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Ma Zhen Z Department of Microbiology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; Dupont Corporation, Wilmington, DE, - - 2014
Intracellular zinc levels are tightly regulated since zinc is an essential cofactor for numerous enzymes, yet can be toxic when present in excess. The majority of intracellular zinc is tightly associated with proteins and is incorporated during synthesis from a poorly defined pool of kinetically labile zinc. In Bacillus subtilis, ...
Karpinos Ashley Rowatt AR Section of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Department of General Internal Medicine and Public Health. - - 2014
Background:The preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) often serves as the only preventive health care visit for athletes, but immunization status is not uniformly addressed in such visits. Thus, athletes may not be receiving recommended immunizations. Our aim was to determine the proportion of high school senior athletes who received all recommended ...
Moreira Alexandre A 1Department of Sport, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Physical Education Department, Rio Grande do Norte Federal University, Natal, Brazil; 3Faculty of Physical Education, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil; and 4School of Arts, Sciences, and Humanities, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, - - 2014
Moreira, A, Mortatti, AL, Arruda, AFS, Freitas, CG, de Arruda, M, and Aoki, MS. Salivary IgA response and upper respiratory tract infection symptoms during a 21-week competitive season in young soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 28(2): 467-473, 2014-Sports training and competition are significant sources of stress, especially for young ...
Senchina David S - - 2014
Plant alkaloids are found in foods, beverages, and supplements consumed by athletes for daily nutrition, performance enhancement, and immune function improvement. This paper examined possible immunomodulatory roles of alkaloids in exercise contexts, with a focus on human studies. Four representative groups were scrutinized: (a) caffeine (guaranine, mateine); (b) theophylline and ...
Balk Robert A - - 2013
The concept of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) to describe the complex pathophysiologic response to an insult such as infection, trauma, burns, pancreatitis, or a variety of other injuries came from a 1991 consensus conference charged with the task of developing an easy to apply set of clinical parameters ...
Vaisberg Mauro - - 2013
Recently, many authors have proposed that mechanisms such as inflammation and/or allergies could be partly responsible for cases of upper respiratory tract illnesses that affect athletes after exhaustive exercise. Here we studied the kinetics of cytokines in the serum and nasal mucosa of athletes after a marathon. We were able ...
Barnett Susan C - - 2012
Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the adult central nervous system (CNS), and their functional diversity in response to injury is now being appreciated. Astrocytes have long been considered the main player in the inhibition of CNS repair via the formation of the gliotic scar, but now it ...
Maroon Joseph C JC Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. - - 2012
The incidence of all-cause concussions in the United States is estimated to range from 1.6 to 3.8 million annually, with the reported number of sport- or recreation-related concussions increasing dramatically, especially in youth sports.(1,2) Additionally, the use of roadside bombs in Iraq and Afghanistan has propelled the incidence of concussion ...
Wang Lian - - 2012
Inflammation has been implicated as a contributing factor in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Quercetin, a natural flavonoid with anti-inflammatory properties, is known for its beneficial effects on vascular disease. In this study, we examined the effects of quercetin to inflammatory cell infiltration, subsequent expression of cytokines and ...
Côté Nancy - - 2012
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a disorder related to progressive mineralization of valvular tissue that is a leading cause of heart disease. Thus far, there is no medical treatment to prevent the mineralization of aortic valves. It is generally thought that pathologic mineralization is linked to apoptosis of vascular ...
Mège Jean-Louis - - 2011
Macrophages are the first line of defense against pathogens, and the mode of their activation will determine the success or failure of the host response to pathogen aggression. Based on limited numbers of markers, activated macrophages can be classified as classically activated (M1) macrophages that support microbicidal activity or alternatively ...
Cozzi-Lepri Alessandro A HIV Epidemiology and Biostatistics Group, Research Department of Infection and Population Health, Royal Free Campus, University College London, London, UK. - - 2011
There is increasing interest in the role of immune activation and inflammation in HIV disease, but data on direct effects of HIV replication on immune cell activation are limited. High sensitivity multiplex bead array assays (MBAAs) were used to measure changes in plasma cytokines and chemokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, ...
González Jorge M - - 2011
Contact kairomones from the host mud dauber wasp Trypoxylon politum Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) that mediate behavioral responses of its ectoparasitoid Melittobia digitata Dahms (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were investigated. Chemical residues from host by-products, the cocoon, and the meconium, induced arrestment behavior of macropterous female parasitoids, while those from the host stage ...
Costa Carlotta - - 2011
In phagocytes, GTPases of the Rac family control crucial antimicrobial functions. The RacGAP ArhGAP15 negatively modulates Rac activity in leukocytes but its in vivo role in innate immunity remains largely unknown. Here we show that neutrophils and macrophages derived from mice lacking ArhGAP15 presented higher Rac activity but distinct phenotypes. ...
Soulas Caroline - - 2011
Monocytes/macrophages are critical components of HIV and SIV encephalitic lesions. We used in vivo BrdU labeling and markers specific to stages of macrophage differentiation or inflammation to define macrophage heterogeneity and to better define the role of macrophage populations in lesion formation and productive infection. Lesions were heterogeneously composed of ...
Lan Jinggang J Surgical Service, William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison WI, - - 2011
To determine effects of (1) parenteral nutrition (PN), (2) exogenous Lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) stimulation in PN animals, and (3) exogenous LTβR blockade in chow animals on NF-κB activation pathways and products: MAdCAM-1, chemokine (C-C motif) Ligand (CCL) 19, CCL20, CCL25, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-10. LT stimulates LTβR in Peyer's ...
Kulkarni Manjusha M MM Center for Microbial Interface Biology, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH, - - 2011
Cathelicidin-type antimicrobial peptides (CAMP) are important mediators of innate immunity against microbial pathogens acting through direct interaction with and disruption of microbial membranes and indirectly through modulation of host cell migration and activation. Using a mouse knock-out model in CAMP we studied the role of this host peptide in control ...
Gallego Carolina - - 2011
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a central role in macrophage activation and control of parasitic infections. Their contribution to the outcome of Leishmania infection is just beginning to be deciphered. We examined the interaction of Leishmania panamensis with TLRs in the activation of host macrophages. L. panamensis infection resulted in upregulation ...
Degrossoli Adriana - - 2011
Hypoxia (low oxygen tension) is a common feature of inflamed and infected tissues. The influence of hypoxia on macrophage responses to microorganisms has only recently been studied. This study demonstrates that hypoxia induced macrophages to control Leishmania amazonensis, an intracellular parasite which causes cutaneous and cutaneous metastatic lesions. The mechanisms ...
Jaramillo Maritza - - 2011
The protozoan parasite Leishmania alters the activity of its host cell, the macrophage. However, little is known about the effect of Leishmania infection on host protein synthesis. Here, we show that the Leishmania protease GP63 cleaves the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/threonine kinase that regulates the translational repressor ...
Suci Peter - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: Periodontal disease is associated with a pathogen-induced transition to a chronic destructive inflammatory response. Since commensals may either passively or actively contribute to immune homeostasis, therapies aimed at selectively reducing the competitive advantage of pathogens may be effective supplements to traditional methods. We developed an in vitro system to ...
Ning S - - 2011
Interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) was originally identified in the context of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, and has since emerged as the crucial regulator of type I interferons (IFNs) against pathogenic infections, which activate IRF7 by triggering signaling cascades from pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize pathogenic nucleic acids. Moreover, ...
Harvey Christopher J - - 2011
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have innate immune dysfunction in the lung largely due to defective macrophage phagocytosis. This deficiency results in periodic bacterial infections that cause acute exacerbations of COPD, a major source of morbidity and mortality. Recent studies indicate that a decrease in Nrf2 (nuclear erythroid-related ...
Zheng Ying - - 2011
A type III secretion system (T3SS) in pathogenic Yersinia species functions to translocate Yop effectors, which modulate cytokine production and regulate cell death in macrophages. Distinct pathways of T3SS-dependent cell death and caspase-1 activation occur in Yersinia-infected macrophages. One pathway of cell death and caspase-1 activation in macrophages requires the ...
Nakamura-López Yuko - - 2011
To persist, a virus must co-exist with the host that it infects, thus allowing the virus to survive and to subvert the programmed cell death of the host. In this study, we investigated whether the intrinsic pathway of the apoptotic process is suppressed in a previously reported macrophage cell line ...
Moret I - - 2011
Neutrophil activation state and its relationship with an inflammatory environment in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remain insufficiently elucidated. We aimed to evaluate the neutrophil apoptosis and cytokine pattern in CAP patients after 72 h of treatment, and their impact on infection resolution. Apoptosis of blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) neutrophils was ...
Qian Feng - - 2011
West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne, single-stranded RNA flavivirus, causes significant human morbidity and mortality in the older population; thus, we investigated the effects of aging on infection with WNV in dendritic cells (DCs). We infected DCs with WNV in vitro and quantified cytokines and chemokines (type I IFN and ...
Sturgill T L - - 2011
Production of the Th1 cytokine interferon gamma (IFNγ) is associated with resistance to intracellular pathogens, including Rhodococcus equi. While neonatal foals are initially deficient in IFNγ production, expression of this cytokine increases throughout their first year of life. This is presumably the result of stimulation by environmental antigens including pathogen ...
Adastra Katie L KL Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8064, Saint Louis, Missouri 63110, - - 2011
Autophagy is critical to the process of development because mouse models have shown that lack of autophagy leads to developmental arrest during the pre-implantation stage of embryogenesis. The process of autophagy is regulated through signaling pathways, which respond to the cellular environment. Therefore, any alteration in the environment may lead ...
Sakagami Hiroshi - - 2011
Recently, a prominent antiviral and macrophage stimulatory activity of cacao lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) has been reported. However, the solubility and sterility of LCC have not been considered yet. In the present study, complete solubilisation and sterilisation was achieved by autoclaving under mild alkaline conditions and the previously reported biological activities ...
de Pablo Raúl - - 2011
Background: Mortality in patients with septic shock remains unacceptably high and the attempts to antagonize certain proinflammatory cytokines based on the results of animal model studies have failed to improve survival rates. The objective of this article is to examine the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance in patients with septic shock and ...
Oliveira Jose Henrique M - - 2011
The presence of bacteria in the midgut of mosquitoes antagonizes infectious agents, such as Dengue and Plasmodium, acting as a negative factor in the vectorial competence of the mosquito. Therefore, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the control of midgut microbiota could help in the development of new tools ...
Valerio Michael - - 2011
The objective of the present study was to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of β-sitosterol (SIT), the most common phytosterol in the diet, and to investigate its involvement in NF-κB and STAT1 pathways as potential mechanisms. In addition, the activity of the phosphatase SHP-1 as a negative modulator to these pathways, ...
Simard Jean-Christophe - - 2011
The damage-associated molecular-pattern S100A9 is found at inflammatory sites in infections and various autoimmune diseases. It is released at very high concentrations in the extracellular milieu by activated neutrophils and monocytes in response to various agents. This proinflammatory protein is found in infected mucosae and tissue abscesses where it acts ...
Cakebread Julie A JA Division of Infection, Inflammation and Immunity, University of Southampton School of Medicine and National Institute for Health Research Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, United - - 2011
Rhinoviruses are the major cause of asthma exacerbations. Previous studies suggest that primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) from asthmatic subjects are more susceptible to rhinovirus infection because of deficient IFN-β production. Although augmenting the innate immune response might provide a novel approach for treatment of virus-induced asthma exacerbations, the potential ...
Fallahi-Sichani Mohammad M Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2011
Multiple immune factors control host responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, including the formation of granulomas, which are aggregates of immune cells whose function may reflect success or failure of the host to contain infection. One such factor is TNF-α. TNF-α has been experimentally characterized to have the following activities in ...
Talat Najeeha - - 2011
Differential T cell trafficking through the blood compartment towards infected foci may be occurring in different stages of tuberculosis disease and infection. The aim of the present study was to identify cytokine signatures in the blood compartment in tuberculosis patients with pulmonary disease (PTB=19), recently exposed household contacts (HC=27) and ...
Biswas Arunima - - 2011
Although enhanced macrophage-specific arginase activity is directly related to increased parasite burden in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), the regulation and precise role of arginase in the disease outcome of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has yet to be explored. As in CL, BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania donovani showed increased levels of arginase ...
Renner Nicole A NA Comparative Pathology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, LA 70433, - - 2011
Monocyte/macrophages and activated lymphocytes traffic through normal brain, and this trafficking is increased in inflammatory conditions such as HIV encephalitis (HIVE). HIVE is characterized in part by perivascular accumulations of macrophages. The earliest events in this process are poorly understood and difficult or impossible to address in humans. The SIV-infected ...
Rintahaka Johanna - - 2011
dsRNA is an important pathogen-associated molecular pattern that is primarily recognized by cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors of the innate-immune system during virus infection. This recognition results in the activation of inflammasome-associated caspase-1 and apoptosis of infected cells. In this study, we used high-throughput proteomics to identify secretome, the global pattern of ...
Chow Angela - - 2011
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection induces arthralgia. The involvement of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines has been suggested, but very little is known about their secretion profile in CHIKV-infected patients. A case-control longitudinal study was performed that involved 30 adult patients with laboratory-confirmed Chikungunya fever. Their profiles of clinical disease, viral load, ...
Kim Hye Won - - 2011
Background: An increased percentage of pro-inflammatory CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes might contribute to inflammation in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the possible contribution of pro-inflammatory monocytes to inflammation in HD patients and also to evaluate the effect of on-line hemodiafiltration (HDF). Methods: Flow cytometric detection of ...
Campos Nair - - 2011
Defects in macrophage function have been implicated in the establishment of Crohn's disease (CD). However, the response of macrophages from CD patients to live bacteria, particularly Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), has not been addressed. Considering MAP has long been associated to CD, our objective was to assess whether macrophages ...
Khong Wei Xin - - 2011
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in young children and has been consistently associated with the most severe complications of the disease, including central nervous system inflammation and pulmonary edema. Increasing frequency and amplitude of EV71 outbreaks have raised awareness and ...
Souza Thiago Moreno L - - 2011
Macrophages infected with HIV-1 sustain viral replication for long periods, functioning as viral reservoirs. Therefore, recognition of factors that maintain macrophages alive and influence HIV-1 replication is critical to understanding the mechanisms that regulate HIV-1 replicative cycle. Because HIV-1-infected macrophages release the nerve growth factor (NGF), and NGF neutralization reduces ...
Rue Cary A - - 2011
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an avian paramyxovirus that causes significant economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. There is limited knowledge about the avian immune response to infection with virulent NDVs, and how this response may contribute to disease. In this study, pathogenesis and the transcriptional host response of ...
Hovsepian Eugenia - - 2011
Trypanosoma cruzi infection produces an intense inflammatory response in diverse tissues including the heart. The inflammatory reaction is critical for the control of the parasites' proliferation and evolution of Chagas disease. 15-Deoxy-Δ(12,14) prostaglandin J(2) (15dPGJ2) can repress the inflammatory response in many experimental models. However, the precise role of peroxisome ...
Bhatia Shikha - - 2011
The ubiquitous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is associated with chronic diseases such as invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunosuppressed patients and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in patients with cystic fibrosis or severe asthma. Because of constant exposure to this fungus, it is critical for the host to exercise an immediate and decisive ...
Abebe Markos - - 2011
It has been clearly demonstrated that in vitro, virulent M. tuberculosis can favor necrosis over apoptosis in infected macrophages, and this has been suggested as a mechanism for evading the host immune response. We recently reported that an effect consistent with this hypothesis could be observed in cells from the ...
Bol Sebastiaan M SM Landsteiner Laboratory, Sanquin Research, Department of Experimental Immunology, and Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The - - 2011
HIV-1 infected macrophages play an important role in rendering resting T cells permissive for infection, in spreading HIV-1 to T cells, and in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia. During highly active anti-retroviral treatment (HAART), macrophages keep producing virus because tissue penetration of antiretrovirals is suboptimal and the efficacy of some ...
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