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Spiller Kara L KL Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, - - 2014
Tissue engineering is increasingly based on recapitulating human physiology, through integration of biological principles into engineering designs. In spite of all progress in engineering functional human tissues, we are just beginning to develop effective methods for establishing blood perfusion and controlling the inflammatory factors following implantation into the host. Functional ...
Kwee Brian J BJ School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Pierce Hall, Room 319, Cambridge, MA, 02138, - - 2014
There exists a critical need to develop strategies that promote blood vessel formation (neovascularization) in virtually all tissue engineering and regenerative medicine efforts. While research typically focuses on understanding and exploiting the role of angiogenic factors and vascular cells on new blood vessel formation, the activity of the immune system ...
Goncharov Nikolay V - - 2014
The volume of publications on the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in biological processes has been increasing exponentially over the last decades. ROS in large amounts clearly have detrimental effects on cell physiology, whereas low concentrations of ROS are permanently produced in cells and play a role as signaling ...
Gregory Elaine K EK Northwestern - - 2014
Oral all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) has been shown to reduce the formation of neointimal hyperplasia at a dose that has reported side effects; thus, new approaches to localized delivery are required. This study assessed whether atRA within a citrate-based polyester, poly(1,8 octanediolcitrate) (POC) perivascular membrane would prevent neointimal hyperplasia following ...
Zuniga Mary C MC Surgical Services, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, - - 2014
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease has been acknowledged as a chronic inflammatory condition. Monocytes and macrophages lead the inflammatory pathology of atherosclerosis whereas changes in atheromatous plaque thickness and matrix composition are attributed to vascular smooth muscle cells. Because these cell types are key players in atherosclerosis progression, it is crucial to ...
Yang Yuyu Y Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Pathophysiology and Laboratory Center for Basic Medical Sciences, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, China Department of Nursing, Jiangsu Jiankang Vocational University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, - - 2014
Endothelin (ET-1) was initially identified as a potent vasoconstrictor contributing to the maintenance of vascular rhythm. Later studies have implicated ET-1, when aberrantly up-regulated within the vasculature, in a range of human pathologies associated with disruption of vascular homeostasis. ET-1 has been shown to invoke strong pro-inflammatory response in vascular ...
Suurväli Jaanus J Department of Gene Technology, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn 12618, - - 2014
The MHC is a large genetic region controlling Ag processing and recognition by T lymphocytes in vertebrates. Approximately 40% of its genes are implicated in innate or adaptive immunity. A putative proto-MHC exists in the chordate amphioxus and in the fruit fly, indicating that a core MHC region predated the ...
Bloom Ona O The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA; The Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, Hempstead Turnpike, Hempstead, NY 11549, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Mammals exhibit poor recovery after injury to the spinal cord, where the loss of neurons and neuronal connections can be functionally devastating. In contrast, it has long been appreciated that many non-mammalian vertebrate species exhibit significant spontaneous functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). Identifying the biological responses that support ...
Ng Tze Hann TH Institute of Biotechnology, College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, - - 2014
Although true adaptive immunity is only found in vertebrates, there is increasing evidence that shrimp and other arthropods exhibit immune specificity and immune memory. The invertebrate immune response is now called "innate immunity with specificity" or "immune priming", and its underlying mechanisms are still unclear. However, while vertebrate antibodies have ...
Vucević Danijela - - 2014
The etiopathogenesis of atherosclerosis and subsequent pulmonary emphysema has not been fully elucidated. Foam cells are of great importance in the development of these diseases. It is known that local cytokine secretion and modification of native lipoprotein particles, which are internalized by the vascular and alveolar macrophages via the scavenger ...
Gold Katrina S KS Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, - - 2014
Fish, mice and men rely on two coexisting myeloid blood cell systems. One is sustained by hematopoietic progenitor cells, which reside in specialized microenvironments in hematopoietic organs and give rise to cells of the monocyte lineage. The other system corresponds to the independent lineage of self-renewing tissue macrophages, which colonize ...
Nicola Franchi F Department of Biology, University of Padova, Via Ugo Bassi 58/B, 35100 Padova, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
The complement system is a fundamental effector mechanism of the innate immunity in both vertebrates and invertebrates. The comprehension of its roots in the evolution is a useful step to understand how the main complement-related proteins had changed in order to adapt to new environmental conditions and life-cycles or, in ...
Yuan Shaochun S State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, People's Republic of - - 2014
As the most basal chordate, the cephalochordate amphioxus has unique features that make it a valuable model for understanding the phylogeny of immunity. Vertebrate adaptive immunity (VAI) mediated by lymphocytes bearing variable receptors has been well-studied in mammals but not observed in invertebrates. However, the identification of lymphocyte-like cells in ...
Sandmeier Franziska C FC *Biology Department, Lindenwood University - Belleville, Belleville IL 62226, USA; MS 315 Biology Department, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, - - 2014
We propose a new heuristic model that incorporates metabolic rate and pace of life to predict a vertebrate species' investment in adaptive immune function. Using reptiles as an example, we hypothesize that animals with low metabolic rates will invest more in innate immunity compared with adaptive immunity. High metabolic rates ...
Drago Francesco F Université Lille 1, Laboratoire de Spectrométrie de Masse Biologique Fondamentale et Appliquée, (IFR 147). Bat. SN3 Cité Scientifique, 59655, Villeneuve d'Ascq, - - 2014
The Ionized calcium-Binding Adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), also known as Allograft Inflammatory Factor 1 (AIF-1), is a 17 kDa cytokine-inducible protein, produced by activated macrophages during chronic transplant rejection and inflammatory reactions in Vertebrates. In mammalian central nervous system (CNS), Iba1 is a sensitive marker associated with activated macrophages/microglia and ...
Ng Tze Hann TH Institute of Biotechnology, College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, - - 2014
Although true adaptive immunity is only found in vertebrates, there is increasing evidence that shrimp and other arthropods exhibit immune specificity and immune memory. The invertebrate immune response is now called "innate immunity with specificity" or "immune priming", and its underlying mechanisms are still unclear. However, while vertebrate antibodies have ...
Taketa Daryl A DA Department of Molecular, Cellular and Development Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, - - 2014
Allorecognition has been well-studied in the context of vertebrate adaptive immunity and recognition of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), which is the central event of vertebrate immune responses. Although allorecognition systems have been identified throughout the metazoa, recent results have shown that there is no apparent conservation or orthologous relationship ...
Wang Shengnan S Laboratory for Evolution & Development, Institute of Evolution & Marine Biodiversity and Department of Marine Biology, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, - - 2014
Transforming growth factorbeta(TGFβ) is a pleiotropic cytokine with important roles in mediating inflammatory response. TGFβ has been shown to be widely present in invertebrates, but little is known about its functions in immune and inflammatory responses. Moreover, structural and functional insights into TGFβ molecules in invertebrates remain completely lacking. Here ...
Neyen Claudine C Global Health Institute, School of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 19, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland,. Electronic address: - - 2014
Innate immune mechanisms are well conserved throughout evolution, and many theoretical concepts, molecular pathways and gene networks are applicable to invertebrate model organisms as much as vertebrate ones. Drosophila immunity research benefits from an easily manipulated genome, fantastic international resource of transgenic tools and over a quarter century of accumulated ...
Sirisinha Stitaya S Department of Microbiology Faculty of Science, Mahidol Unversity, Rama 6 Road, Bangkok, Thailand - - 2014
To struggle for survival, all living organisms, from protists to humans, must defend themselves from attack by predators. From the time when life began around 3,500 million years ago, all living cells have evolved mechanisms and strategies to optimally defend themselves, while the invaders also need to survive by evading ...
Yang Ping P State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Functional Genes, College of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, People's Republic of - - 2014
Vertebrate phagocytic respiratory burst (PRB) is a highly specific and efficient mechanism for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. This mechanism is mediated by NAPDH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and used by vertebrate phagocytic leukocytes to destroy internalized microbes. Here we demonstrate the presence of PRB in a basal chordate, the amphioxus ...
Rimer Jacob J Department of Immunology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, - - 2014
Recent findings have provided evidence for the existence of non-vertebrate acquired immunity. We survey these findings and propose that all living organisms must express both innate and acquired immunity. This is opposed to the paradigm that only vertebrates manifest the two forms of immune mechanism; other species are thought to ...
Knorr Maike M Department of Medicine 2 and Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, - - 2014
Inflammatory monocytes and macrophages have been identified as key players in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, and myocardial infarction (MI). They become powerful mediators of vascular inflammation through their capacity to secrete and induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules and through the production of reactive ...
Huang Ling L Department of Cardiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China (L.H., S.M.Z., P.Z., L.H.Z., Y.Z., X.J.K., S.T., H.L.) Cardiovascular Research Institute of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China (L.H., S.M.Z., P.Z., L.H.Z., Y.Z., X.J.K., S.T., - - 2014
Interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7), a member of the interferon regulatory factor family, plays important roles in innate immunity and immune cell differentiation. However, the role of IRF7 in neointima formation is currently unknown. Significant decreases in IRF7 expression were observed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) following carotid artery ...
Garcia Ricardo A RA Cardiovascular Drug Discovery, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Pennington, New Jersey, United States of - - 2014
P2Y6, a purinergic receptor for UDP, is enriched in atherosclerotic lesions and is implicated in pro-inflammatory responses of key vascular cell types and macrophages. Evidence for its involvement in atherogenesis, however, has been lacking. Here we use cell-based studies and three murine models of atherogenesis to evaluate the impact of ...
Mathew Omana P OP Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Texas Southern University, 3100 Cleburne St, Houston 77004, Texas, USA,. - - 2014
Epigenetic mechanisms by altering the expression and, in turn, functions of target genes have potential to modify cellular processes that are characteristics of atherosclerosis, including inflammation, proliferation, migration and apoptosis/cell death. Butyrate, a natural epigenetic modifier and a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), is an inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle cell ...
Butoi Elena E Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology "Nicolae Simionescu," The Romanian Academy, Bucharest, - - 2014
Macrophages, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and their interactions have key roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic vascular diseases. In atheroma development, the phenotype of macrophages and SMCs change, which may influence the disease progression. Accumulating data on the phenotypes exhibited by these cells within atherosclerotic lesions raise many questions regarding ...
Chen Te-Chuan TC Division of Nephrology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, - - 2014
Macrophage accumulation in the arterial wall and smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation are features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and its vascular complications. However, the effects of diabetic monocyte-derived macrophages on vascular SMC proliferation are not clearly understood. In the present study, we investigated the pro-proliferative effect of macrophages ...
Meijer Annemarie H - - 2013
Many aspects of host interactions with microbes can only be studied in the context of a whole organism. The zebrafish as a model organism has shown to be highly successful for studies of infection biology and the interactions of commensal microbiota with their hosts. Zebrafish are transparent during embryo and ...
Schnupf Pamela - - 2013
Segmented Filamentous Bacteria (SFB) are present in the gut microbiota of a large number of vertebrate species where they are found intimately attached to the intestinal epithelium. SFB has recently attracted considerable attention due to its outstanding capacity to stimulate innate and adaptive host immune responses without causing pathology. Recent ...
Bahl N - - 2013
The mechanisms of crosstalk between haemolysis, coagulation and innate immunity are evolutionarily conserved from the invertebrate haemocyanin to the vertebrate haemoglobin. In vertebrates, extracellular haemoglobin (Hb) resulting from haemolytic infections binds bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to unleash the antimicrobial redox activity of Hb. Because bacterial invasion also upregulates tissue factor (TF), ...
Langevin Christelle - - 2013
Innate immunity constitutes the first line of the host defense after pathogen invasion. Viruses trigger the expression of interferons (IFNs). These master antiviral cytokines induce in turn a large number of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), which possess diverse effector and regulatory functions. The IFN system is conserved in all tetrapods as ...
Boehm Thomas - - 2013
In vertebrates, the thymus is the main site of T cell development. The thymus reaches its maximum output during adolescence, after which it shrinks and generates fewer and fewer T cells. Physiological age-related involution of the thymus and failure to recover after injury are associated with impaired cellular immunity; hence, ...
Kyritsis Nikos - - 2013
Injuries in the central nervous system (CNS) are one of the leading causes of mortality or persistent disabilities in humans. One of the reasons why humans cannot recover from neuronal loss is the limited regenerative capacity of their CNS. By contrast, non-mammalian vertebrates exhibit widespread regeneration in diverse tissues including ...
Gao Zhan - - 2013
Our current knowledge of the structure and function of C3a comes from the study of vertebrate C3a anaphylatoxins, virtually nothing is known about the structure and function of C3a molecules in invertebrates. Here we demonstrated that C3a from the invertebrate chordate Branchiostoma japonicum, BjC3a, was similar to vertebrate C3a possessing ...
Jung Won Hee - - 2013
Iron sequestration by the vertebrate host is considered an efficient defense mechanism against pathogenic microbes. However, this mechanism, so called nutritional immunity, is often overcome by the iron acquisition systems that have evolved in microbial pathogens. Numerous studies have been carried out to identify the key components of these systems ...
Dionne Marc S - - 2013
Allograft rejection is one of several undesirable consequences of the adaptive nature of the mammalian immune response. This review examines adaptive immune responses and allorecognition in animals with very different immune responses - jawless vertebrates, arthropods, and two distinct colonial marine invertebrates - with the goal of understanding how immune ...
Brant Sara V - - 2013
This review provides an update of ongoing efforts to expand our understanding of the diversity inherent within the Schistosomatidae, the parasites responsible for causing schistosomiasis and cercarial dermatitis. By revealing more of the species present, particularly among understudied avian schistosomes, we gain increased understanding of patterns of schistosome diversification, and ...
Yuan Shaochun - - 2013
NF-κB transcription factors play important roles in immune responses and the development of the immune system. Many aspects of NF-κB signaling differ significantly among distinct species, although many similarities in signaling exist in flies and humans. Thus, to understand the functional refinement of the NF-κB cascade from invertebrates to vertebrates, ...
Zhao Chunhui - - 2013
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a heterogeneous group of highly reactive molecules that oxidise targets in biological systems. ROS are also considered important immune regulators. In this study, we identified a homologue of reactive oxygen species modulator 1 (Romo1) in the Japanese lamprey (Lampetra japonica). The Lampetra japonica Romo1 (Lj-Romo1) ...
Tschirren Barbara B Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland. - - 2013
The discovery of the key role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in initiating innate immune responses and modulating adaptive immunity has revolutionized our understanding of vertebrate defence against pathogens. Yet, despite their central role in pathogen recognition and defence initiation, there is little information on how variation in TLRs influences disease ...
Müller Ludmila - - 2013
There is an established consensus that it is primarily the adaptive arm of immunity, and the T cell subset in particular, that is most susceptible to the deleterious changes with age known as "immunosenescence". Can we garner any clues as to why this might be by considering comparative immunology and ...
Sunyer J Oriol JO Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. - - 2013
Recent years have witnessed a renaissance in the study of fish immune systems. Such studies have greatly expanded the knowledge of the evolution and diversification of vertebrate immune systems. Several findings in those studies have overturned old paradigms about the immune system and led to the discovery of novel aspects ...
Garcia-Garcia Erick - - 2013
Much is now known about the vertebrate mechanisms involved in mucosal immunity, and the requirement of commensal microbiota at mucosal surfaces for the proper functioning of the immune system. In comparison, very little is known about the mechanisms of immunity at the barrier epithelia of non-vertebrate organisms. The purpose of ...
Wu Fenfang - - 2013
An alternative adaptive-immune system is present in the most basal vertebrates-lampreys and hagfish-the only surviving jawless vertebrates. These eel-like fish use leucine-rich repeat-based receptors for Ag recognition instead of the Ig-based receptors used in jawed vertebrates. We report that in Japanese lamprey (Lampetra japonica), variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR)B interacts with ...
Toledo-Ibarra G A - - 2013
Fishes are the phylogenetically oldest vertebrate group, which includes more than one-half of the vertebrates on the planet; additionally, many species have ecological and economic importance. Fish are the first evolved group of organisms with adaptive immune mechanisms; consequently, they are an important link in the evolution of the immune ...
Bangi Erdem E Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York, NY, - - 2013
Recent studies show that both cellular and humoral aspects of innate immunity play important roles during tumor progression. These interactions have traditionally been explored in vertebrate model systems. In recent years, Drosophila has emerged as a genetically tractable model system for studying key aspects of tumorigenesis including proliferation, invasion, and ...
Su Peng - - 2012
Lampreys, the surviving representative of jawless vertebrates, have been a focal point in the search for the evolutionary origin of adaptive immunity. They have independently evolved the variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR)-based adaptive immune system that protects themselves from infection by a variable of microorganisms. The standard immunization schedule for Japanese ...
Arizza V - - 2012
In the immune system of vertebrates, gender-specific differences in individual immune competence are well known. In general, females possess more powerful immune response than males. In invertebrates, the situation is much less clear. For this purpose we have chosen to study the immune response of the two sexes of the ...
Franzenburg Sören - - 2012
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is one of the most important signaling cascades of the innate immune system of vertebrates. Studies in invertebrates have focused on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and there is little information regarding the evolutionary origin and ancestral function of TLR signaling. ...
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