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Suurväli Jaanus J Department of Gene Technology, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn 12618, - - 2014
The MHC is a large genetic region controlling Ag processing and recognition by T lymphocytes in vertebrates. Approximately 40% of its genes are implicated in innate or adaptive immunity. A putative proto-MHC exists in the chordate amphioxus and in the fruit fly, indicating that a core MHC region predated the ...
Bloom Ona O The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA; The Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, Hempstead Turnpike, Hempstead, NY 11549, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Mammals exhibit poor recovery after injury to the spinal cord, where the loss of neurons and neuronal connections can be functionally devastating. In contrast, it has long been appreciated that many non-mammalian vertebrate species exhibit significant spontaneous functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). Identifying the biological responses that support ...
Ng Tze Hann TH Institute of Biotechnology, College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, - - 2014
Although true adaptive immunity is only found in vertebrates, there is increasing evidence that shrimp and other arthropods exhibit immune specificity and immune memory. The invertebrate immune response is now called "innate immunity with specificity" or "immune priming", and its underlying mechanisms are still unclear. However, while vertebrate antibodies have ...
Gold Katrina S KS Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, - - 2014
Fish, mice and men rely on two coexisting myeloid blood cell systems. One is sustained by hematopoietic progenitor cells, which reside in specialized microenvironments in hematopoietic organs and give rise to cells of the monocyte lineage. The other system corresponds to the independent lineage of self-renewing tissue macrophages, which colonize ...
Nicola Franchi F Department of Biology, University of Padova, Via Ugo Bassi 58/B, 35100 Padova, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
The complement system is a fundamental effector mechanism of the innate immunity in both vertebrates and invertebrates. The comprehension of its roots in the evolution is a useful step to understand how the main complement-related proteins had changed in order to adapt to new environmental conditions and life-cycles or, in ...
Yuan Shaochun S State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, People's Republic of - - 2014
As the most basal chordate, the cephalochordate amphioxus has unique features that make it a valuable model for understanding the phylogeny of immunity. Vertebrate adaptive immunity (VAI) mediated by lymphocytes bearing variable receptors has been well-studied in mammals but not observed in invertebrates. However, the identification of lymphocyte-like cells in ...
Sandmeier Franziska C FC *Biology Department, Lindenwood University - Belleville, Belleville IL 62226, USA; MS 315 Biology Department, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, - - 2014
We propose a new heuristic model that incorporates metabolic rate and pace of life to predict a vertebrate species' investment in adaptive immune function. Using reptiles as an example, we hypothesize that animals with low metabolic rates will invest more in innate immunity compared with adaptive immunity. High metabolic rates ...
Drago Francesco F Université Lille 1, Laboratoire de Spectrométrie de Masse Biologique Fondamentale et Appliquée, (IFR 147). Bat. SN3 Cité Scientifique, 59655, Villeneuve d'Ascq, - - 2014
The Ionized calcium-Binding Adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), also known as Allograft Inflammatory Factor 1 (AIF-1), is a 17 kDa cytokine-inducible protein, produced by activated macrophages during chronic transplant rejection and inflammatory reactions in Vertebrates. In mammalian central nervous system (CNS), Iba1 is a sensitive marker associated with activated macrophages/microglia and ...
Ng Tze Hann TH Institute of Biotechnology, College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, - - 2014
Although true adaptive immunity is only found in vertebrates, there is increasing evidence that shrimp and other arthropods exhibit immune specificity and immune memory. The invertebrate immune response is now called "innate immunity with specificity" or "immune priming", and its underlying mechanisms are still unclear. However, while vertebrate antibodies have ...
Taketa Daryl A DA Department of Molecular, Cellular and Development Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, - - 2014
Allorecognition has been well-studied in the context of vertebrate adaptive immunity and recognition of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), which is the central event of vertebrate immune responses. Although allorecognition systems have been identified throughout the metazoa, recent results have shown that there is no apparent conservation or orthologous relationship ...
Wang Shengnan S Laboratory for Evolution & Development, Institute of Evolution & Marine Biodiversity and Department of Marine Biology, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, - - 2014
Transforming growth factorbeta(TGFβ) is a pleiotropic cytokine with important roles in mediating inflammatory response. TGFβ has been shown to be widely present in invertebrates, but little is known about its functions in immune and inflammatory responses. Moreover, structural and functional insights into TGFβ molecules in invertebrates remain completely lacking. Here ...
Neyen Claudine C Global Health Institute, School of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 19, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland,. Electronic address: - - 2014
Innate immune mechanisms are well conserved throughout evolution, and many theoretical concepts, molecular pathways and gene networks are applicable to invertebrate model organisms as much as vertebrate ones. Drosophila immunity research benefits from an easily manipulated genome, fantastic international resource of transgenic tools and over a quarter century of accumulated ...
Sirisinha Stitaya S Department of Microbiology Faculty of Science, Mahidol Unversity, Rama 6 Road, Bangkok, Thailand - - 2014
To struggle for survival, all living organisms, from protists to humans, must defend themselves from attack by predators. From the time when life began around 3,500 million years ago, all living cells have evolved mechanisms and strategies to optimally defend themselves, while the invaders also need to survive by evading ...
Yang Ping P State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Functional Genes, College of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, People's Republic of - - 2014
Vertebrate phagocytic respiratory burst (PRB) is a highly specific and efficient mechanism for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. This mechanism is mediated by NAPDH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and used by vertebrate phagocytic leukocytes to destroy internalized microbes. Here we demonstrate the presence of PRB in a basal chordate, the amphioxus ...
Rimer Jacob J Department of Immunology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, - - 2014
Recent findings have provided evidence for the existence of non-vertebrate acquired immunity. We survey these findings and propose that all living organisms must express both innate and acquired immunity. This is opposed to the paradigm that only vertebrates manifest the two forms of immune mechanism; other species are thought to ...
Meijer Annemarie H - - 2013
Many aspects of host interactions with microbes can only be studied in the context of a whole organism. The zebrafish as a model organism has shown to be highly successful for studies of infection biology and the interactions of commensal microbiota with their hosts. Zebrafish are transparent during embryo and ...
Schnupf Pamela - - 2013
Segmented Filamentous Bacteria (SFB) are present in the gut microbiota of a large number of vertebrate species where they are found intimately attached to the intestinal epithelium. SFB has recently attracted considerable attention due to its outstanding capacity to stimulate innate and adaptive host immune responses without causing pathology. Recent ...
Bahl N - - 2013
The mechanisms of crosstalk between haemolysis, coagulation and innate immunity are evolutionarily conserved from the invertebrate haemocyanin to the vertebrate haemoglobin. In vertebrates, extracellular haemoglobin (Hb) resulting from haemolytic infections binds bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to unleash the antimicrobial redox activity of Hb. Because bacterial invasion also upregulates tissue factor (TF), ...
Langevin Christelle - - 2013
Innate immunity constitutes the first line of the host defense after pathogen invasion. Viruses trigger the expression of interferons (IFNs). These master antiviral cytokines induce in turn a large number of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), which possess diverse effector and regulatory functions. The IFN system is conserved in all tetrapods as ...
Boehm Thomas - - 2013
In vertebrates, the thymus is the main site of T cell development. The thymus reaches its maximum output during adolescence, after which it shrinks and generates fewer and fewer T cells. Physiological age-related involution of the thymus and failure to recover after injury are associated with impaired cellular immunity; hence, ...
Kyritsis Nikos - - 2013
Injuries in the central nervous system (CNS) are one of the leading causes of mortality or persistent disabilities in humans. One of the reasons why humans cannot recover from neuronal loss is the limited regenerative capacity of their CNS. By contrast, non-mammalian vertebrates exhibit widespread regeneration in diverse tissues including ...
Gao Zhan - - 2013
Our current knowledge of the structure and function of C3a comes from the study of vertebrate C3a anaphylatoxins, virtually nothing is known about the structure and function of C3a molecules in invertebrates. Here we demonstrated that C3a from the invertebrate chordate Branchiostoma japonicum, BjC3a, was similar to vertebrate C3a possessing ...
Jung Won Hee - - 2013
Iron sequestration by the vertebrate host is considered an efficient defense mechanism against pathogenic microbes. However, this mechanism, so called nutritional immunity, is often overcome by the iron acquisition systems that have evolved in microbial pathogens. Numerous studies have been carried out to identify the key components of these systems ...
Dionne Marc S - - 2013
Allograft rejection is one of several undesirable consequences of the adaptive nature of the mammalian immune response. This review examines adaptive immune responses and allorecognition in animals with very different immune responses - jawless vertebrates, arthropods, and two distinct colonial marine invertebrates - with the goal of understanding how immune ...
Brant Sara V - - 2013
This review provides an update of ongoing efforts to expand our understanding of the diversity inherent within the Schistosomatidae, the parasites responsible for causing schistosomiasis and cercarial dermatitis. By revealing more of the species present, particularly among understudied avian schistosomes, we gain increased understanding of patterns of schistosome diversification, and ...
Yuan Shaochun - - 2013
NF-κB transcription factors play important roles in immune responses and the development of the immune system. Many aspects of NF-κB signaling differ significantly among distinct species, although many similarities in signaling exist in flies and humans. Thus, to understand the functional refinement of the NF-κB cascade from invertebrates to vertebrates, ...
Zhao Chunhui - - 2013
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a heterogeneous group of highly reactive molecules that oxidise targets in biological systems. ROS are also considered important immune regulators. In this study, we identified a homologue of reactive oxygen species modulator 1 (Romo1) in the Japanese lamprey (Lampetra japonica). The Lampetra japonica Romo1 (Lj-Romo1) ...
Tschirren Barbara B Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland. - - 2013
The discovery of the key role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in initiating innate immune responses and modulating adaptive immunity has revolutionized our understanding of vertebrate defence against pathogens. Yet, despite their central role in pathogen recognition and defence initiation, there is little information on how variation in TLRs influences disease ...
Müller Ludmila - - 2013
There is an established consensus that it is primarily the adaptive arm of immunity, and the T cell subset in particular, that is most susceptible to the deleterious changes with age known as "immunosenescence". Can we garner any clues as to why this might be by considering comparative immunology and ...
Sunyer J Oriol - - 2013
Recent years have witnessed a renaissance in the study of fish immune systems. Such studies have greatly expanded the knowledge of the evolution and diversification of vertebrate immune systems. Several findings in those studies have overturned old paradigms about the immune system and led to the discovery of novel aspects ...
Garcia-Garcia Erick - - 2013
Much is now known about the vertebrate mechanisms involved in mucosal immunity, and the requirement of commensal microbiota at mucosal surfaces for the proper functioning of the immune system. In comparison, very little is known about the mechanisms of immunity at the barrier epithelia of non-vertebrate organisms. The purpose of ...
Wu Fenfang - - 2013
An alternative adaptive-immune system is present in the most basal vertebrates-lampreys and hagfish-the only surviving jawless vertebrates. These eel-like fish use leucine-rich repeat-based receptors for Ag recognition instead of the Ig-based receptors used in jawed vertebrates. We report that in Japanese lamprey (Lampetra japonica), variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR)B interacts with ...
Toledo-Ibarra G A - - 2013
Fishes are the phylogenetically oldest vertebrate group, which includes more than one-half of the vertebrates on the planet; additionally, many species have ecological and economic importance. Fish are the first evolved group of organisms with adaptive immune mechanisms; consequently, they are an important link in the evolution of the immune ...
Bangi Erdem E Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York, NY, - - 2013
Recent studies show that both cellular and humoral aspects of innate immunity play important roles during tumor progression. These interactions have traditionally been explored in vertebrate model systems. In recent years, Drosophila has emerged as a genetically tractable model system for studying key aspects of tumorigenesis including proliferation, invasion, and ...
Su Peng - - 2012
Lampreys, the surviving representative of jawless vertebrates, have been a focal point in the search for the evolutionary origin of adaptive immunity. They have independently evolved the variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR)-based adaptive immune system that protects themselves from infection by a variable of microorganisms. The standard immunization schedule for Japanese ...
Arizza V - - 2012
In the immune system of vertebrates, gender-specific differences in individual immune competence are well known. In general, females possess more powerful immune response than males. In invertebrates, the situation is much less clear. For this purpose we have chosen to study the immune response of the two sexes of the ...
Franzenburg Sören - - 2012
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is one of the most important signaling cascades of the innate immune system of vertebrates. Studies in invertebrates have focused on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and there is little information regarding the evolutionary origin and ancestral function of TLR signaling. ...
Sorensen Karen Kristine - - 2012
To maintain homeostasis the animal body is equipped with a powerful system to remove circulating waste . This review presents evidence that the scavenger endothelial cell (SEC) is responsible for the clearance of blood-borne waste macromolecules in vertebrates. SECs express pattern-recognition endocytosis receptors (mannose and scavenger receptors), and in mammals, ...
Detournay Olivier - - 2012
Animals must manage interactions with beneficial as well as detrimental microbes. Immunity therefore includes strategies for both resistance to and tolerance of microbial invaders. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) cytokines have many functions in animals including a tolerance-promoting (tolerogenic) role in immunity in vertebrates. TGFβ pathways are present in basal ...
Maynard Craig L CL Department of Pathology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, - - 2012
The emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates set the stage for evolution of an advanced symbiotic relationship with the intestinal microbiota. The defining features of specificity and memory that characterize adaptive immunity have afforded vertebrates the mechanisms for efficiently tailoring immune responses to diverse types of microbes, whether ...
Kasamatsu Jun - - 2012
Because jawless vertebrates are the most primitive vertebrates, they have been studied to understand the evolutionary processes that gave rise to the innate and adaptive immune systems in vertebrates. The jawless vertebrates have developed lymphocyte-like cells (LLCs) that morphologically resemble the T and B cells of jawed vertebrates, but they ...
Bobkov Yuriy - - 2012
[This corrects the article on p. e34843 in vol. 7.].
Kozela Ewa - - 2011
Cannabis extracts and several cannabinoids have been shown to exert broad anti-inflammatory activities in experimental models of inflammatory CNS degenerative diseases. Clinical use of many cannabinoids is limited by their psychotropic effects. However, phytocannabinoids like cannabidiol (CBD), devoid of psychoactive activity, are, potentially, safe and effective alternatives for alleviating neuroinflammation ...
Krone Bernd - - 2011
It has recently been suggested that, rather than being an autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis (MS) is an example of a neurocristopathy, a pathological process resulting from a faulty development of the neural crest. Whilst several characteristics of the disease suggest a neurocristopathy, other aetiological factors require consideration, including hygiene-related factors ...
Larochelle Catherine - - 2011
The presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the movement of soluble mediators and leukocytes from the periphery to the central nervous system (CNS). Leukocyte entry into the CNS is nonetheless an early event in multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory disorder of the CNS. Whether BBB dysfunction precedes immune cell ...
Cohen Jeffrey A - - 2011
Until recently, all approved multiple sclerosis (MS) disease treatments were administered parenterally. Oral fingolimod was approved in September 2010 by the US Food and Drug Administration to reduce relapses and disability progression in relapsing forms of MS. In the clinical trials that led to approval, fingolimod reduced not only acute ...
Wu Gregory F - - 2011
This review explores the principle features of the immunopathology of multiple sclerosis (MS), particularly relapsing-remitting MS. It highlights the emerging concepts in the pathogenesis of MS in the context of known features of pathology, including the characterization of cytokine networks promoting inflammatory damage of the central nervous system, B-cell involvement, ...
Wheeler Karen - - 2011
Vasectomy is a well accepted global contraceptive approach frequently associated with epididymal granuloma and sperm autoantibody formation. To understand the long-term sequelae of vasectomy, we investigated the early immune response in vasectomized mice. Vasectomy leads to rapid epithelial cell apoptosis and necrosis, persistent inflammation, and sperm granuloma formation in the ...
Hwang Insun - - 2011
An acidic polysaccharide of Panax ginseng (APG), so called ginsan, is a purified polysaccharide. APG has multiple immunomodulatory effects of stimulating natural killer (NK) and T cells and producing a variety of cytokines that proved to diminish the proinflammatory response, and protect from septic lethality. To determine APG's role in ...
Ramos-Cejudo Jaime - - 2011
Natalizumab is a widely accepted drug for the relapsing-remitting subtype of multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The present longitudinal exploratory study in RRMS patients analyzes the effects of natalizumab treatment on the levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine protein levels and also the frequency and suppressor function of regulatory T cells. Flow ...
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