of the early response gene immediate early response 3 (IER3), formerly known as IEX-1, is induced by a great variety of stimuli, such as growth factors, cytokines, ionizing radiation, viral infection and other types of cellular stress. Being of a rather unique protein structure not sharing any similarity ...
Delano Matthew J - - 2011
Sepsis, the systemic inflammatory response to microbial infection, induces changes in both innate and adaptive immunity that presumably lead to increased susceptibility to secondary infections, multiorgan failure, and death. Using a model of murine polymicrobial sepsis whose severity approximates human sepsis, we examined outcomes and defined requirements for survival after ...
Shibata Takehiko - - 2011
Early apoptotic neutrophils but not secondary necrotic ones down-regulate LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production of macrophages, thereby contributing to the resolution of inflammation. IFN-γ is also a well-known stimulant of macrophages, but how the apoptotic neutrophils affect IFN-γ-stimulated macrophages remains largely unexplored. Since IFN-γ induces the expression of inducible nitric oxide ...
Gatto Dominique - - 2010
The germinal center (GC) reaction is the basis of T-dependent humoral immunity against foreign pathogens and the ultimate expression of the adaptive immune response. GCs represent a unique collaboration between proliferating antigen-specific B cells, T follicular helper cells, and the specialized follicular dendritic cells that constitutively occupy the central follicular ...
Xia Xuechun - - 2010
Glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is the most frequent cause of secondary osteoporosis. In this study we have demonstrated that GC treatment induced the development of autophagy, preserving osteocyte viability. GC treatment resulted in an increase in autophagy markers and the accumulation of autophagosome vacuoles in vitro and in vivo promoted the ...
Rahman Ziaur S M - - 2010
Germinal centers (GCs) are specialized microenvironments that generate high-affinity Ab-forming cells (AFCs) and memory B cells. Many B cells undergo apoptosis during B cell clonal selection in GCs. Although the factors that regulate the AFC and GC responses are not precisely understood, it is widely believed that dysregulated AFCs and ...
Vikstrom Ingela - - 2010
Lymphocyte survival during immune responses is controlled by the relative expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic molecules, regulating the magnitude, quality, and duration of the response. We investigated the consequences of deleting genes encoding the anti-apoptotic molecules Mcl1 and Bcl2l1 (Bcl-x(L)) from B cells using an inducible system synchronized with expression ...
Liu Jiqin - - 2010
Toluene has been extensively examined for effects on the central nervous system. To investigate the influence of low-level inhalation of toluene on the naive immune cells, male C3H/HeN mice were exposed to filtered air (control) and 50 ppm of toluene for 3 weeks. Low-level exposure resulted in (1) increased proliferation ...
Savino Wilson - - 2010
The thymus gland, where T lymphocyte development occurs, is targeted in malnutrition secondary to protein energy deficiency. There is a severe thymic atrophy, resulting from massive thymocyte apoptosis (particularly affecting the immature CD4+CD8+ cell subset) and decrease in cell proliferation. The thymic microenvironment (the non-lymphoid compartment that drives intrathymic T-cell ...
Ling Jing - - 2011
Objectives. To study the roles of heat shock proteins10 (HSP10) in the regulation of mouse ovarian granulose cell (GC) apoptosis, and to further define the possible roles of HSP10 in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods. Mouse HSP10 small interfering RNA (siRNA) and recombinant adenoviruses overexpressing HSP10 were constructed and ...
Xie Jing - - 2010
Purple sweet potato (PSP) pigments have been widely accepted as antioxidants but their radioprotective effect still remains unclear. In this study we investigated the effect of PSP pigments on ⁶⁰Co γ-ray-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in murine thymocytes. The murine thymocytes were pretreated by PSP pigments before exposure to 4 Gy ⁶⁰Co ...
Zhao Ya-Ning - - 2011
Although glucocorticoids (GCs) have been used to treat acute lymphoblast leukemia (ALL) for decades, the mechanisms of GC sensitivity and resistance in ALL cells are poorly understood. This study investigated the role and mechanisms of pro-apoptotic protein BIM in apoptosis of GC-sensitive and- resistant ALL cells. The dramatic apoptosis was ...
Flammer Jamie R - - 2010
Type I interferon (IFN) is essential for host defenses against viruses; however, dysregulated IFN signaling is causally linked to autoimmunity, particularly systemic lupus erythematosus. Autoimmune disease treatments rely on glucocorticoids (GCs), which act via the GC receptor (GR) to repress proinflammatory cytokine gene transcription. Conversely, cytokine signaling through cognate Jak/STAT ...
Zhu Mingzhao - - 2010
Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) play a critical role in thymic negative selection of autoreactive thymocytes, especially for thymocytes specific for peripheral tissue-restricted self-antigens (TRA). Deficiency in lymphotoxin b receptor (LTbetaR) is associated with peripheral tissue inflammation, but whether this is caused by defective negative selection has been unclear; the ...
Sanui Ayako - - 2010
Advanced gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most lethal malignancies. Although many anticancer agents exist for the treatment of GC, its prognosis remains extremely poor. Therefore, further development of targeted therapies is required for patients with GC. To assess the role of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) ...
Blair-Handon Robin - - 2010
The thymus is a bi-lobed lymphatic organ located in the anterior portion of the ventral thoracic cavity, just behind the sternum. Because the thymus is the site of development of T lymphocytes (T cells), it is frequently targeted in research studies that involve the immune system. Furthermore, the rapid expansion ...
Le Panse Rozen - - 2010
Acquired myasthenia gravis (MG), a neurological autoimmune disease, is caused by autoantibodies against components of the neuromuscular junction that lead to disabling muscle fatigability. The thymus is clearly involved in the pathogenesis of early-onset MG with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies, and thymic hyperplasia of lympho-proliferative origin is a hallmark of the ...
Fukuyama T - - 2011
The thymus has long been known to be vulnerable to atrophy when exposed to variety of stimuli, including hormones, immunosuppressive pharmaceuticals, and environmental chemicals. The organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) is an immunosuppressive agent thought to affect thymic atrophy by inducing apoptosis of thymocyte T cells. We sought to develop an ...
Chang Ching-Pang - - 2010
Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been employed as immunosuppressive agents for many years. However, it is still unclear how GCs instantly uncouple T cells from acute stressful inflammatory. In terms of time scale, the genomic activity of the classic GC receptor cannot fulfill this role under crisis; but a rapid non-genomic response ...
Park Hyo Jin - - 2010
Here, we show that the interaction between two membrane proteins, the mouse homologue of CD99 (designated D4) and its ligand, paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor (PILR), is one of the major mechanisms of thymocyte apoptosis. Using the polymeric fusion protein of PILR and IgG1 (PILR-Ig), we demonstrated that D4 ligation ...
Heng Tracy S P - - 2010
T cell development is a complex and tightly regulated process involving reciprocal interactions between the thymic stroma and differentiating thymocytes. Normal thymic function is critical for immunity and microenvironmental defects predispose to dysregulation in the T cell compartment. Thymic structure and function are also severely damaged by chemotherapy and pre-transplant ...
Wasim Muhammad - - 2010
Glucocorticoids (GCs) cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in lymphoid cells which is exploited to treat lymphoid malignancies. The mechanisms of these anti-leukemic GC effects are, however, poorly understood. We previously defined a list of GC-regulated genes by expression profiling in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during systemic GC ...
Kelly P N - - 2010
BH3-only proteins, such as Bim and Bad, contribute to tissue homeostasis by initiating apoptosis in a cell type- and stimulus-specific manner. Loss of Bim provokes lymphocyte accumulation in vivo and renders lymphocytes more resistant to diverse apoptotic stimuli and Bad has been implicated in the apoptosis of haematopoietic cells upon ...
Savino Wilson - - 2010
In the context of the cross-talk between the neuroendocrine and immune systems, it is well known that growth hormone (GH) exerts physiological effects in central as well as peripheral compartments of the immune system. GH modulates a variety of thymic functions, including proliferation of thymocytes and thymic epithelial cells (TEC). ...
Chen Zhe - - 2010
Glucocorticoid (GC) is widely used for therapeutic purposes in immunological and hematological disorders. Annexin A1 (ANXA1/lipocortin-1/lipomodulin), a GC-inducible molecule, was regarded as a vital anti-inflammatory mediator of GC. Thioredoxin binding protein-2 (TBP-2/VDUP1/TXNIP), a regulator of redox reactions, cell growth and lipid metabolism, was also reportedly induced by GC. HTLV-I infected ...
Tosa Noriko - - 2010
Death-associated protein 3 (DAP3) is crucial for promoting apoptosis induced by various stimulations. This report demonstrates that DAP3 is also important for T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated apoptosis induction in immature thymocytes. Enforced expression of DAP3 accelerated the negative selection in developing thymocytes, using the reaggregate thymus organ culture system. In ...
Spokoini Rachel - - 2010
It is still unclear how glucocorticoids (GCs) induce apoptosis of thymocytes and T lymphoma cells. Emergence of GC-resistant lymphoma cells is a major obstacle in GC therapy, emphasizing the need for novel strategies that maintain the sensitivity of lymphoma cells to the proapoptotic effects of GC. We have undertaken a ...
Alitheen Noorjahan B - - 2010
Morinda elliptica Ridley (Rubiaceae) has been used traditionally as a medicine to treat various diseases in Malaysia and southeast Asia. In the present study we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of damnacanthal isolated from the roots of Morinda elliptica. The immunomodulatory effect of this compound was evaluated by using the lymphocyte ...
Baschant Ulrike - - 2010
Glucocorticoids are potent immunosuppressive agents with complex actions on immune cells evoking the following effects: inducing apoptosis, changing differentiation fate, inhibition of cytokine release, inhibition of migration and other features. Distinct molecular mechanisms of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) contribute to different anti-inflammatory effects. Recently inflammatory models have been investigated using ...
Edgar C E - - 2010
Appropriate control of apoptosis during T lymphocyte differentiation is critical for destruction of T cells bearing potentially autoreactive or useless immuno-receptors and for survival of those T cells bearing antigen receptors that may recognize foreign proteins. Despite the well-established importance of thymocyte survival, the exact signals regulating thymocyte apoptosis have ...
Gil Minchan - - 2010
The germinal centre (GC) is a specialized microenvironment where high-affinity antibodies are produced through hypermutation and isotype switching. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are the stromal cells of the GC. The timely expansion and establishment of an FDC network is essential for a protective GC reaction; however, only a few factors ...
Huo Jianxin - - 2010
Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule (FAIM) has been demonstrated to confer resistance to Fas-induced apoptosis of lymphocytes and hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that FAIM is up-regulated in thymocytes upon T cell receptor (TCR) engagement and that faim(-/-) thymocytes are highly susceptible to TCR-mediated apoptosis with increased ...
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